Find a Security Clearance Job!

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

NATO HANDBOOK ON
THE MEDICAL ASPECTS
OF NBC DEFENSIVE
OPERATIONS
AMedP-6(B)

PART III - CHEMICAL

Table of Contents


LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

101. Definition

102. Historical

103. General Factors Influencing the Employment and Choice of Chemical Agents

104. Characteristics

105. Terminology

106. Routes of Absorption

CHAPTER 2 - NERVE AGENTS

SECTION I - GENERAL

201. Introduction

202. Physical and Chemical Properties

203. Detection

204. Protection

205. Decontamination

206. Mechanism of Action

207. Pathology

SECTION II - EFFECTS OF NERVE AGENTS

208. Signs and Symptoms

209. Effects of Nerve Agent Vapour

210. Effects of Liquid Nerve Agent

211. Systemic Effects of Nerve Agent Poisoning

212. Muscarinic Effects of Nerve Agent Poisoning

213. Nicotinic Effects

214. Central Nervous System Effects

215. Cumulative Effects of Repeated Exposure

216. Cause of Death

SECTION III - TREATMENT OF NERVE AGENT POISONING

217. Diagnosis and Therapy of Nerve Agent Poisoning

218. Treatment

219. Pretreatment

220. Post-Exposure Therapy

221. Emergency Field Therapy

222. Pharmacological Treatment of Nerve Agent Poisoning

223. Atrophine

224. Oximes

225. Anticonvulsants

226. Supportive Care

CHAPTER 3 - VESICANTS (BLISTER AGENTS)

SECTION I - MUSTARD AND NITROGEN MUSTARDS

301. Introduction

302. Mustard Agents

303. Physical and Chemical Properties

304. Detection

305. Protection

306. Decontamination

307. Mechanism of Action

308. Toxicity

SECTION II - CLINICAL-PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS

309. Eyes

310. Skin

311. Respiratory Tract

312. Bone Marrow

313. Gastrointestinal Tract

314. Systemic Action

SECTION III - TREATMENT OF MUSTARD LESIONS

315. Prophylaxis

316. Therapy

317. Eye Lesions

318. Skin Lesions

319. Respiratory Tract Lesions

320. Systemic Effects

321. Burns Caused by High Doses of Vapour

322. Burns Caused by Low Doses of Vapour

323. Sensitisation Due to Multiple Exposures to Mustard

324. Disposition of Casualties

325. Trunk and Neck

326. Arms

327. Hands

328. Lower Extremities

329. Genitalia

330. Systemic Effects of Cutaneous Burns

331. Secondary Bacterial Infection in Blister Agent Burns

332. Course and Prognosis

333. Long Term Effects of Mustard Gas Poisoning

SECTION IV - ARSENICAL VESICANTS - LEWISITE

334. Introduction

335. Physical and Chemical Properties

336. Detection

337. Protection

338. Decontamination

339. Mechanism of Action

SECTION V - CLINICAL-PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS

340. Eyes

341. Skin

342. Respiratory Tract

343. Systemic Effects

SECTION VI - TREATMENT OF LEWISITE LESIONS

344. General

345. Eyes

346. Skin

347. Systemic

348. Indication for Systemic Treatment

349. Types of Treatment

350. Therapy

351. Course and Prognosis

SECTION VII - HALOGENATED OXIMES

352. Introduction

353. Physical and Chemical Properties of Phosgene Oxime

354. Detection

355. Protection

356. Decontamination

357. Mechanism of Action

358. Clinical-Pathological Effects

359. Treatment

360. Course and Prognosis

CHAPTER 4 - LUNG DAMAGING AGENTS (CHOKING AGENTS)

SECTION I - GENERAL

401. Introduction

SECTION II - PHOSGENE

402. Physical and Chemical Properties

403. Detection

404. Protection

405. Decontamination

406. Mechanism of Action

407. Clinical-Pathological Effects

408. Signs and Symptoms

409. Treatment

410. Course and Prognosis

CHAPTER 5 - CYANOGEN AGENTS (BLOOD AGENTS)

SECTION I - GENERAL

501. Introduction

SECTION II - HYDROGEN CYANIDE

502. Properties

503. Detection

504. Protection

505. Decontamination

506. Mechanism of Action

507. Signs and Symptoms

508. Treatment

509. Case Management

510. Treatment Approaches

511. Drugs That Bind Cyanide Ions

512. Provision of Sulphur Groups

513. Additional Therapy

514. Course and Prognosis

SECTION III - CYANOGEN HALIDES

515. Introduction

516. Physical and Chemical Properties

517. Detection

518. Decontamination

519. Mechanism of Action

520. Pathology

521. Signs and Symptoms

522. Treatment

523. Course and Prognosis

CHAPTER 6 - INCAPACITANTS

SECTION I - GENERAL

601. Introduction

602. CNS Depressants

603. CNS Stimulants

604. Detection

605. Protection

606. Decontamination

SECTION II - CNS DEPRESSANTS - BZ (3-QUINOCLINIDINYL BENZOATE) AND SIMILAR COMPOUNDS

607. Detection

608. Protection

609. Properties

610. Mechanism of Action

611. Signs and Symptoms

612. Treatment

SECTION III - CNS STIMULANTS - LSD (D-LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE)

613. Properties

614. Detection

615. Protection

616. Mechanism of Action

617. Pathophysiology

618. Signs and Symptoms

619. Treatment

620. Course and Prognosis

621. Other Agents

CHAPTER 7 - RIOT CONTROL AGENTS

SECTION I - GENERAL

701. Introduction

SECTION II - LACHRYMATORS

702. CS (Orthochlorobenzlidene Malononitrile)

703. Properties

704. Detection

705. Protection

706. Decontamination

707. Mechanism of Action

708. Pathology

709. Signs and Symptoms

710. CS Exposure Symptoms

711. First Aid

712. Therapy

713. Course and Prognosis

714. CR (Dibenzoxazepine)

715. CN (Chloracetophenone)

716. Properties

717. Mode of Action and Toxic Effects

718. Signs and Symptoms

719. First Aid

720. CA (Bromobenzl Cyanide) and BA (Bromoacetone)

SECTION III - VOMITING AGENTS

721. Introduction

722. Properties

723. Detection

724. Protection

725. Mechanism of Action

726. Pathology

727. Signs and Symptoms

728. Treatment

729. Course and Prognosis

CHAPTER 8 - SMOKES, FUELS, AND INCENDIARY MATERIALS

SECTION I - SMOKES

801. Introduction

802. Zinc Chloride Smokes

803. Protection

804. Clinical-Pathological Effects

805. Treatment

806. Prognosis

807. Chlorosulphonic Acid (CSA)

808. Symptoms

809. Treatment

810. Prognosis

811. Titanium Tetrachloride (FM)

812. Mode of Action

SECTION II - FLAME MATERIALS

813. General

814. Red and White Phosphorus

815. Self Aid

816. Medical Aid

817. Thermite

818. Treatment

819. Magnesium

SECTION III - HYDROCARBON FUMES

820. General

821. Physical and Chemical Properties

822. Protection

823. Mechanism of Action

824. Signs and Symptoms

825. Treatment

SECTION IV - INCENDIARY DEVICES - COMBUSTIBLE HYDROCARBON INCENDIARIES

826. Introduction

827. Flame-Thrower Attack

828. Casualties

829. Protection

830. Treatment

831. Fire-Bomb Attack

832. Casualties

833. Treatment

CHAPTER 9 - HERBICIDES

SECTION I - GENERAL

901. Introduction

SECTION II - 2, 4, -D AND 2, 4, 5-T

902. Toxicity

903. Biochemistry

904. Mechanism of Action

905. Signs and Symptoms

906. Treatment

SECTION III - CACODYLIC ACID

907. Toxicity

908. Biochemistry

909. Mechanism of Action

910. Signs and Symptoms

911. Treatment

SECTION IV - PICLORAM

912. Toxicity

913. Mechanism of Action

914. Signs and Symptoms

915. Treatment

CHAPTER 10 - RECOGNITION OF A CHEMICAL CASUALTY

1001. Introduction

1002. General

1003. Recognition of a Casualty of Chemical Opertions

1004. Questioning Casualties

1005. Types of Casualties

CHAPTER 11 - MEDICAL SUPPORT IN CHEMICAL OPERATIONS

SECTION I - INTRODUCTION

1101. General

1102. Objectives of Medical Support in Chemical Operations

1103. Characteristics of Chemical Agents

1104. Contamination Control

1105. Mass Casualties

1106. Medical Decision Making

1107. Triage

SECTION II - CASUALTY MANAGEMENT PHASES

1108. General

1109. Phase I - Pre-Attack

1110. Phase II - Immediate Post-Attack/Self Aid

1111. Phase III - Buddy Aid

1112. Phase IV - Initial Medical Care

1113. Phase V - Life Support/Stabilisation

1114. Phase VI - Evacuation

1115. Phase VII - Casualty Decontamination

1116. Phase VIII - Definitive Care

1117. Phase IX - Disposition

SECTION III - COMBINED INJURIES

1118. Introduction

SECTION IV - NON PERSISTENT AGENTS

1119. Injury Complicated by Exposure to a Non Persistent Nerve Agent

1120. Injury Complicated by Exposure to Lung Damaging Agents

1121. Injury Complicated by Exposure to Cyanogen Agents

SECTION V - PERSISTENT AGENTS

1122. Injury Complicated by Persistent Nerve Agents

1123. Injury Complicated by Contamination with Vesicant Agent

SECTION VI - OTHER CONSIDERATIONS

1124. Collective Protection

1125. Head Wounds

1126. Heat Stress

CHAPTER 12 - DISPOSITION OF CONTAMINATED FOOD AND WATER

SECTION I - GENERAL

1201. Introduction

SECTION II - EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AGENTS ON FOOD AND WATER

1202. General

1203. Penetration

1204. Effect on Food

1205. Effect on Crops

1206. Effect on Livestock

SECTION III - PROTECTION OF FOOD AND WATER AGAINST CONTAMINATION WITH CHEMICAL AGENTS

1207. Packaging Materials

1208. Disposition of Packaged and Stored Supplies

SECTION IV - MONITORING FOR CONTAMINATION

1209. Monitoring Food

SECTION V - DECONTAMINATION OF FOOD AND WATER

1210. Classification of Supplies

1211. Water

1212. Monitoring Water

1213. Decontamination of Water

ANNEX A - BIOCHEMICAL ACTION OF NERVE AGENTS

ANNEX B - PHARMACOLOGY OF OXIMES

ANNEX C - SUMMARY OF THE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL AGENTS

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list


Unconventional Threat podcast - Threats Foreign and Domestic: 'In Episode One of Unconventional Threat, we identify and examine a range of threats, both foreign and domestic, that are endangering the integrity of our democracy'