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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

CHAPTER FOUR

BATTLE COMMAND

Battle command is the authority exercised by commanders in organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of a military force to accomplish a mission. All commanders exercise this authority with personal leadership and through the staff. Plans, orders, and standing operating procedures implement the commander's decisions. The battlefield operations will challenge ability of chemical commanders and staffs to command and control chemical units. The extended battlefield, with deep operations and rear area operations, demands a command and control system that carries out the commander's intent, adjust quickly to changes, and provides for centralized planning and decentralized execution. The command and support relationship that gives most responsive chemical support to the supported unit must be selected.

Additionally, the battle command system must--

  • Keep the commander informed.

  • Clearly define functional responsibilities for the staff.

  • Assign missions within capabilities of subordinate units.

  • Provide continuous coordination among staff elements.

  • Provide continuous coordination and exchange information between the commander and staff.

  • Protect the commander from nonessential information.

  • Operate with such efficiency and speed that the information, decision, action, and follow-up cycle is regularly completed faster than that of the enemy.

TASK ORGANIZATION


Detailed examples of the task organization process
at corps to brigade level are located in chapters 7 and 8.

Task organization designates the command or support relationship of subordinate units. The basic rule in task organizing is never assign a more authoritative command relationship than received from higher authority. A unit received in attachment may be attached, placed under OPCON, or given a support mission to a subordinate headquarters. A unit under OPCON of a force headquarters, however, may not be attached to a subordinate unit. At corps and division levels, commanders divide the chemical support effort among subordinate elements and rear areas based on METT-T. Considerations which must be addressed are--

  • Continuing mission requirements in each area.

  • Available time and resources.

  • Need for rapid shifting of chemical forces.

  • Command and support relationships.

  • Availability of logistical support.

  • Status of chemical units.

The corps and division chemical officers advise their respective commanders during the decision making process. Forces are allowed and command or support relationships are established based on METT-T. The task organization must allow forward commanders maximum flexibility consistent with the mission and situation.

When distances prevents chemical unit headquarters from exercising effective control and support of subordinate units. Chemical units should be attached or placed under operational control of the division or division's major subordinate commands (MSC). This authority gives the supported commander full control over the chemical elements. It enables him to further task organize the chemical units for flexible and responsive support to his subordinate echelons. Responsiveness is gained by shortening the tasking channels. A commander with chemical units attached or placed under operational control can quickly assign tasks throughout his area of operations. In other situations, a support relationship may be more appropriate to preserve flexibility of the senior commander in shifting chemical assets. These support relationships do not include command authority and do not permit further task organization.

When a division is supported by a chemical battalion, the division chemical company should be placed under its operational control. This allows the logistical support relationships between the division chemical company and the CSS units of the division to be retained. If the chemical battalion will support the division for a prolonged time, the division chemical company could be attached to the chemical battalion.

The brigade and battalion task force chemical officers in conjunction with the chemical unit commander recommend a command or support relationship to the maneuver commander. When selecting the task organization, the supported brigade and battalion commanders should consider the factors and specific capabilities of the supporting chemical units. A chemical company can control up to six platoons. A chemical battalion can control up to seven companies. Chemical platoons are most effective as a unit, therefore platoons should not be subdivided. Squads separated from the platoon have limited capabilities. Since most chemical support requires a concentrated platoon effort, chemical platoons should normally be considered an integral unit in task organization. NBC reconnaissance units are exceptions and are capable of being task organized down to team level.

If more than two chemical platoons are allocated to support a unit with no organic headquarters, the supporting chemical battalion should consider designating a chemical company headquarters to act as the company team headquarters. The chemical company team is a temporary grouping of chemical platoons under a chemical company headquarters, formed to carry out a specific operation or mission. This provides increased command, control, and communications. Administration and logistical support is provided to the chemical platoons through the team headquarters.

EXAMPLE

To support the breaching of a complex obstacle system, the 1st Brigade, 52d Infantry Division (M) will be supported by two mechanized smoke platoons, a decontamination platoon, a NBC recon squad, and a fuel support squad. The 89th Chemical Battalion is OPCON to the division. To provide a more responsive chemical organization to the 1st Brigade, the chemical battalion commander has decided to designate the 210th Chemical Co (Decon) headquarters as a chemical company team. The chemical platoons designated to support the 1st Brigade are attached to the 210th Chemical Co.


RELATIONSHIPS

Chemical units can operate under two types of relationships - command and support. Table 4-1 summerizes command and support relationships and their inherent responsibilities. Command responsibility and authority are established through command relationships. Support relationships are established to define specific relationships and responsibilities between supporting and supported units. Command responsibilities, responsibility for logistic support, and the authority to reorganize or reassign component elements of a supporting force remains with the higher headquarters or parent organization unless otherwise specified.

COMMAND

Chemical units can operate under four command relationships: organic, assigned, attached, and operational control (OPCON).

Organic

A unit that forms a part of a unit and is listed in the table of organization. Organic chemical units are found in armored, mechanized, infantry, airborne, and air assault divisions and armored cavalry regiments. They may be attached, under the operational control, or given a direct support mission to subordinate elements in the parent organization. They also may be retained in general support of the entire parent organization.

Assigned

Assigned units are placed under control of higher headquarters, usually above division level, on a relatively permanent basis. A chemical brigade is generally assigned to corps. The chemical brigade has assigned chemical battalions, companies, and detachments. The chemical brigade is tailored to fit the corps based on the area of operations and the enemy threat.

Assigned units may be attached, placed under operational control, or given a direct support mission to a subordinate element of the parent unit. Assigned units also may be retained in general support of the entire parent command.

Attached

When a unit is attached to another, usually a larger unit, it is mostly for an extended period of time. Except for limitations imposed by the attachment order, the gaining commander exercises command and control over the attached just as over organic and assigned units. All command and logistic responsibilities are his also, except for personnel transfers and promotions. These actions are retained at the parent organization, unless otherwise specified in the attachment order.

Example

The 44th Chemical Co (Smoke/Decon), 89th Chemical Battalion is attached to the 1st Brigade, 52d Infantry Division (M). The brigade commander can attach, place under operational control, or place in direct support to any of his battalions or task forces, the various chemical platoons of the 44th Chemical Co. He can retain any platoon or all of them in general support of the brigade. Therefore, he can task organize in a variety of ways to best support his concept of the brigade mission. Commander, 89th Chemical Battalion has no command, control, or logistical support responsibility for 44th Chemical Co as long as it is attached to the 1st Brigade, except for personnel matters such as transfer or promotion, unless specifically stated in the attachment order. 44th Chemical Co establishes and maintains communications with 1st Brigade and is not required to maintain communications with the 89th Chemical Bn. The forward support battalion supporting the 1st Brigade provides logistic support to the company.

Attachment should be considered when time or space preclude the parent headquarters' ability to logistically support the unit or make timely command decisions. Attachment permits the supported commander flexibility in task organizing the chemical elements and tailoring them for responsiveness to maneuver forces. An attached unit or its subordinate elements may be further attached, placed under operational control, or assigned a direct support mission to a subordinate unit. It also may be retained in general support of the entire force.

Operational Control

With operational control (OPCON), the gaining commander can use the chemical unit as he would his organic units for mission accomplishment. This includes task organizing subordinate forces, assigning tasks, and designating objectives. However, the parent unit retains responsibility for the chemical unit's logistical and administrative support, unless specified in the order. For example, the gaining commander can be ordered to furnish POL support to the unit.

Example

The 44th Chemical Co (Smoke/Decon), 89th Chemical Battalion is under OPCON of 1st Brigade, 52d Infantry Division (M). The brigade commander can place any or all the platoons of the 44th Chemical under OPCON or DS to any of his battalions or task forces. He can retain any platoon or all of them in general support of the brigade. The brigade commander cannot, however, attach the chemical platoons to the battalions, because a commander can never pass on more command authority than received from higher headquarters. The Commander, 89th Chemical Bn is responsible for all administrative and logical support unless otherwise specified. The chemical battalion commander has no operational command authority over the company. The 44th Chemical Co establishes and maintains communications with 1st Brigade and maintains communications with the 89th Chemical Bn.

Chemical units are placed under OPCON of the supported unit to ensure responsiveness to the supported unit's plan when time, distances, or difficult communications require decentralization, and when further task organization by subordinate units may be necessary. This command relationship can place a severe logistical burden on the parent chemical organization. Consequently, this command relationship is normally used with a short operation and when logistical support from the supported unit is not available. A unit placed under OPCON to a headquarters also may be placed under OPCON of a subordinate unit, given direct support missions to a subordinate unit, or retained in general support.

SUPPORT

A support relationship is established when chemical units are placed in direct support (DS) of a force or when the commander elects to retain chemical units in general support (GS) of his command. In both DS and GS relationships, command responsibility is retained by the parent chemical unit. Full logistic responsibility rests with the parent unit unless the supported unit is directed to fulfill certain logistical functions such as ration, POL, or medical support.

General Support

A commander with organic, assigned, attached, or chemical units under OPCON may elect to retain any part of those assets in general support (GS). Chemical units are retained in GS when higher headquarters requires greater flexibility and control. A command receiving chemical units GS from a higher headquarters retains those assets in GS to the command. In this relationship, support is to the force as a whole, rather than to a particular subdivision of the force. The subordinate force commander requests support from the senior force commander, task by task, rather than from the supporting unit. The commander sets the priorities and assigns the tasks of the GS unit. Chemical units in rear areas are typically employed in GS. That support too, is provided to the entire force rather than to a specific unit.

Retaining a chemical unit in GS ensures that the tasking supported commander maintains control of those chemical assets throughout this area of operations. It enables him to redirect priorities as his concept of the operations develops or as the situation changes. Subordinate commanders have little flexibility and no control over GS chemical units in their areas. Long lines of authority decrease responsive support to units. A GS mission is best for chemical units operating on a task or area assignment.

Example

The 89th Chemical Bn is given a GS mission in the operations order. One of the assigned Gs tasks is to establish and operate decontamination sites in the 394th CSG area of support. The 51st Maintenance Co is contaminated and requires decontamination support. The maintenance company request decon support from the CSG, who in turn sends the request to the 89th Chemical Bn. The 89th Chemical Bn assigns the mission to the 200th Chemical Co (Decon). The maintenance company is directed to coordinate directly with the 200th Chemical Co. Neither the CSG or the maintenance company have any direct control over the decontamination operation or the chemical units in their areas.

Direct Support

A DS unit provides dedicated support to a specific unit, usually for a single operation or a short time. DS gives the supported unit commander a high degree of control of the tasks performed by the supporting unit without assuming responsibility for its logistics or administration. The supporting unit will take task assignment and priorities from and give priority of support to the supported unit. Command authority, logistics and administration are retained by the parent unit. This relationship precludes further task organization. Tasks and priorities are assigned by the force commander. Chemical units placed in DS of maneuver elements remain under command of the parent unit. They perform chemical tasks requested by the supported force commander.

Example

The 89th Chemical Battalion is placed in DS of the 52nd Infantry Division (M). The commander of the battalion will task organize the battalion as needed to accomplish the chemical tasks requested by the division commander. If chemical tasks exceed the capabilities of the battalion, the Commander 89th Chemical Bn will request additional chemical support from the 510th Chemical Brigade. The 52nd Division Commander has no command authority over the 89th Chemical Bn, but can specify tasks and priorities to Commander, 89th Chemical Bn. Neither the companies nor any subelement of the 89th Chemical Bn can be suballocated to any subordinate division units in any command or support relationship. The entire battalion must be retained in Gs of the division. The 89th Chemical Bn could also have a task or area assignment in conjunction with the DS mission. 89th Chemical Bn maintains communications with the division and the 510th Chemical Bde. Logistics support contains to come from corps and the 510th Chemical Bde.



COMMAND AND SUPPORT INTEGRATION

Command and support relationships for chemical units can be combined to meet the needs of the command.

Example

The 67th Chemical Battalion is attached to 52d Infantry Division (M). The chemical battalion consists of the 77th Chemical Co (Mech Smoke), 41st Chemical Co (Motor Smoke), and the 66th Chemical Co (Decon). The division chemical company, the 44th Chemical Co, is OPCON to the 67th Chemical Bn. The division scheme of maneuver is to defend a portion of their sector with 1st Brigade, conduct a limited objective attack with 2d Brigade, and attack to seize a deep objective with 3d Brigade. The division commander could task organize to place the 66th Chemical Co (Decon) is GS of the division, attach the 77th Chemical Co (Mech Smoke) to the 3d Brigade, place the 41st Chemical Co (Motor Smoke) OPCON to 2d Brigade, and form a chemical company team with the 44th Chemical Co and place it in DS to 1st Brigade.

FUNCTIONS

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

To achieve success on the modern battlefield, commanders and chemical officers - both as staff officers and commanders - must create an effective and efficient command and control system for chemical support efforts. Chemical staff officers must clearly understand their responsibilities and relationships with supported commanders and their staff elements. The chemical officer must be continuously aware of significant developments. Chemical unit commanders must ensure that their forces are responsive and supportive of the supported unit commanders intentions. When the chemical officer is both the staff officer and the unit commander, as with the corps, the commander must observe the requirements and tasks of both responsibilities.

Supported Commanders

The supported unit commander, maneuver, combat support, or combat service support, has the responsibility for organization, planning, coordination, and effective use of chemical units in accomplishing their mission. At the battalion level and above, the commander is normally assisted by a chemical officer or NCO. This assistance does not alter the commander's responsibility to accomplish his mission through the informed use of his staff. The commander's responsibilities does not reduce the chemical officers/NCO task of analysis, evaluating, recommending courses of action, and supervising implementation of the commander's decision. With advice from the chemical staff officer/NCO, the commander assigns missions and priorities to his units and supporting chemical units.

Unit Chemical Officer/NCO

The unit chemical officer/NCO is the principal advisor to the force commander for all chemical matters. He is the staff officer/NCO, responsible for proper chemical support to all elements of the force according to the decisions and priorities in support of the force. of the force commander. He performs staff planning and coordination for all chemical units He is responsible for staff supervision during the execution of chemical support operations.

Theater Army Chemical Officer

The theater army chemical officer is a member of the theater army's special staff. He has no command responsibilities. He integrates NBC defense into the theater army's plan to sustain Army forces and support other services or allied forces. He helps determine requirements for chemical units. Then he takes the necessary actions to identify and prioritized assets to fill those requirements and get them to the tactical commander in a high state of readiness. He may also act as the Army component chemical officer.

Corps Chemical Officer

Provides advice to the corps commander on all matters regarding NBC defense, the employment of chemical units, and the use of smoke, flame, riot control agents, and herbicides. In conjunction with the Fire Support Element, he advises on employing nuclear weapons maintained by the other services and the effects from employing those weapons. He operates the corps NBC warning and reporting system (NBCWRS) and prepares the necessary staff estimates, operational plans and orders to accomplish the corps mission.

When a chemical brigade is assigned to the corps, the corps chemical officer works closely with chemical brigade commander to improve and execute chemical support throughout the corps area of operations. Since the brigade commander's staff is small, the corps chemical staff assists the brigade in coordinating logistical support and planning operational missions.

Tables 4-2 and 4-3 show more details on the responsibilities of the chemical brigade commander and the corps chemical officer.


Chemical Brigade Commander

The chemical brigade commander commands the chemical units assigned to the corps. He issues detailed plans and orders to support the corps' mission. Mission orders from the corps commander are normally passed through the corps chemical officer. This relationship allows the brigade commander to focus his units on their part of the corps battle plan, while the corps chemical officer provides support in sustaining the brigade and prioritizing its missions. Table 4-3 provides more details.

The corps chemical staff provides the corps commander and the corps staff with advice on NBC defense and smoke employment. The chemical staff also receives and analyzes NBC attack information. The section provides advanced warning of future corps operations through chemical channels to the chemical brigade and subordinate chemical staff sections (division, separate brigades, and ACR).


The corps chemical staff monitors the status of the chemical units through the chemical brigade staff. The corps chemical staff crosstalks within subordinate chemical staffs to insure all their operational requirements for chemical support are being met.

The brigade staff coordinates for the movement of subordinate chemical units with the corps area, The brigade staff also coordinates the logistical support for the subordinate elements and serves as the logistical interface with the DISCOM/CSG/COSCOMs.

Once the order/plan is issued, the chemical brigade staff and chemical staff section must look at the next mission. The brigade staff must look out approximately 72 hours to anticipate the sustainment needs and task organization of subordinate chemical units.

The corps chemical staff analyzes NBC attack information and recommends changes in support priorities. Information is constantly exchanged between the corps chemical staff and the brigade staff.

Division Chemical Officer

The division chemical officer is a special staff officer assigned to the division. When the division is supported by a chemical battalion, the battalion commander will not assume the duties of the division chemical officer. Chemical battalions supporting a division are normally for a finite period of time and changes of duties and responsibilities would be more disruptive than beneficial.

The division chemical officer serves as a member of the division staff and prepares the chemical staff estimates, recommends courses of action, prepares plans and orders for chemical support operations, and supervises all chemical support activities for the division commander. The division chemical officer coordinates all chemical support to the division for the commander. He coordinates closely with the supporting chemical unit commander and seeks their advice on the employment of their unit. The division chemical officer has operational control of the division chemical company. He is assisted by the tactical chemical operations officer (TCOO) and a chemical staff section in the division main and tactical command posts.

The relationship between the division chemical officer and the division chemical company is extremely important during both tactical and garrison operations. During tactical operations, the division chemical officer, in the absence of a chemical battalion commander, exercises and maintains operational control over assigned and supporting chemical units. The division chemical officer provides technical and tactical guidance to the division chemical company commander. During garrison operations, the division chemical officer must continue to exercise influence over the chemical company even though it may be assigned to a subordinate command within the division. If the division chemical company is assigned to a subordinate command, the division chemical officer should--

  • Develop a formal memorandum of understanding with the battalion commander to whom the chemical company is assigned.

  • Retain tasking authority over the chemical company.

  • Retain authority to assign officer and noncommissioned officer leaders to the company in coordination with the subordinate battalion commander.

  • Act as the company commander's intermediate rater.

  • Plan and execute all external evaluations of the chemical company.

  • Participate in all company training briefs with the battalion commander.

  • Take and maintain an active interest in all facets of the chemical company, from maintenance to training to quality of life of the soldiers.

  • Mentor the company commander and other assigned officers.

Brigade and Regimental Chemical Officer

Brigade and regimental chemical officers advise commanders on chemical matters and are responsible for chemical staff supervision. In brigades and regiments, a chemical officer organic to the staff prepares the chemical estimate and written portion of plans and orders. The brigade or regimental chemical officer provides staff coordination and supervision of chemical support operations, conducts battle tracking during operations, and maintains unit personnel, equipment, and supply status, He monitors the actions of subordinate chemical officers to ensure synchronization. In the case of armored cavalry regiments and separate combat brigades, the chemical officer is assisted by a small staff located in the main and tactical command posts. In other brigades and like commands, the chemical officer is assisted by a chemical operations NCO.

Special Forces Group Chemical Officer

The special forces group chemical officer advises the group commander on chemical matters and is responsible for chemical staff supervision. He prepares the chemical estimate and written portion of plans and orders. He has operational control of the chemical detachment operating in support of the group. These chemical detachments provide NBC staff and decontamination support. Additionally, NBC reconnaissance support may be provided to the group.

Battalion/Task Force Chemical Officer

When the task organization sets up a command or support relationship between a chemical unit and a battalion or maneuver force, the supporting chemical unit commander or platoon leader does not assume the duties and responsibilities of the organic battalion/task force chemical officer. The battalion/task force would be supported by a chemical unit for only short periods of time and having the platoon leader or unit commander assume the duties and responsibilities of the battalion/task force chemical officer would be unduly disruptive. The battalion/task force chemical officer advises the commander on NBC defense operations and smoke matters, prepares informal estimates, and provides information for plans and orders. He has staff supervision of the execution of chemical support operations. He supervises and monitors NBC defense operations at company level in support of the company NBC NCO. He maintains the status of NBC personnel and equipment within the battalion. He coordinates closely with the brigade chemical officer and chemical unit commanders or platoon leaders and seeks their advice on employing and sustaining their unit.

MISSION COORDINATION

When subordinate elements require decontamination, smoke, or NBC reconnaissance support, they pass their requirements to the next higher headquarters. These requests for support should contain several critical elements of information. By providing all necessary information in the request for support, the next higher chemical staff can determine the criticality of the support and modify support priorities as needed.


When providing a mission or tasking to a chemical unit, the staff should use mission type orders. Tell the chemical unit what, when, where, and why - not how. Provide sufficient information and guidance to allow the chemical unit to formulate its own plan to execute the mission or tasking. The staff should provide constraints and restraints as necessary. Communications between the supported and supporting units must be established early and maintained throughout the mission or tasking.

EXECUTION

Effective control is critical to success of chemical support operations. In many cases, the distance between chemical unit headquarters exceeds the capability of the organic communications systems. Thus, plans and orders must establish simple organizational relationships and reliable communications between supported units and supporting chemical units. Procedures must be established to ensure the continuity of operations if communications fail. The supported commander and the chemical unit must work closely to provide effective command and control. Areas that require particular attention include timely information, flexibility, continuity of operations, operations security, and communications.

The force commander exercises command and control over subordinate forces according to the mission or tasks assigned and within guidance from the next higher commander. The force commander must make all decisions concerning chemical support within his area of responsibility and must adjust chemical support priorities during operations. Commanders of battalions and higher echelons normally have a chemical staff to recommend the best use of available chemical units. The chemical staff should provide timely information on chemical operations, make routine decisions within delegated authority, and perform staff supervision of chemical operations.

The chemical staff must stay abreast of chemical support operations through staff visits and analysis of reports. He is in constant liaison with other staff elements, especially the intelligence (G2/S2), operations (G3/S3), logistics (G4/S4), and civil affairs (G5). He will keep the commander informed of significant developments, provide advice as appropriate, and ensure that chemical support operations remain flexible.

Timely Information

The chemical staff must maintain accurate and timely information on two levels. The primary responsibility is to provide essential information to the commander. The format must be brief, clear and readily integrated into displays maintained by the operations and intelligence sections. Such information will include the location and capabilities of chemical units and equipment to include critical items such as NBC recon vehicles, power driven decontamination equipment, and smoke generators. Precise locations of decontamination sites and contaminated areas are vital.

Versatility

The chemical staff must ensure that versatility is maintained throughout the operation. For example, in an attack a unit may encounter an unanticipated obstacle system. To preserve forward momentum, the commander must be able to concentrate the necessary smoke support to conceal breaching operations. Or a reserve maneuver unit is hit by an enemy chemical attack and most of the vehicles are contaminate. The commander intends commit the reserve force within 12 hours and wants them in the lowest available MOPP level. He must shift all available decon units to support the reserve force.

The best method for chemical support flexibility is to plan for all possibilities. A task-organized chemical team comprised of smoke, decon, and NBC recon elements would be best placed under the control of each committed forward maneuver element.

Continuity of Operations

Chemical unit operations in support of maneuver forces should be collocated with and controlled from the tactical operations center or tactical command posts of the supported unit. Maneuver battalions and higher echelons operate at least two command and control facilities to provide redundancy if one is destroyed. Additionally, the command posts move their locations frequently. Supporting chemical units must be prepared to operate in a like manner. Chemical units need to make the maximum use of liaison officers.

At the chemical company level, the company commander and his operations officer are responsible for coordinating with the supported unit. The company commander positions himself near the supported unit's main command post. At the chemical battalion level, the battalion commander needs to establish their command post near the supported unit's main command post. The chemical battalion also positions liaison officers in the supported unit's main and tactical command posts. The chemical brigade establishes their command post at the corps main command post. Liaison officers are positioned at the corps main and tactical command post. The brigade commander will position himself on the battlefield where he can best influence chemical support to the corps.

Operations Security

Chemical unit command and control, as well as the conduct of planning and operations, must provide the safeguarding of both classified and unclassified information. Intelligence indicators susceptible to hostile exploitation must be identified and eliminated or controlled to protect military activities and to achieve security of the force.

Sources of information that require protection include communications, informative patterns and signatures - visual, acoustic, electronic, infrared - and stereotyped administrative and tactical procedures. Any source could signal friendly plans and readiness postures to hostile observers.

COMMUNICATIONS

Communications play a critical part in command and control. Considering the battlefield area, distances over which chemical units will operate, and the threat capabilities, leaders must know communications and available communications equipment. The enemy will use all available means to disrupt, exploit, or destroy our ability to communicate.

Responsibilities

Establishing communications is a command responsibility. Each chemical commander is responsible for establishing communications with the lower headquarters and with the unit being supported.

Capabilities

The communications section of chemical brigade and battalion headquarters and each chemical company is organized and equipped to install, operate, and maintain the unit's communications system.

Mobile subscriber equipment (MSE). MSE is the area common-user voice communications system in the corps. MSE provides voice and data communications from the corps rear boundary to the maneuver battalion main command posts. All chemical units are equipped with MSE down to company level. MSE provides--

  • Secure telephone service.

  • Secure facsimile service.

  • Secure mobile radiotelephone service.

  • Secure data transmission.

  • Combat net radio (CNR) network access.

MSE users are responsible for installing, operating, and maintaining their subscriber terminal equipment. Users are responsible for connecting and maintaining the wire lines to the distribution boxes or remote multiplexer combiner (RMC) installed by the supporting signal node. Subscriber terminal equipment includes--

  • TA-1035 Digital nonsecure voice terminal (DNVT).

  • TSEC/KY-68 Digital secure voice terminal (DSVT).

  • AN/UGC-144 Communications terminal (CT).

  • AN/UXC-7 Lightweight digital facsimile (LDF).

  • AN/VRC-97 Mobile subscriber radiotelephone terminal (MSRT).

The corps and division signal organizations establish a network of line-of-sight multichannel radios and interconnected local and long-distance switching nodes. This provides an area coverage for the division and corps areas. MSE user need only to dial up and communicate with any discretely addressed MSE subscriber.

Mobile Users. When using the MSRT, the user gains access into the network through radio access units (RAU). Each RAU has a planning range of 15 km radius area coverage. As the mobile subscriber moves across the battlefield, affiliation is automatically maintained as he moves from one RAUs area to another. If he is using the MSRT at the time he changes from one RAU to another, the conversation is terminated and he must redial to reestablish the communication.

Static Users. Static terminal users gain access into the network through large extension node switch (LENS) or small extension node switch (SENS). A LENS can support up to 176 subscribers and are normally associated with COSCOM, DISCOM, corps main, or division main CPs. The SENS provides access for either 26 or 41 subscribers depending on it equipment. These are normally established with corps combat CPs (ACR, FA Bale, ADA Bale). The positioning of chemical unit headquarters will be greatly affected by the positioning and availability of LENS and SENS.

Single-Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS).

SINCGARS is the family of VHF-FM radio sets that provides secure voice and data transmission capability. These radios transmit over abroad frequency spectrum using a frequency-hopping technique. SINCGARS replaces the VRC-12 series radios on a one-for-one basis.

RADIO NETS

Tactical FM communications are the most frequent means of communicating within chemical battalions and companies. Figures 4-1 and 4-2 show typical communication nets for chemical brigades and battalions.



COMMAND POSTS

CHEMICAL BRIGADE

The chemical brigade tactical operations center (TOC) has three sections: S2/S3, S1/S4, and briefing tent (Figure 4-3). Modular frame tents are used for the S2/S3 and S1/S4 sections.


CHEMICAL BATTALION

The chemical battalion tactical operations center (TOC) has two sections: S2/S3 and S1/S4 (Figure 4-4). Modular frame tents are used for the S2/S3 and S1/S4 sections.


CHEMICAL COMPANY

Company level organizations do not establish tactical operations centers. Companies establish command posts. Mechanized smoke companies are equipped with M577 armored command post vehicles. Other chemical companies set up their command posts using tents.

Company CPs are the focal point of all tactical and logistical planning and execution in the company. The company commander may operate from this CP if his platoons are widely dispersed and are not directly under his control. If he is in direct control of his subordinate platoon, the commander must select the best location for controlling his elements.



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