Battle command is the authority
exercised by commanders in organizing, directing, and controlling
the activities of a military force to accomplish a mission. All
commanders exercise this authority with personal leadership and
through the staff. Plans, orders, and standing operating procedures
implement the commander's decisions. The battlefield operations
will challenge ability of chemical commanders and staffs to command
and control chemical units. The extended battlefield, with deep
operations and rear area operations, demands a command and control
system that carries out the commander's intent, adjust quickly
to changes, and provides for centralized planning and decentralized
execution. The command and support relationship that gives most
responsive chemical support to the supported unit must be selected.
Additionally, the battle command
- Keep the commander informed.
- Clearly define functional
responsibilities for the staff.
- Assign missions within capabilities
of subordinate units.
- Provide continuous coordination
among staff elements.
- Provide continuous coordination
and exchange information between the commander and staff.
- Protect the commander from
- Operate with such efficiency
and speed that the information, decision, action, and follow-up
cycle is regularly completed faster than that of the enemy.
at corps to brigade level are located in chapters 7 and 8.
Task organization designates
the command or support relationship of subordinate units. The
basic rule in task organizing is never assign a more authoritative
command relationship than received from higher authority. A unit
received in attachment may be attached, placed under OPCON, or
given a support mission to a subordinate headquarters. A unit
under OPCON of a force headquarters, however, may not be attached
to a subordinate unit. At corps and division levels, commanders
divide the chemical support effort among subordinate elements
and rear areas based on METT-T. Considerations which must be addressed
- Continuing mission requirements
in each area.
- Available time and resources.
- Need for rapid shifting of
- Command and support relationships.
- Availability of logistical
- Status of chemical units.
The corps and division chemical
officers advise their respective commanders during the decision
making process. Forces are allowed and command or support relationships
are established based on METT-T. The task organization must allow
forward commanders maximum flexibility consistent with the mission
When distances prevents chemical
unit headquarters from exercising effective control and support
of subordinate units. Chemical units should be attached or placed
under operational control of the division or division's major
subordinate commands (MSC). This authority gives the supported
commander full control over the chemical elements. It enables
him to further task organize the chemical units for flexible and
responsive support to his subordinate echelons. Responsiveness
is gained by shortening the tasking channels. A commander with
chemical units attached or placed under operational control can
quickly assign tasks throughout his area of operations. In other
situations, a support relationship may be more appropriate to
preserve flexibility of the senior commander in shifting chemical
assets. These support relationships do not include command authority
and do not permit further task organization.
When a division is supported
by a chemical battalion, the division chemical company should
be placed under its operational control. This allows the logistical
support relationships between the division chemical company and
the CSS units of the division to be retained. If the chemical
battalion will support the division for a prolonged time, the
division chemical company could be attached to the chemical battalion.
The brigade and battalion
task force chemical officers in conjunction with the chemical
unit commander recommend a command or support relationship to
the maneuver commander. When selecting the task organization,
the supported brigade and battalion commanders should consider
the factors and specific capabilities of the supporting chemical
units. A chemical company can control up to six platoons. A chemical
battalion can control up to seven companies. Chemical platoons
are most effective as a unit, therefore platoons should not be
subdivided. Squads separated from the platoon have limited capabilities.
Since most chemical support requires a concentrated platoon effort,
chemical platoons should normally be considered an integral unit
in task organization. NBC reconnaissance units are exceptions
and are capable of being task organized down to team level.
If more than two chemical
platoons are allocated to support a unit with no organic headquarters,
the supporting chemical battalion should consider designating
a chemical company headquarters to act as the company team headquarters.
The chemical company team is a temporary grouping of chemical
platoons under a chemical company headquarters, formed to carry
out a specific operation or mission. This provides increased command,
control, and communications. Administration and logistical support
is provided to the chemical platoons through the team headquarters.
To support the breaching of a complex obstacle system, the 1st Brigade, 52d Infantry Division (M) will be supported by two mechanized smoke platoons, a decontamination platoon, a NBC recon squad, and a fuel support squad. The 89th Chemical Battalion is OPCON to the division. To provide a more responsive chemical organization to the 1st Brigade, the chemical battalion commander has decided to designate the 210th Chemical Co (Decon) headquarters as a chemical company team. The chemical platoons designated to support the 1st Brigade are attached to the 210th Chemical Co.
Chemical units can operate
under two types of relationships - command and support. Table 4-1 summerizes
command and support relationships and their inherent
responsibilities. Command responsibility and authority are established
through command relationships. Support relationships are established
to define specific relationships and responsibilities between
supporting and supported units. Command responsibilities, responsibility
for logistic support, and the authority to reorganize or reassign
component elements of a supporting force remains with the higher
headquarters or parent organization unless otherwise specified.
Chemical units can operate
under four command relationships: organic, assigned, attached,
and operational control (OPCON).
A unit that forms a part of
a unit and is listed in the table of organization. Organic chemical
units are found in armored, mechanized, infantry, airborne, and
air assault divisions and armored cavalry regiments. They may
be attached, under the operational control, or given a direct
support mission to subordinate elements in the parent organization.
They also may be retained in general support of the entire parent
Assigned units are placed
under control of higher headquarters, usually above division level,
on a relatively permanent basis. A chemical brigade is generally
assigned to corps. The chemical brigade has assigned chemical
battalions, companies, and detachments. The chemical brigade is
tailored to fit the corps based on the area of operations and
the enemy threat.
Assigned units may be attached,
placed under operational control, or given a direct support mission
to a subordinate element of the parent unit. Assigned units also
may be retained in general support of the entire parent command.
When a unit is attached to
another, usually a larger unit, it is mostly for an extended period
of time. Except for limitations imposed by the attachment order,
the gaining commander exercises command and control over the attached
just as over organic and assigned units. All command and logistic
responsibilities are his also, except for personnel transfers
and promotions. These actions are retained at the parent organization,
unless otherwise specified in the attachment order.
The 44th Chemical
Co (Smoke/Decon), 89th Chemical Battalion is attached
to the 1st Brigade, 52d Infantry Division (M). The
brigade commander can attach, place under operational control,
or place in direct support to any of his battalions or task forces,
the various chemical platoons of the 44th Chemical
Co. He can retain any platoon or all of them in general support
of the brigade. Therefore, he can task organize in a variety of
ways to best support his concept of the brigade mission. Commander,
89th Chemical Battalion has no command, control, or
logistical support responsibility for 44th Chemical
Co as long as it is attached to the 1st Brigade, except
for personnel matters such as transfer or promotion, unless specifically
stated in the attachment order. 44th Chemical Co establishes
and maintains communications with 1st Brigade and is
not required to maintain communications with the 89th
Chemical Bn. The forward support battalion supporting the 1st
Brigade provides logistic support to the company.
Attachment should be considered
when time or space preclude the parent headquarters' ability to
logistically support the unit or make timely command decisions.
Attachment permits the supported commander flexibility in task
organizing the chemical elements and tailoring them for responsiveness
to maneuver forces. An attached unit or its subordinate elements
may be further attached, placed under operational control, or
assigned a direct support mission to a subordinate unit. It also
may be retained in general support of the entire force.
With operational control (OPCON),
the gaining commander can use the chemical unit as he would his
organic units for mission accomplishment. This includes task organizing
subordinate forces, assigning tasks, and designating objectives.
However, the parent unit retains responsibility for the chemical
unit's logistical and administrative support, unless specified
in the order. For example, the gaining commander can be ordered
to furnish POL support to the unit.
The 44th Chemical Co (Smoke/Decon), 89th Chemical Battalion is under OPCON of 1st Brigade, 52d Infantry Division (M). The brigade commander can place any or all the platoons of the 44th Chemical under OPCON or DS to any of his battalions or task forces. He can retain any platoon or all of them in general support of the brigade. The brigade commander cannot, however, attach the chemical platoons to the battalions, because a commander can never pass on more command authority than received from higher headquarters. The Commander, 89th Chemical Bn is responsible for all administrative and logical support unless otherwise specified. The chemical battalion commander has no operational command authority over the company. The 44th Chemical Co establishes and maintains communications with 1st Brigade and maintains communications with the 89th Chemical Bn.
Chemical units are placed
under OPCON of the supported unit to ensure responsiveness to
the supported unit's plan when time, distances, or difficult communications
require decentralization, and when further task organization by
subordinate units may be necessary. This command relationship
can place a severe logistical burden on the parent chemical organization.
Consequently, this command relationship is normally used with
a short operation and when logistical support from the supported
unit is not available. A unit placed under OPCON to a headquarters
also may be placed under OPCON of a subordinate unit, given direct
support missions to a subordinate unit, or retained in general
A support relationship is
established when chemical units are placed in direct support (DS)
of a force or when the commander elects to retain chemical units
in general support (GS) of his command. In both DS and GS relationships,
command responsibility is retained by the parent chemical unit.
Full logistic responsibility rests with the parent unit unless
the supported unit is directed to fulfill certain logistical functions
such as ration, POL, or medical support.
A commander with organic,
assigned, attached, or chemical units under OPCON may elect to
retain any part of those assets in general support (GS). Chemical
units are retained in GS when higher headquarters requires greater
flexibility and control. A command receiving chemical units GS
from a higher headquarters retains those assets in GS to the command.
In this relationship, support is to the force as a whole, rather
than to a particular subdivision of the force. The subordinate
force commander requests support from the senior force commander,
task by task, rather than from the supporting unit. The commander
sets the priorities and assigns the tasks of the GS unit. Chemical
units in rear areas are typically employed in GS. That support
too, is provided to the entire force rather than to a specific
Retaining a chemical unit
in GS ensures that the tasking supported commander maintains control
of those chemical assets throughout this area of operations. It
enables him to redirect priorities as his concept of the operations
develops or as the situation changes. Subordinate commanders have
little flexibility and no control over GS chemical units in their
areas. Long lines of authority decrease responsive support to
units. A GS mission is best for chemical units operating on a
task or area assignment.
The 89th Chemical
Bn is given a GS mission in the operations order. One of the assigned
Gs tasks is to establish and operate decontamination sites in
the 394th CSG area of support. The 51st
Maintenance Co is contaminated and requires decontamination support.
The maintenance company request decon support from the CSG, who
in turn sends the request to the 89th Chemical Bn.
The 89th Chemical Bn assigns the mission to the 200th
Chemical Co (Decon). The maintenance company is directed to coordinate
directly with the 200th Chemical Co. Neither the CSG
or the maintenance company have any direct control over the decontamination
operation or the chemical units in their areas.
A DS unit provides dedicated
support to a specific unit, usually for a single operation or
a short time. DS gives the supported unit commander a high degree
of control of the tasks performed by the supporting unit without
assuming responsibility for its logistics or administration. The
supporting unit will take task assignment and priorities from
and give priority of support to the supported unit. Command authority,
logistics and administration are retained by the parent unit.
This relationship precludes further task organization. Tasks and
priorities are assigned by the force commander. Chemical units
placed in DS of maneuver elements remain under command of the
parent unit. They perform chemical tasks requested by the supported
The 89th Chemical Battalion is placed in DS of the 52nd Infantry Division (M). The commander of the battalion will task organize the battalion as needed to accomplish the chemical tasks requested by the division commander. If chemical tasks exceed the capabilities of the battalion, the Commander 89th Chemical Bn will request additional chemical support from the 510th Chemical Brigade. The 52nd Division Commander has no command authority over the 89th Chemical Bn, but can specify tasks and priorities to Commander, 89th Chemical Bn. Neither the companies nor any subelement of the 89th Chemical Bn can be suballocated to any subordinate division units in any command or support relationship. The entire battalion must be retained in Gs of the division. The 89th Chemical Bn could also have a task or area assignment in conjunction with the DS mission. 89th Chemical Bn maintains communications with the division and the 510th Chemical Bde. Logistics support contains to come from corps and the 510th Chemical Bde.
COMMAND AND SUPPORT INTEGRATION
Command and support relationships
for chemical units can be combined to meet the needs of the command.
The 67th Chemical
Battalion is attached to 52d Infantry Division (M). The chemical
battalion consists of the 77th Chemical Co (Mech Smoke),
41st Chemical Co (Motor Smoke), and the 66th
Chemical Co (Decon). The division chemical company, the 44th
Chemical Co, is OPCON to the 67th Chemical Bn. The
division scheme of maneuver is to defend a portion of their sector
with 1st Brigade, conduct a limited objective attack
with 2d Brigade, and attack to seize a deep objective with 3d
Brigade. The division commander could task organize to place the
66th Chemical Co (Decon) is GS of the division, attach
the 77th Chemical Co (Mech Smoke) to the 3d Brigade,
place the 41st Chemical Co (Motor Smoke) OPCON to 2d
Brigade, and form a chemical company team with the 44th
Chemical Co and place it in DS to 1st Brigade.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
To achieve success on the
modern battlefield, commanders and chemical officers - both as
staff officers and commanders - must create an effective and efficient
command and control system for chemical support efforts. Chemical
staff officers must clearly understand their responsibilities
and relationships with supported commanders and their staff elements.
The chemical officer must be continuously aware of significant
developments. Chemical unit commanders must ensure that their
forces are responsive and supportive of the supported unit commanders
intentions. When the chemical officer is both the staff officer
and the unit commander, as with the corps, the commander must
observe the requirements and tasks of both responsibilities.
The supported unit commander,
maneuver, combat support, or combat service support, has the responsibility
for organization, planning, coordination, and effective use of
chemical units in accomplishing their mission. At the battalion
level and above, the commander is normally assisted by a chemical
officer or NCO. This assistance does not alter the commander's
responsibility to accomplish his mission through the informed
use of his staff. The commander's responsibilities does not reduce
the chemical officers/NCO task of analysis, evaluating, recommending
courses of action, and supervising implementation of the commander's
decision. With advice from the chemical staff officer/NCO, the
commander assigns missions and priorities to his units and supporting
Unit Chemical Officer/NCO
The unit chemical officer/NCO
is the principal advisor to the force commander for all chemical
matters. He is the staff officer/NCO, responsible for proper chemical
support to all elements of the force according to the decisions
and priorities in support of the force. of the force commander.
He performs staff planning and coordination for all chemical units
He is responsible for staff supervision during the execution of
chemical support operations.
Theater Army Chemical
The theater army chemical
officer is a member of the theater army's special staff. He has
no command responsibilities. He integrates NBC defense into the
theater army's plan to sustain Army forces and support other services
or allied forces. He helps determine requirements for chemical
units. Then he takes the necessary actions to identify and prioritized
assets to fill those requirements and get them to the tactical
commander in a high state of readiness. He may also act as the
Army component chemical officer.
Corps Chemical Officer
Provides advice to the corps
commander on all matters regarding NBC defense, the employment
of chemical units, and the use of smoke, flame, riot control agents,
and herbicides. In conjunction with the Fire Support Element,
he advises on employing nuclear weapons maintained by the other
services and the effects from employing those weapons. He operates
the corps NBC warning and reporting system (NBCWRS) and prepares
the necessary staff estimates, operational plans and orders to
accomplish the corps mission.
When a chemical brigade is
assigned to the corps, the corps chemical officer works closely
with chemical brigade commander to improve and execute chemical
support throughout the corps area of operations. Since the brigade
commander's staff is small, the corps chemical staff assists the
brigade in coordinating logistical support and planning operational
Chemical Brigade Commander
The chemical brigade commander
commands the chemical units assigned to the corps. He issues detailed
plans and orders to support the corps' mission. Mission orders
from the corps commander are normally passed through the corps
chemical officer. This relationship allows the brigade commander
to focus his units on their part of the corps battle plan, while
the corps chemical officer provides support in sustaining the
brigade and prioritizing its missions. Table 4-3 provides more
The corps chemical staff provides
the corps commander and the corps staff with advice on NBC defense
and smoke employment. The chemical staff also receives and analyzes
NBC attack information. The section provides advanced warning
of future corps operations through chemical channels to the chemical
brigade and subordinate chemical staff sections (division, separate
brigades, and ACR).
The corps chemical staff monitors
the status of the chemical units through the chemical brigade
staff. The corps chemical staff crosstalks within subordinate
chemical staffs to insure all their operational requirements for
chemical support are being met.
The brigade staff coordinates
for the movement of subordinate chemical units with the corps
area, The brigade staff also coordinates the logistical support
for the subordinate elements and serves as the logistical interface
with the DISCOM/CSG/COSCOMs.
Once the order/plan is issued,
the chemical brigade staff and chemical staff section must look
at the next mission. The brigade staff must look out approximately
72 hours to anticipate the sustainment needs and task organization
of subordinate chemical units.
The corps chemical staff analyzes
NBC attack information and recommends changes in support priorities.
Information is constantly exchanged between the corps chemical
staff and the brigade staff.
Division Chemical Officer
The division chemical officer
is a special staff officer assigned to the division. When the
division is supported by a chemical battalion, the battalion commander
will not assume the duties of the division chemical officer. Chemical
battalions supporting a division are normally for a finite period
of time and changes of duties and responsibilities would be more
disruptive than beneficial.
The division chemical officer
serves as a member of the division staff and prepares the chemical
staff estimates, recommends courses of action, prepares plans
and orders for chemical support operations, and supervises all
chemical support activities for the division commander. The division
chemical officer coordinates all chemical support to the division
for the commander. He coordinates closely with the supporting
chemical unit commander and seeks their advice on the employment
of their unit. The division chemical officer has operational control
of the division chemical company. He is assisted by the tactical
chemical operations officer (TCOO) and a chemical staff section
in the division main and tactical command posts.
The relationship between the
division chemical officer and the division chemical company is
extremely important during both tactical and garrison operations.
During tactical operations, the division chemical officer, in
the absence of a chemical battalion commander, exercises and maintains
operational control over assigned and supporting chemical units.
The division chemical officer provides technical and tactical
guidance to the division chemical company commander. During garrison
operations, the division chemical officer must continue to exercise
influence over the chemical company even though it may be assigned
to a subordinate command within the division. If the division
chemical company is assigned to a subordinate command, the division
chemical officer should--
- Develop a formal memorandum
of understanding with the battalion commander to whom the chemical
company is assigned.
- Retain tasking authority over
the chemical company.
- Retain authority to assign
officer and noncommissioned officer leaders to the company in
coordination with the subordinate battalion commander.
- Act as the company commander's
- Plan and execute all external
evaluations of the chemical company.
- Participate in all company
training briefs with the battalion commander.
- Take and maintain an active
interest in all facets of the chemical company, from maintenance
to training to quality of life of the soldiers.
- Mentor the company commander
and other assigned officers.
Brigade and Regimental
Brigade and regimental
chemical officers advise commanders on chemical matters and are
responsible for chemical staff supervision. In brigades and regiments,
a chemical officer organic to the staff prepares the chemical
estimate and written portion of plans and orders. The brigade
or regimental chemical officer provides staff coordination and
supervision of chemical support operations, conducts battle tracking
during operations, and maintains unit personnel, equipment, and
supply status, He monitors the actions of subordinate chemical
officers to ensure synchronization. In the case of armored cavalry
regiments and separate combat brigades, the chemical officer is
assisted by a small staff located in the main and tactical command
posts. In other brigades and like commands, the chemical officer
is assisted by a chemical operations NCO.
Special Forces Group
The special forces group chemical
officer advises the group commander on chemical matters and is
responsible for chemical staff supervision. He prepares the chemical
estimate and written portion of plans and orders. He has operational
control of the chemical detachment operating in support of the
group. These chemical detachments provide NBC staff and decontamination
support. Additionally, NBC reconnaissance support may be provided
to the group.
When the task organization
sets up a command or support relationship between a chemical unit
and a battalion or maneuver force, the supporting chemical unit
commander or platoon leader does not assume the duties and responsibilities
of the organic battalion/task force chemical officer. The battalion/task
force would be supported by a chemical unit for only short periods
of time and having the platoon leader or unit commander assume
the duties and responsibilities of the battalion/task force chemical
officer would be unduly disruptive. The battalion/task force chemical
officer advises the commander on NBC defense operations and smoke
matters, prepares informal estimates, and provides information
for plans and orders. He has staff supervision of the execution
of chemical support operations. He supervises and monitors NBC
defense operations at company level in support of the company
NBC NCO. He maintains the status of NBC personnel and equipment
within the battalion. He coordinates closely with the brigade
chemical officer and chemical unit commanders or platoon leaders
and seeks their advice on employing and sustaining their unit.
When subordinate elements
require decontamination, smoke, or NBC reconnaissance support,
they pass their requirements to the next higher headquarters.
These requests for support should contain several critical elements
of information. By providing all necessary information in the
request for support, the next higher chemical staff can determine
the criticality of the support and modify support priorities as
When providing a mission or
tasking to a chemical unit, the staff should use mission type
orders. Tell the chemical unit what, when, where, and why - not
how. Provide sufficient information and guidance to allow the
chemical unit to formulate its own plan to execute the mission
or tasking. The staff should provide constraints and restraints
as necessary. Communications between the supported and supporting
units must be established early and maintained throughout the
mission or tasking.
Effective control is critical
to success of chemical support operations. In many cases, the
distance between chemical unit headquarters exceeds the capability
of the organic communications systems. Thus, plans and orders
must establish simple organizational relationships and reliable
communications between supported units and supporting chemical
units. Procedures must be established to ensure the continuity
of operations if communications fail. The supported commander
and the chemical unit must work closely to provide effective command
and control. Areas that require particular attention include timely
information, flexibility, continuity of operations, operations
security, and communications.
The force commander exercises
command and control over subordinate forces according to the mission
or tasks assigned and within guidance from the next higher commander.
The force commander must make all decisions concerning chemical
support within his area of responsibility and must adjust chemical
support priorities during operations. Commanders of battalions
and higher echelons normally have a chemical staff to recommend
the best use of available chemical units. The chemical staff should
provide timely information on chemical operations, make routine
decisions within delegated authority, and perform staff supervision
of chemical operations.
The chemical staff must stay
abreast of chemical support operations through staff visits and
analysis of reports. He is in constant liaison with other staff
elements, especially the intelligence (G2/S2), operations (G3/S3),
logistics (G4/S4), and civil affairs (G5). He will keep the commander
informed of significant developments, provide advice as appropriate,
and ensure that chemical support operations remain flexible.
The chemical staff must maintain
accurate and timely information on two levels. The primary responsibility
is to provide essential information to the commander. The format
must be brief, clear and readily integrated into displays maintained
by the operations and intelligence sections. Such information
will include the location and capabilities of chemical units and
equipment to include critical items such as NBC recon vehicles,
power driven decontamination equipment, and smoke generators.
Precise locations of decontamination sites and contaminated areas
The chemical staff must ensure
that versatility is maintained throughout the operation. For example,
in an attack a unit may encounter an unanticipated obstacle system.
To preserve forward momentum, the commander must be able to concentrate
the necessary smoke support to conceal breaching operations. Or
a reserve maneuver unit is hit by an enemy chemical attack and
most of the vehicles are contaminate. The commander intends commit
the reserve force within 12 hours and wants them in the lowest
available MOPP level. He must shift all available decon units
to support the reserve force.
The best method for
chemical support flexibility is to plan for all possibilities.
A task-organized chemical team comprised of smoke, decon, and
NBC recon elements would be best placed under the control of each
committed forward maneuver element.
Continuity of Operations
Chemical unit operations in
support of maneuver forces should be collocated with and controlled
from the tactical operations center or tactical command posts
of the supported unit. Maneuver battalions and higher echelons
operate at least two command and control facilities to provide
redundancy if one is destroyed. Additionally, the command posts
move their locations frequently. Supporting chemical units must
be prepared to operate in a like manner. Chemical units need to
make the maximum use of liaison officers.
At the chemical company level,
the company commander and his operations officer are responsible
for coordinating with the supported unit. The company commander
positions himself near the supported unit's main command post.
At the chemical battalion level, the battalion commander needs
to establish their command post near the supported unit's main
command post. The chemical battalion also positions liaison officers
in the supported unit's main and tactical command posts. The chemical
brigade establishes their command post at the corps main command
post. Liaison officers are positioned at the corps main
and tactical command post. The brigade commander will position
himself on the battlefield where he can best influence chemical
support to the corps.
Chemical unit command and
control, as well as the conduct of planning and operations, must
provide the safeguarding of both classified and unclassified information.
Intelligence indicators susceptible to hostile exploitation must
be identified and eliminated or controlled to protect military
activities and to achieve security of the force.
Sources of information that
require protection include communications, informative patterns
and signatures - visual, acoustic, electronic, infrared - and stereotyped
administrative and tactical procedures. Any source could signal
friendly plans and readiness postures to hostile observers.
Communications play a critical
part in command and control. Considering the battlefield area,
distances over which chemical units will operate, and the threat
capabilities, leaders must know communications and available communications
equipment. The enemy will use all available means to disrupt,
exploit, or destroy our ability to communicate.
is a command responsibility. Each chemical commander is responsible
for establishing communications with the lower headquarters and
with the unit being supported.
The communications section
of chemical brigade and battalion headquarters and each chemical
company is organized and equipped to install, operate, and maintain
the unit's communications system.
Mobile subscriber equipment
(MSE). MSE is
the area common-user voice communications system in the corps.
MSE provides voice and data communications from the corps rear
boundary to the maneuver battalion main command posts.
All chemical units are equipped with MSE down to company level.
- Secure telephone service.
- Secure facsimile service.
- Secure mobile radiotelephone
- Secure data transmission.
- Combat net radio (CNR) network
MSE users are responsible
for installing, operating, and maintaining their subscriber terminal
equipment. Users are responsible for connecting and maintaining
the wire lines to the distribution boxes or remote multiplexer
combiner (RMC) installed by the supporting signal node. Subscriber
terminal equipment includes--
- TA-1035 Digital nonsecure
voice terminal (DNVT).
- TSEC/KY-68 Digital secure
voice terminal (DSVT).
- AN/UGC-144 Communications
- AN/UXC-7 Lightweight digital
- AN/VRC-97 Mobile subscriber
radiotelephone terminal (MSRT).
The corps and division signal
organizations establish a network of line-of-sight multichannel
radios and interconnected local and long-distance switching nodes.
This provides an area coverage for the division and corps areas.
MSE user need only to dial up and communicate with any discretely
addressed MSE subscriber.
Mobile Users. When using the
MSRT, the user gains access into the network through radio access
units (RAU). Each RAU has a planning range of 15 km radius area
coverage. As the mobile subscriber moves across the battlefield,
affiliation is automatically maintained as he moves from one RAUs
area to another. If he is using the MSRT at the time he changes
from one RAU to another, the conversation is terminated and he
must redial to reestablish the communication.
Static Users. Static terminal
users gain access into the network through large extension node
switch (LENS) or small extension node switch (SENS). A LENS can
support up to 176 subscribers and are normally associated with
COSCOM, DISCOM, corps main, or division main CPs. The SENS provides
access for either 26 or 41 subscribers depending on it equipment.
These are normally established with corps combat CPs (ACR, FA
Bale, ADA Bale). The positioning of chemical unit headquarters
will be greatly affected by the positioning and availability of
LENS and SENS.
SINCGARS is the family
of VHF-FM radio sets that provides secure voice and data transmission
capability. These radios transmit over abroad frequency spectrum
using a frequency-hopping technique. SINCGARS replaces the VRC-12
series radios on a one-for-one basis.
Tactical FM communications
are the most frequent means of communicating within chemical battalions
and companies. Figures 4-1 and
4-2 show typical communication
nets for chemical brigades and battalions.
The chemical brigade tactical
operations center (TOC) has three sections: S2/S3, S1/S4, and
briefing tent (Figure 4-3). Modular frame tents are used for the S2/S3 and S1/S4 sections.
The chemical battalion tactical
operations center (TOC) has two sections: S2/S3 and S1/S4
(Figure 4-4). Modular frame tents are used for the S2/S3 and S1/S4 sections.
Company level organizations
do not establish tactical operations centers. Companies establish
command posts. Mechanized smoke companies are equipped with M577
armored command post vehicles. Other chemical companies set up
their command posts using tents.
Company CPs are the focal point of all tactical and logistical planning and execution in the company. The company commander may operate from this CP if his platoons are widely dispersed and are not directly under his control. If he is in direct control of his subordinate platoon, the commander must select the best location for controlling his elements.
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