FM 100-5, Operations,
is the capstone doctrine describing how the Army fights. It forms
the basis for Chemical Corps doctrine contained in this manual.
This chapter covers the basics of operational doctrine specifically
as it applies to NBC and smoke operations.
Army operations recognizes
the dynamics of combat power and its elements: maneuver, firepower,
protection, and leadership. The skillful combination of these
four elements at the right time and place will defeat the enemy.
Effective maneuver is the
first element of combat power. Commanders maneuver their forces
into positions of advantage over the enemy. The NBC defense system
will minimize the effect of NBC conditions on the force and allow
commanders to operate at high levels of effectiveness. However,
NBC contamination may decrease operational tempo by requiring
additional force protection measures. Commanders maneuver their
units under NBC conditions, minimizing degradation of soldiers
by using all available information to avoid contamination, and
using NBC protection measures when required.
Chemical units provide NBC
recon, decon, and generated smoke support. Chemical smoke conceals
movement of friendly forces and hinders enemy freedom of maneuver
and synchronization. Maneuver is also helped by contamination
avoidance and control.
The second element is firepower.
Commanders mass fires on the battlefield by rapidly positioning
weapon systems for concentrated fires on lucrative enemy targets.
The integration of smoke and obscurants disrupts and disorganizes
enemy forces. Smoke delivered by various means conceals our maneuver
and degrades enemy reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance
and target acquisitions (RISTA). Flame operations are also contributors
to combat power when used for countermobility or psychological
Protection, the third element
of combat power, includes NBC contamination avoidance and control,
NBC protection, and decon operations. The protection aspect of
NBC defense permits maximum mission performance with minimum casualties.
Units protect themselves by avoiding contamination whenever possible.
Contamination spread is limited so it presents the minimum possible
hazard to personnel. It has the minimum impact on operations;
and it allows the rapid resumption of routine operations.
Decon operations may permit
reduction in NBC protection levels, thereby increasing combat
power potential. Obscurants enhance protection by increasing force
survivability, lessening the chance of enemy detection.
The final element is leadership. Competent leaders at all levels ensure chemical units are fully integrated into the combined arms team. Chemical units give maneuver commanders the ability to see the battlefield better through timely NBC recon or by minimizing their risks through obscuration. Timely NBC advice helps maneuver commanders make critical choices within the enemy's decision cycle.
Chemical leaders ensure their
soldiers are well motivated, trained, and disciplined to withstand
the stress of the modern battlefield and serve as members of the
combined arms team.
The principles of war serve
as a guide for our forces. The principles have withstood the tests
of time, analysis, and practice. The principles of war include--
- Economy of force.
- Unity of command.
Decisive and attainable objectives
are central to any military operation. Leaders continue to recognize
the criticality of clearly defined objectives even as battlefield
conditions change with enemy use of WMD. Leaders and staff improve
their understanding of assigned missions by wargaming different
courses of action. Alternative scenarios, including NBC conditions,
are integrated into wargaming to ensure crucial contingencies
The principle of the offensive directly relates
to attaining a common objective. Leaders use initiative and apply
the principle of NBC contamination avoidance to maintain freedom
of action and achieve required results. In the spirit of the offensive,
leaders minimize the time their soldiers spend in full MOPP. Leaders
make intelligent decisions that effectively balance mission accomplishment
against expected threat.
Combined arms task forces
mass combat power at the decisive time and place. Effective and
timely use of hasty and deliberate smoke, NBC recon, and decon
are all combat multipliers. Obscuring the massing of our forces,
determining when and where to avoid contamination, and decontaminating
to retain flexibility of action support leader efforts to maintain
Leaders apply economy of force
in using minimum essential combat power for secondary efforts.
Commanders use deception, supported by hasty and deliberate smoke,
to achieve superiority at key places. NBC contamination avoidance
passive measures (for example, cover, concealment, dispersion)
also support economy of force. Leaders consider all available
lethal (flame) and nonlethal measures (smoke) to gain advantage
against an enemy.
Our maneuver is designed to
place an enemy in a position of disadvantage. We use organic and
attached NBC recon assets to find clean and contaminated areas.
Leaders use this information to exploit success and maintain freedom
of action. Smoke masks our movement, blinds and deceives the enemy.
In unity of command, task
force commanders use all assigned and attached assets. Chemical
combat support elements respond to the commander's intent. The
chemical unit leader prepares a plan that fully supports the mission.
Leaders make maximum use of all attached units, and subordinates
ensure that the intent is fulfilled through continuous application
of all combat power.
Security is similar to the
force protection component of combat power. Units battle-focus
training ensuring needed protective measures are integrated. Units
know they are proficient in operations under NBC conditions. Leaders,
(officers and NCOs) set the example and the standard in proficiency
on individual soldier survival tasks (for example, use and maintenance
of MOPP gear). Thorough preparation of units and leaders helps
to ensure the preservation of needed strength for critical times.
We surprise the enemy and
strike at a time, place, or manner, for which he is unprepared.
We use smoke and obscurants to confuse and deny the enemy information
and contribute to surprise. The enemy reacts slowly because our
forces are conceded under limited visibility conditions. This
allows us to strike quickly to affect decisively the outcome of
battle. We may also surprise an enemy with unexpected use of flame
on the battlefield.
Simplicity provides clear
and concise plans and orders to ensure rapid and thorough understanding.
Leaders and soldiers understand Army NBC defense doctrine of avoidance,
protection, and decon. Leaders ensure clarity in plans and orders.
Units conduct mission-essential training under simulated NBC conditions.
This supports stripping away any illusions in operations under
true NBC conditions. It supports a direct approach to the battlefield
environment. This approach will reduce the chances for misunderstanding
and confusion and support the principle of simplicity.
The Army develops combat power
by fighting according to the five tenets of Army operations: initiative,
agility, depth, synchronization, and versatility.
setting or changing the terms of battle by actions. It implies
an offensive spirit in the conduct of all operations, regardless
of the nature of the operation. Applied to individual soldiers
and leaders, it requires a willingness and ability to act independently
within the framework of the higher commander's intent. Leaders
are adept at determining their NBC defense needs and taking timely,
critical actions. Operations under NBC conditions cause individual
and unit degradation. Leaders anticipate mission requirements
and set appropriate protection levels. Effective use of NBC defense,
smoke, and flame enables task forces to steal the initiative from
the enemy or to keep him off balance. Leaders seek to exploit
any advantages offered by NBC conditions.
ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy. It is
the prerequisite for seizing and holding the initiative. Units
(and leaders) must be physically and psychologically capable of
responding to rapidly changing requirements. Chemical units are
task-organized to ensure rapid response to changing situations.
They shift support to the main effort with minimal delay through
reconfiguration and coordination. They are sustainable and responsive
to maneuver commanders at all echelons. Effective battlefield
reporting supports rapid responses to attacks. Flexibility and
decentralization of MOPP decisions support timely reaction to
enemy threats. Tailored force packages increase combat power.
extension of operations in space, time, and resources. Chemical
personnel and units provide support throughout the theater of
operations. To maintain momentum on a contaminated battlefield,
units avoid contamination using organic NBC recon capability or
they decontaminate to decrease MOPP for sustainment of combat
operations. Elasticity in the defense is achieved by using additional
combat multipliers, such as hasty or deliberate smoke, throughout
the depth of the battlefield.
management of battlefield activities in time, space, and purpose
to produce maximum relative combat power at the decisive point.
Commanders synchronize activities. They thereby produce synchronized
operations. Commanders integrate NBC recon, obscurants, and decon
support to reap the desired benefit at the desired time and place
and in the desired manner. Commanders ensure that the multiple
chemical activities spread across the battlefields have unity
of purpose with the rest of the force.
ability of units to meet diverse mission requirements. The ability
to execute other than war missions while retaining the capability
to execute wartime missions is critical. Chemical units and staffs
will find themselves involved in a wide range of missions across
the range of military operations. During combat operations chemical
staffs and units must be prepared to rapidly change focus and
move from one area to another to execute their missions.
The theater strategic environment
consists of a variety of conditions - political, economic, military
- and a range of threats that result in a wide range of operations
that correspondingly occur in response to those conditions and
threats. The Army operates in three diverse states: peacetime,
conflict, and war. Army activities during peacetime and conflict
are classified as operations other than war (OOTW). The last state
- war - involves the use of force in combat operations against
an armed enemy.
Peacetime is a state wherein
political, informational, and military measures, economic, short
of combat operations or active support to warring parties, are
used to achieve national objectives. Within this state, US forces
may conduct joint training exercises to demonstrate resolve, conduct
peacekeeping operations, participate in nation-building activities,
conduct disaster relief and humanitarian assistance, provide security
assistance to friends and allies, or execute shows of force.
Conflict is an armed struggle
or clash between organized parties within a nation or between
nations in order to achieve limited political or military objectives.
While regular forces are often involved, irregular forces frequently
predominate. Conflict is often protracted, confined to a restricted
geographic area, and contained in weaponry and level of violence.
Within this state, military power (in response to threats) may
be exercised indirectly while supporting other elements of national
power. Within this state US forces may conduct attacks and raids,
participate in peacekeeping operations, execute counternarcotics
operations, or support foreign internal defense activities. Limited
objectives may be achieved by the short, focused, and direct application
Conflict also describes situations
where continuing clashes or crises occur over boundary disputes
and water territorial claims. Conflict also describes situations
in which opposing political factions engage in military actions
to gain control of political leadership within a nation. In the
future, potential exists for crises and clashes in space. As the
amount of forces, frequency of battles, number of nations, levels
of violence are increased and sustained over an extended period,
or when the sovereignty of a nation is threatened, conflict approaches
the threshold of a state of war.
In low-intensity conditions,
the use of CB weapons will be primarily oriented towards achieving
political or psychological objectives. The primary threat will
be a single attack, or a small number of attacks, for the following
- Recognition. Terrorist groups
may use CB weapons for shock effect to gain national or international
recognition of a cause. The use of NBC weapons will attract a
strong amount of media attention.
- Coercion. Terrorist groups
may use selective, small-scale CB attacks or the threat of NBC
attacks to obtain revision of a government policy through fear.
- Provocation. Government, military,
or police activities may be attacked with CB weapons to provoke
heavy-handed reaction on the part of government forces.
- Intimidation. The threat or
use of CB weapons may prevent individuals or groups from acting
against terrorist or insurgency groups. Security forces may be
afraid to act if they fear reprisal with CB weapons.
- Insurgency support. The use
or threat of CB weapons use may cause a government to overextend
by trying to protect both its urban and rural areas. This may
facilitate insurgency operations against thinly-spread military
and police forces.
A wide variation exists in
the types of weaponry used in low-intensity conflict (LIC). Modern
weapons may be obtained from other nations. Chemical and biological
weapons may be fabricated by the attackers. Existing industrial
facilities may be sabotaged to create a hazard or discredit a
Chemical units and NBC production
and storage facilities must be protected against attack by terrorists
Terrorists may attack civilian
populations and/or host country forces. US security assistance
forces may give assistance by intelligence, warning, provision
of NBC protective equipment, and decon. Terrorist or insurgent
groups (unidentified) could also use CB weapons to create fear
War is sustained armed conflict
between nations or organized groups within a nation. Regular and
irregular forces are involved in a series of connected battles
and campaigns to achieve vital national objectives. War may be
limited by self-imposed restraints on resources or objectives.
It may also be general having the total resources of a nation
or nations used and national survival at stake. War can also range
from high- to low-intensity in nature. Within these states US
forces may conduct conventional war or execute strategic offensive
Conditions in conflict or war may cause US forces to face large, rapidly maneuvering battlefield formations equipped with sophisticated weapons, operating over extended time and distance.
Advanced weapons systems technology
provides the capacity to acquire, track, classify, and attack
targets at ranges unattainable in previous conflicts. Communications
and artificial intelligence systems enhance the ability of command
and control elements to maneuver large forces rapidly.
NBC weapons added to an already
large array of highly lethal weapons challenge us to protect the
force, maintain freedom of maneuver, and sustain operations.
In mid- to high-intensity
conditions NBC weapons are used primarily to achieve the maximum
military effect. Enemy goals for use of NBC weapons in mid-to
high-intensity warfare may be to...
- Cause the collapse of morale
and paralysis of will.
- Cause tactical problems and
create mass casualties.
- Degrade battle command and
NBC warfare may be initiated
at the onset of hostilities to increase shock effect and achieve
rapid breakthrough and demoralization of defending forces. NBC
warfare may not be used initially, but if defending forces are
successful in slowing or stopping an attack, a combatant may resort
to an NBC attack to help regain the initiative and restore the
momentum of the attack. If defending forces counterattack and
threaten the attacker's operational and strategic objectives,
the attacker may use NBC weapons to halt the defender's progress
and regain the offensive.
The weaponry used will vary,
depending on the adversary and the circumstances surrounding the
conflict. Enemies may use World War I vintage agents, such as
mustard. They may use ultra-lethal chemical agents, genetically-engineered
biological agents, toxins, or nuclear weapons. They can deliver
these weapons by mortars, artillery, surface-to-surface missiles,
aircraft, special operations forces, vectors, clandestine operations,
or sapper/saboteur emplacement.
The outcome of battles, major
operations, and campaigns depends ultimately on the success in
synchronizing deep, close, and rear operations. Chemical staffs
and units participate at all echelons in the planning and coordination
process to ensure these operations support the overall battle.
Close operations at any echelon
comprise the current activities of major committed combat elements,
and their immediate combat support (CS) and combat service support
(CSS). As part of close operations, chemical units operate either
integrated into a committed unit or in support of it.
Deep operations at any echelon
comprise activities directed against enemy forces not in contact,
but designed to influence the conditions in which future close
operations will be conducted. Deep operations often include assets
other than ground maneuver forces. In this case the chemical staff
provides input for fire support operations to the commander. Integrating
smoke, obscurant, and conventional fires to support deep operations
reduces the enemy's operational tempo, disrupts his battlefield
synchronization, and upsets his timetables. The synergistic effect
of combined smoke and conventional weapons use disrupts the enemy's
battle plan and slows enemy actions.
Whenever ground forces conduct
deep operations, NBC recon assets monitor routes necessary to
support the action. The NBC recon platoon can conduct NBC recon
for deep operations. However, the NBC recon element should be
augmented either by a scout team or combat team to provide security.
Security is essential to ensure survivability in deep operations.
Rear operations comprise activities
rearward of elements in contact. Rear operations are designed
to assure freedom of maneuver and continuity of operations, including
continuity of sustainment and command and control. All of these
operations require protection. NBC protection of fixed sites and
mission-essential personnel (US and host nation) is a significant
requirement for ensuring sustained operations. NBC-hardened protective
shelters ensure critical battle command functions are unimpeded
by NBC attacks. Chemical units support protection of rear-area
facilities by providing smoke and decon support. Additionally,
NBC recon support provides important intelligence information
on the presence or absence of contamination.
Psychological operations (PSYOP)
area vital part of modern military and political power. When fully
coordinated with tactical/operational/strategic military planning
and effectively integrated into the military decision-making process,
PSYOP enhance combat power. Psychological operations are defined
as planned operations to convey selected information and indicators
to foreign audiences. Such operations are designed to influence
emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior
of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.
The purpose of PSYOP is to induce or reinforce foreign attitudes
and behavior favorable to the originator's objective. In NBC warfare,
psychological impact on the enemy can be obtained by emphasis
on US defense capability and threat of retaliation as deterrents,
as well as by weapons. Such effects can be supplemented and enhanced
by PSYOP. So, PSYOP is a combat multiplier. For implementation
of PSYOP under NBC conditions, refer to FM 33-1.
The mission of the Chemical Corps is to protect the force and allow the Army to fight and win under NBC conditions. The Corps does this by developing doctrine, equipment, and training for NBC defense, which serve as a deterrence to any enemy possessing weapons of mass destruction. The Chemical Corps also provides the Army with the combat multipliers of smoke, obscurant, and flame capabilities.
The nature of war on the today's
battlefield poses great challenges. High- and mid-intensity battlefields
will be chaotic, intense, and highly destructive. Low-intensity
conflicts may pit US forces against irregular or unconventional
forces, enemy special operations forces, or terrorists anywhere
in the world. Any of these conflicts may lead to biological warfare
and/or chemical warfare. It could escalate into nuclear warfare.
Chemical staffs and units
work to restore, maintain, and/or increase combat power on this
battlefield. Chemical Corps missions include --
- Battle management.
- NBC Defense.
- Nonlethal operations.
- Smoke and obscurants.
Historically, the US Army
Chemical Corps fought successfully in past wars and performed
its battlefield functions. Army operations doctrine now places
even greater demands upon the Chemical Corps to support military
Battle management is the integration
of battlefield assessment and risk analysis with NBC warning and
reporting, chemical unit operations, and nuclear operations. The
chemical advisor manages NBC operational elements to support the
commander's concept of operations. He assists the intelligence
section in evaluating friendly and enemy vulnerabilities. He manages
the NBC warning and reporting system to develop a picture of battlefield
hazards. He recommends use of chemical units. He assists in the
preparation of nuclear fire plans to support the battle. He assists
in potential collateral damage prediction/assessment from NBC
weapons use. Chapter 3 describes battle management.
NBC defense includes all measures
to minimize casualties and enhance unit effectiveness under NBC
conditions. These measures may be proactive or reactive in nature.
They include contamination avoidance and control, protection,
and decon. A sound program of NBC defense forms a key part of
the US deterrent posture. Chapter 4 discusses the principles of
The use of riot control agents
and other nonlethal materials provides combat commanders an alternative
to the use of lethal force. This alternative is very attractive
in OOTW, where the use of lethal force is neither desirable nor
acceptable. The use of riot control agents is specified by Executive
Order 11850 and the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plans (JSCP).
Chemical staffs and units provide both technical and tactical
expertise on the use of riot control agents, herbicides, and other
nonlethal materials. Chapter 5 describes the use of riot control
agents and herbicides.
Smoke and obscurants are combat
multipliers. They deny the enemy critical data, interfere with
enemy weapon systems, and deceive the enemy about friendly intentions
and activities. Man-made smoke combines with natural obscurants
to defeat or degrade visual and thermal signals. Chapter 5 describes
smoke and obscurant use and countermeasures.
Flame is a point and area
effects weapon with physical and psychological impact. Its damage
continues and compounds after the initial burst. Forces on the
battlefield use flame weapons and flame field expedient devices
in offensive and defensive operations as well as military operations
on urban terrain (MOUT). Chapter 5 also discusses flame use and
The commander uses a variety
of combat fictions to build and sustain combat power. He must
integrate and coordinate these functions to achieve the desired
battlefield effects. Chemical missions must be integrated into
each combat fiction for successful execution of combined-arms
operations. The combat functions are...
- Fire support.
- Mobility and survivability.
- Air defense.
- Battle command.
Combat functions are tools
to describe functions on the battlefield. These operating systems
should not be confused with Army branches or proponents. Despite
the familiar branch-oriented terminology of these seven functions,
each includes activities performed by many segments of the force.
The various activities within the force are responsible for performing
functions in several or all of the functions in the execution
of assigned missions.
Intelligence collection and
the intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) effort require agile
and flexible systems and units. These systems and units locate
and attack the threat in support of close, deep, and rear operations.
The intelligence combat function
includes functions that generate knowledge of the enemy, weather,
and terrain. The commander uses this knowledge in planning and
conducting combat operations. The intelligence officer, in coordination
with the chemical staff officer, develops priority intelligence
requirements (PIRs) and information requirements (IRs) needed
to collect information on enemy NBC, obscurant, and flame capabilities
During battle management activities
the chemical staff advisor works with the G2 or S2 on the intelligence
preparation of the battlefield (IPB). Potential targets the enemy
may attack with WMD are identified in the area of operations.
The chemical staff coordinates with the intelligence officer to
analyze and identify enemy chemical targets based on threat, terrain,
and area of operations. Potential threat chemical targets could
be key terrain, chokepoints, command and control facilities, counterattack
routes, mobility corridors, and rear area. The general situation
statement that the enemy will use persistent chemical agents on
the flanks and nonpersistent chemical agents in forward areas
does not provide the commander with a good understanding of the
Another battle management
tool is the NBC warning and reporting system. This system helps
develop a comprehensive picture of enemy NBC use.
NBC defensive procedures may
also yield information for the intelligence combat function. Units
conduct NBC recon to identify required unit actions or posture.
This recon also collects data needed to assess enemy use. Recon
units detect, identify and mark NBC contamination. They collect
samples of suspected NBC agents. They gather meteorological and
terrain data. This information feeds into the intelligence system.
The chemical staff and the G2 or S2 use this information to predict
The maneuver combat function
is the use of forces on the battlefield. Maneuver is accomplished
through movement and direct fires in combination with fire support
or fire potential. Maneuver enables friendly ground forces to
gain a tactical advantage over enemy ground forces. Maneuver elements
of a force operate with the intention of moving into positions
where they can bring their direct and indirect fires to bear on
the enemy with the greatest effectiveness.
Friendly forces may have to
move, engage the enemy, or control terrain under NBC conditions.
The chemical staff advisor uses battle management techniques to
develop a picture of NBC hazards on the battlefield. He analyzes
friendly vulnerability to enemy NBC weapons. The maneuver commander
takes proactive and reactive measures to reduce vulnerability
to these weapons. He implements contamination avoidance and control.
He applies appropriate protection to maintain maximum combat power
against the enemy with acceptable risk. Should his unit become
contaminated, he will restore combat power and reduce further
casualties by decon.
The commander uses obscurants
to enhance survivability during movement. Obscurants can improve
relative combat power during engagements by diverting enemy resources
or degrading enemy weapon systems. Obscurants support the occupation
of fighting and support positions by denying enemy intelligence.
Obscurant countermeasures support movement and direct fire engagements
by providing friendly intelligence and fire control measures.
Flame and incendiary weapons
are also used against selected targets to engage enemy forces.
Flame weapons (for example, flame field expedients) can be used
to restrict terrain to the enemy by controlling its use through
direct fire or fire potential.
In the direct fire battle
under NBC conditions, commanders must consider the following factors:
- Attacks will take longer.
- Firing rates decline.
- More soldiers are required
for a successful attack.
- Units experience more difficulty
in locating and identifying targets.
- Units are less effective in
using terrain for cover and concealment.
The fire support function
is the collective and coordinated use of target acquisition data,
indirect-fire weapons, armed aircraft (fixed- and rotary-wing),
and other lethal or nonlethal means against ground targets in
support of maneuver force operations. The fire support plan is
integrated into the scheme of maneuver consistent with the commander's
intent. To achieve integration, the commander and his staff, with
the advice and expertise of the unit fire support coordinator
(FSCOORD), must think in terms of the total systems available
to include nuclear munitions.
The commander allocates fire
support systems to support his maneuver elements and preserve
freedom of maneuver. The FSCOORD recommends the allocation of
systems and organizations according to METT-T. When authorized,
friendly forces may use nuclear weapons to cause casualties, restrict
terrain, or reduce enemy effectiveness.
NBC defense supports the fire
support combat function by enhancing the survivability of fire
support elements. Contamination avoidance measures, such as detection
and NBC recon, reduce the likelihood of exposure to NBC hazards.
Appropriate levels of protective posture reduce the impact of
attack. Rapid decon restores unit effectiveness.
The commander also uses artillery-
or mortar-delivered smoke to mark targets and counter enemy target
acquisition systems. Large-area smoke enhances survivability by
concealing firing positions. Smoke also conceals the visual signature
of firing and counters enemy flash and sound ranging procedures.
However, smoke does not counter threat weapons-locating radar.
Studies show that units rely
more heavily on indirect fire support under NBC conditions. In
these conditions an attack takes longer. Personnel conducting
the attack perceive that their direct fire is less effective.
They call for fire more often. Further, the degradation of speech
and hearing in MOPP results in longer times to complete calls
for fire. Increased fire support response times still result when
personnel remain in MOPP3/4 even when digital communications from
observer to fire direction center to guns is used. As a result
the fire support, combat function takes on added importance for
combat operations under NBC conditions.
Mobility and survivability
operations preserve freedom of maneuver of friendly forces. This
operating system also includes measures taken to remain viable
and functional by protection from the effects of enemy weapon
systems and natural occurrences. This combat function also includes
functions to enhance the effectiveness of friendly weapon systems
by channeling the enemy, stopping or slowing his movement.
Battle management and NBC
defensive principles are key to supporting the mobility and survivability
combat functions. Leaders implement contamination avoidance measures
to reduce casualties and to avoid burdensome protective posture.
Units use protective measures such as deception, OPSEC, and dispersion
to reduce the likelihood of enemy NBC attack. They use MOPP, NBC
defensive equipment, and collective protection equipment (CPE)
to avoid or reduce casualties. NBC recon enhances friendly force
mobility by identifying hazards. Recon elements detect, identify,
and mark NBC obstacles. They use the warning and reporting system
to notify friendly units of NBC hazards. When notified, friendly
units take appropriate protective measures to reduce risk. If
they become contaminated, they conduct immediate decon of skin
and personal equipment. This is followed by further decon as required
to accomplish the mission.
Units conducting countermobility
operations emplace obstacles to canalize, slow, or stop the enemy.
These obstacles could include flame weapons and flame field expedient
devices. In some cases the obstacle may be further contaminated
with persistent chemical agent to increase breaching difficulties.
Similarly, chemical fires on units conducting breaching operations
force them into a burdensome protective posture. Following the
breach these units must decontaminate or fight while contaminate
Throughout these actions friendly forces use smoke and other obscurants
to deceive the enemy or conceal friendly operations.
Air defense as a combat function
includes all measures designed to prevent or reduce the effect
of attack or recon by hostile aircraft, missiles, or unmanned
aerial vehicles (UAVs) - on the ground or in the air. An artillery
strike on an enemy air base is a function of air defense operations.
The chemical staff advisor
uses battle management to provide an overall picture of NBC hazards
on the battlefield. He also determines the vulnerability of friendly
units. These factors aid the commander in positioning his air
defense units. NBC defensive procedures enhance survivability
and effectiveness of these units.
Smoke curtains used 2 to 3
kilometers from friendly positions can complicate targeting. Aircraft
at speeds of 500 knots or greater need a minimum of 4 kilometers
of unobstructed line of sight to acquire the target. Smoke curtains
used with natural obstacles prevent aircraft from vectoring targets
with on-board weapon guidance systems. Air defense systems requiring
visual acquisition (Vulcan/Stinger) are located, at minimum, 2
kilometers from the smoke screen or on the high ground overlooking
the smoke screen. Smoke screens can silhouette low-flying helicopters/aircraft
for visual acquisition.
Commanders also use smoke
and obscurants in valleys and nap-of-earth approaches to restrict
enemy use of airspace. In some cases air defense units use flame
weapons and devices to defend their positions.
Logistics provides support
and assistance to sustain the force. This support is primarily
in the fields of logistics, personnel services, and health services.
The logistics combat function also includes functions to build
and maintain lines of communications and facilities. Sustaining
the fight requires all CSS elements to adhere to the sustainment
imperatives of anticipation, integration, continuity, responsiveness,
and improvisation. Logistics supports close, deep, and rear operations
simultaneously. Commanders integrate CSS units into the battle
command system so they can shift support effort to the critical
place and time to weight the battle.
Battle management helps commanders
identify and avoid NBC hazards on the battlefield. NBC defensive
procedures limit exposure to NBC attacks. These procedures also
protect personnel and supplies from NBC contamination. Where protection
is not possible, NBC defense calls for decon of necessary materiel
to continue the fight.
CSS units conduct their basic
functions of sustaining, manning, arming, fueling, fixing, transporting,
and protecting under the concealment of obscurants. Obscurants
allow them to continue operations to support the force.
Many logistics functions become
more of a burden under NBC conditions. Medical units must implement
systems to treat and evacuate casualties. Commands identify functions
and services available from host nation assets. US units train
and equip mission-essential personnel, both US and host nation,
to ensure survival.
The command and control system
enables the commander to prioritize and allocate assets to use
and sustain combat power. It is a tool that enables him to transform
potential combat capabilities into combat power.
The command and control system
- Is flexible, redundant, and
survivable to synchronize combat operations and requirements for
CS and CSS.
- Allows the commander to sense
clearly the total battle and then transmit orders to adjust quickly
and take advantage of a threat weakness.
- Is responsive throughout the
area of operations, controlling units in close, deep, and rear
- Provides the commander with
a capability to move and mass his combat power in a manner that
helps the destruction of the threat before he can mass.
Battle management of NBC functions
supports battle command by providing needed timely information
to the commander. Battle management provides a current picture
of NBC hazards and vulnerabilities. It provides battlefield information
to direct NBC defense, nonlethal, and smoke operations.
The commander's decisions
on NBC defensive measures, such as operational exposure guidance
(OEG), MOPP levels, and decon go through the battle command system.
Some NBC defensive principles apply directly to the commander's
actions. For example, under NBC conditions leaders must carefully
pace themselves, delegate responsibilities, and observe a strict
work-and-rest regimen. These procedures preclude dehydration and
heat stress that might result in poor performance or physical
Other NBC defensive principles
that affect the entire unit, such as type and timing of decon,
stem from METT-T. Leaders must understand the principles to decide
when to decontaminate and at what level.
Leaders must also be prepared
for the stress and confusion created by enemy smoke and flame
operations. Command and control (C2) becomes more difficult
when smoke conceals key events. Similarly, the psychological impact
of flame weapons may also impact C2
must quickly implement countermeasures to reduce the impact of
enemy smoke and flame operations.
Although chemical operations
do not compose a combat function, NBC is a condition of warfare.
Forces conduct combat operations in the presence of enemy nuclear-,
biological-, or chemical-capable systems.
Under the threat of enemy
WMD, the commander must implement NBC defensive measures. Some
of these measures impact his available combat power. For example,
on the nuclear-threatened battlefield the commander weighs the
advisability of massing or dispersing his forces. Massing increases
his immediate combat power but presents a good target for enemy
WMD. Dispersion reduces his vulnerability to NBC strikes but increases
his risk of defeat in detail by conventional forces and challenges
his command and control system.
In a similar manner the commander may respond to a chemical or biological threat by directing his personnel to don MOPP. MOPP provides protection against chemical or biological hazards, but degrades combat effectiveness. Chapters 3 and 4 describe vulnerability analysis and the principles of NBC defense.
When friendly nuclear weapons
have been released, the commander may use them to isolate a unit's
close operations area and destroy, divert, or halt movement of
enemy reinforcements. Nuclear weapons can also defeat and disrupt
follow-on echelons and create offensive opportunities. JP 3-12,
FM 100-30 and FM 101-31-1 describe nuclear operations.
Limited visibility will also
be a battlefield condition. Both sides will use smoke and obscurants
to enhance combat power and reduce the enemy's combat power. Relative
combat power may be changed directly by diverting resources or
indirectly by changing the effectiveness of friendly and enemy
weapon systems. Forces will also use flame weapons to increase
combat power. Chapter 5 describes smoke/obscurant use and countermeasures,
flame operations and defense.
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