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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Office of the Press Secretary Beijing
For Immediate Release                    June 27, 1998


The agreements reached between the United States and China as part of President Clinton's visit build on the achievements of the October 1997 summit between Presidents Clinton and Jiang Zemin, deepen cooperation between the two countries on a broad range of issues and contribute toward a more stable, secure, open and prosperous world.

NONPROLIFERATION AND SECURITY: The United States and China confirm their common goal to halt the spread of weapons of mass destruction.

Enhancing Controls

  • Non-targeting. Presidents Clinton and Jiang announced that the United States and China will not target strategic nuclear weapons under their respective control at each other.
  • Missiles. The United States welcomed China's statement that it attaches importance to issues related to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and missile nonproliferation and that it has begun to actively study joining the MTCR. The United States and China will continue consultations on MTCR issues later in this year.
  • Chemical Weapons. China and the United States will further strengthen their controls on the export of dual-use chemicals and related production equipment and technology to assure they are not used for production of chemical weapons. China has announced that it has expanded the list of chemical precursors which it controls.
  • Biological Weapons. Presidents Clinton and Jiang issued a joint statement calling for strengthening of the Biological Weapons Convention and early conclusion of a protocol establishing a practical and effective compliance mechanism and improving transparency.
  • Anti-Personnel Landmines. Presidents Clinton and Jiang issued a joint statement affirming their commitment to ending the export and indiscriminate use of anti-personnel landmines and to accelerating global humanitarian demining.
  • End-Use Visits. The United States and China agreed on practices for end-use visits on U.S. high technology exports to China; this agreement will establish a framework for such exports to China.
Political and Security Dialogues
  • Communications. Presidents Clinton and Jiang inaugurated the direct Presidential link in May and affirmed its utility for consultation on important global, regional and bilateral political, security and economic issues. They also agreed to continue regular summit meetings.
  • Regional Stability. Presidents Clinton and Jiang issued a joint statement on their shared interest in a peaceful and stable South Asia and a strong global nonproliferation regime. The United States and China agreed to intensify dialogue on security issues and coordinate efforts to strengthen peace and stability in that region, as well as the Korean peninsula and the Middle East.
Military-to-Military Relations
  • Military Maritime Consultative Agreement. The United States and China will hold in July the first annual meeting under the auspices of the Military Maritime Consultative Agreement, whose goal will be to promote safety in naval and air operations, and to avoid incidents at sea.
  • Exchange of Observers. The United States and Chinese militaries agreed to send personnel in the near future to observe a joint training exercise of the other side on the basis of reciprocity. The size, location and timing of the exercise will be discussed and decided by the two sides.
  • Disaster Response. The United States and Chinese militaries expressed satisfaction with the exchanges recently conducted in the area of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief and intend to continue cooperation in this area. As a next step, the United States and Chinese militaries agreed to hold a bilateral humanitarian relief 'sand table' seminar game at the earliest opportunity. The exact timing, location, size and format of the game, as well as further steps in bilateral cooperation, will be discussed and decided by the two sides.
  • Environmental Security. The United States and Chinese militaries reached an agreement to conduct cooperation and exchange in the area of military environmental protection and security. The two sides are preparing to sign a relevant memorandum to facilitate such cooperation and exchanges.
HUMAN RIGHTS: The United States and China affirm their commitment to the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. While the two countries have differences on human rights, they agree that candid dialogue is an important element for resolving those differences. The United States welcomes China's announcement that it will sign in the fall the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and that it Cultural Rights to the National People's Congress for ratification.
  • Religious Freedom. The United States and Chinese governments will encourage continued exchanges among officials and religious figures to deepen understanding on issues involving the role of religion in each country.
  • Dialogues. Senior officials of the U.S. States Department and Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs will resume a dialogue on human rights, holding the next round of discussions in the second half of 1998. American and Chinese organizations involved with human rights issues will convene a forum for non-official discussions in the second half of 1998.
ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL: The United States and China will promote economic stability and growth in East Asia, enhance economic and technical cooperation, and deepen commercial ties.
  • Trade Relations. WTO accessions negotiations continue and while some progress has been made, more negotiations will be necessary to resolve differences. The next round of talks is scheduled for the week of July 20 in Geneva.
  • Regional Economic Developments. The United States and China held consultations on the situation in Asia's financial markets and will continue such discussions in the coming months. The United States welcomed China's commitment to maintaining the stability of the exchange rate of the renminbi.
  • China's Domestic Economic Reform Program. The United States government, businesses and other private sector groups will work with China to identify technical cooperation programs on commercialization of the housing market and development of social security, pension benefits, and insurance programs.
  • Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT). The United States will host the 12th session of the JCCT in Washington, D.C. during September 1998.
  • State and Non-State Enterprise Forum. The United States and Chinese governments will hold a conference in early 1999 on the role and functioning of market disciplines bringing together representatives of the U.S. private sector and of the Chinese non-state and state sectors.
  • Multi-Agency Infrastructure Mission. To expand cooperation on infrastructure development, China's Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation, State Development and Planning Commission, and State Economic and Trade Commission, will host a U.S. multi-agency mission to China in early 1999. The mission will be led by Commerce Secretary Daley.
  • Electronic Commerce and Internet Applications. The United States and China, working with the telecommunications organizations in each country, will conduct a series of exchanges, seminars and discussions on electronic commerce and the applications of Internet technologies. The benefits of these technologies might be demonstrated in such areas as weather forecasting, information dissemination, distance learning and telemedicine.
  • Aviation Infrastructure Initiative. The United States and China agreed to enter into a five-year aviation initiative that will focus on aviation safety and training, airport development and management, and airspace management through modern air traffic control systems, in addition to the procurement of new efficient transport aircraft. This initiative will recognize the need for China to expand its aviation infrastructure to accommodate the additional transport aircraft required for China's continued economic development and demand for passenger and cargo air transport.
  • Commercial Cooperation. United States firms and Chinese entities have signed contracts in the areas of energy and environment, aviation, medical equipment and other sectors.
  • Labor Dialogue. The Labor Ministers of the United States and China will undertake reciprocal visits in the near future to exchange views and information on policies and issues related to labor markets and core labor standards, including, for example, issues such as employment creation policies, labor market training programs, labor statistics, social safety net for workers, health and safety, and labor law reform.
  • Joint Economic Committee. The United States and China agreed on the value of regular dialogue on economic issues in the context of the U.S. - China Joint Economic Committee (JEC), and agreed that the next meeting of the JEC would take place in Beijing in 1999. Following up on the last JEC meeting in May, the U.S. Treasury Department has agreed to lead an experts mission to Beijing to discuss how the United States and China might share information and know-how regarding financial reform.
ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT: The United States and China established a number of programs to address environmental degradation, cleaner uses of energy, and climate change.
  • Climate Change. Under the auspices of the Environment and Development Forum and in conjunction with the Framework Convention on Climate Change, senior-level experts of the United states and China will initiate a dialogue on climate change.
  • Energy and Environment Cooperation. In implementation of the U.S.-China Energy and Environment Cooperation Initiative, which is an outgrowth of the Environment and Development Forum and was agreed upon by Presidents Clinton and Jiang in October 1997, the United States and China are taking the following steps:
    1. The United States and China will cooperate on Phase One of China's Nationwide Air Quality Monitoring Network, using U.S. equipment and a technical assistance grant from the Environmental Protection Agency.
    2. United States firms and Chinese entities signed contracts in the energy and environment area, including agreements for two power projects and three coal bed methane exploration contracts.
    3. The Oil and Gas Industry Forum will hold its first meeting in Beijing in November 1998 to promote cooperation between industry and government representatives of the two countries on domestic Chinese and international oil and gas development issues.
    4. The United States and China will hold an energy finance conference in September 1998 in Beijing to promote trade and investment by U.S. firms in China's energy sector.
  • Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. The United States and China concluded an agreement on cooperation concerning peaceful uses of nuclear technologies.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: The United States and China will expand cooperation in the areas of health sciences and natural resource management. These efforts also support the work of the U.S.-China Environment and Development Forum.
  • Fighting Disease. The U.S.-China Health Protocol is being renewed to continue cooperation in a range of areas, particularly child health issues such as combating birth defects, disabilities and health hazards due to environmental factors. The U.S. Center for Disease Control and Beijing Medical University are signing the said agreement for joint research into the health impacts of environmental hazards.
  • Water Resources Conservation. The United States and China will launch a water resource management initiative beginning with a workshop in the United States in the second half of 1998 to coordinate more closely bilateral cooperation in water resource development and management with the aim of promoting effective utilization and sustainable development of water resources and developing business opportunities in both countries.
  • Marine Resources Conservation and Natural Disaster Reduction. The U.S. National Oceans and Atmospheric Administration and China's State Oceanic Administration will convene a bilateral conference on marine disaster forecasting and reduction and Integrated Coastal Management in the fall of 1998 to focus on algae blooms, environmentally safe navigation, oil exploration, marine construction, marine safety, coastal monitoring and natural disaster response.
  • Preserving Natural Resources. The U.S. National Park Service and China's National Park Agency have concluded a Memorandum of Understanding to undertake personnel exchanges and cooperated on park and natural resource management.
  • Endangered Species. The United States and China will enhance cooperation in conservation and the protection of endangered species. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Chinese State Forestry Administration will hold a conference in China in the fall of 1998 to share techniques for protecting endangered species.
  • Emergency Preparedness. The Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Chinese Ministry of Civil Affairs are actively discussing measures to cooperate on emergency preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation of the effects of disasters. The National Oceans and Atmospheric Administration and its Chinese counterparts are expanding cooperation in similar areas.
COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF LAW: The United States and China will cooperated on a broad range of programs designed to strengthen the rule of law and legal cooperation, as agreed between Presidents Clinton and Jiang in October 1997.
  • Judicial and Lawyer Training. The United States and China are expanding cooperation on legal education, beginning with a conference of U.S. and Chinese law deans held in Beijing on June 17-19. The United States and China will expand judicial exchanges, including a visit to China by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy, and will initiate judicial training seminars. The United States Information Service will support the preparation and translation of legal teaching materials from English to Chinese. The American Bar Association will undertake an extensive program of legal cooperation with Chinese counterparts.
  • Legal Protection of Human Rights. The United States and China will hold a symposium in November on the legal protection of human rights, including international human rights covenants, criminal procedure rights, legal protection of religious freedom, and other issues.
  • Administrative Law. The United States and China will undertake cooperative efforts in administrative law, which govern the way bureaucracies interact with ordinary citizens and businesses, beginning with a broad-ranging symposium involving decision-makers and academic experts on comparative administrative law.
  • Legal Aid for the Poor. In light of the Chinese government's efforts to initiate legal aid programs for the poor, the United States and China will cooperate in this area, beginning with a symposium in Beijing later this year.
  • Commercial Law and Arbitration. The United States and China will undertake exchanges on securities regulation, including a symposium of experts next year. Under the JCCT, the United States and China will hold seminars for Chinese officials and businesses on issues covering electronic commerce, corporate law and the judicial handling of commercial disputes. As a result of JCCT discussions The Chinese government has agreed to take steps to ensure that arbitration awards by foreign investors will be promptly enforced in local Chinese courts. A program will be developed to cooperate in the training of arbitrators.
LAW ENFORCEMENT: The United States and China will implement agreements to combat international crime and narcotics.
  • Fighting Crime. The United States and China concluded a memorandum of understanding establishing a law enforcement joint liaison group. The first meeting of the Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation was held on May 1998, bringing together the major law enforcement agencies on each side to develop closer working relationships in order to combat narcotics trafficking, alien smuggling, counterfeiting, and organized crime.
  • Fighting Drugs. Following the agreement reached by Presidents Clinton and Jiang in October 1997, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency and its Chinese counterparts are assigning counternarcotics officers to their respective embassies in Beijing and Washington.
  • Judicial Assistance. The United States and China will begin negotiations of a mutual legal assistance agreement in criminal matters in September 1998.
PEOPLE-TO-PEOPLE-EXCHANGES: The United States and China will implement cultural and educational programs to increase interaction between our two societies.
  • Peace Corps. The United States and China agreed to sign a country agreement on the operations of the U.S. Peace Corps in China.
  • Student Exchanges. Students and teachers from high schools in the United States and China, under the auspices of Sister Cities International, will visit each other's countries for multiple week programs beginning in the year 2000 with a view to enhancing mutual understanding.
  • Exchange of Scholars. The Fulbright program will be expanded to include an academic lecturers' exchange program, under which distinguished scholars from the United States and China will give a series of lectures in one another's countries.
  • Education Agreement. The United States and China have agreed to renew the bilateral Education Protocol.
  • Book Donation. The United States Information Agency has arranged for a donation of 550 volumes of American studies books to the new American Studies Center at Beijing University.

Joint Statement
Biological Weapons Convention

Recognizing the threat posed by biological and toxin weapons, the United States and China reaffirm their strong support for the complete global elimination of biological weapons. As States Parties to the Biological Weapons Convention, the two sides stress the importance of the Convention to international peace and security, fully support the purposes and objectives of the Convention, and favor comprehensively strengthening the effectiveness and universality of the Convention.

The United States and China each reaffirm that they are determined to strictly abide by the provisions of the Convention, to earnestly and comprehensively fulfill the obligations each has undertaken, shall not develop, produce or stockpile biological weapons under any circumstances and shall oppose the prolifieration of biological weapons and their technology and equipment.

Both the United States and China support efforts to strengthen the effectiveness of the Convention, including the establishment of a practical and effective compliance mechanism. In this connection, the two sides positively appraise the work of the Ad Hoc Group set up for this purpose in negotiating a protocol to the Convention. The two sides believe the protocol must include efficient, practical and cost effective measures to deter proliferation or violation of the Convention and improve transparency. Appropriate measures should be formulated and implemented in a manner that takes into account protection of sensitive commercial information and legitimate security needs, and in light of relevant national laws and regulations. The two sides express their desire to cooperate in the negotiations and work together to further accelerate an early conclusion of the negotiations on the protocol.

The United States and China agree that they shall strive to enhance bilateral cooperation and exchanges in the field of bio-technology and vigorously engage in and promote the peaceful use of biological technology.

Joint Statement
Anti-Personnel Landmines

The United States and China reaffirm their commitment to ending the humanitarian crisis caused by the indiscriminate use of anti-personnel landmines (APL). They both maintain that efforts to eliminate the APL threat to civilians should be pursued consistent with national security requirements.

The United States and China recognize the importance of the Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Conventional Weapons in addressing humanitarian concerns resulting from the indiscriminate use of landmines. They agree to work toward the early ratification of the Amended Protocol and urge others to ratify it as well.

The United States and China agree to actively pursue at the Conference on Disarmament the commencement of negotiations on an anti-personnel landmines transfer/export ban by supporting the prompt establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee.

The United States and China commit to accelerate global humanitarian demining operations with the objective of eliminating the threat of anti-personnel landmines to civilians as soon as possible. The United States and China reaffirm their commitments to furnish demining assistance, which could include mine awareness, training in mine clearance, and technology for detection and clearance, through appropriate channels to affected countries with the objective of promoting their indigenous capacity for humanitarian demining.

Joint Statement
South Asia


Recent nuclear tests by India and Pakistan, and the resulting increase in tension between them, are a source of deep and lasting concern to both of us. Our shared interests in a peaceful and stable South Asia and in a strong global nonproliferation regime have been put at risk by these tests, which we have joined in condemning. We have agreed to continue to work closely together, within the P-5, the Security Council and with others, to prevent an accelerating nuclear and missile arms race in South Asia, strengthen international nonproliferation efforts, and promote reconciliation and the peaceful resolution of differences between India and Pakistan.

Preventing a Nuclear and Missile Race in South Asia

The P-5 Joint Communique of June 4, which was endorsed by UN Security Council Resolution 1172, sets out clear and comprehensive objectives and a plan for action to address the threat of South Asian nuclear and missile arms race. We pledge our full support for the steps outlined in the Joint Communique, and again call on India and Pakistan to stop all further nuclear tests and adhere immediately and unconditionally to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), to refrain from weaponization or deployment of nuclear weapons and from the testing or deployment of missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons, and to enter into firm commitments not to weaponize or deploy nuclear weapons or missiles capable of delivering them.

Strengthening Global Nonproliferation Cooperation

The United States and China remain firmly committed to strong and effective international cooperation on nuclear nonproliferation, with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as its cornerstone. We will continue to bolster global nuclear nonproliferation efforts, and reiterate that our goal is adherence of all countries, including India and Pakistan, to the NPT as it stands, without any modification. States that do not adhere to the Treaty cannot expect to be accorded the same benefits and international standing as are accorded to NPT parties. Notwithstanding their recent nuclear tests, India and Pakistan do not have the status of nuclear weapons states in accordance with the NPT.

We reaffirm our determination to fulfill our commitments relating to nuclear disarmament under Article VI of the NPT. To this end, both countries have signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and do not intend to resume nuclear testing.

We call for the prompt initiation and conclusion of negotiations in the Conference on Disarmament, on the basis of the 1995 agreed mandate, for a multilateral treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. We urge India and Pakistan to participate, in a positive spirit, in such negotiations with other states in the Conference on Disarmament with a view to reaching early agreement.

We both actively support the Strengthened Safeguards System now being implemented by the IAEA, and will promptly take steps to implement it in our countries.

Reducing Tensions and Encouraging the Peaceful Resolution of

Differences between India and Pakistan.

We are committed to assist where possible India and Pakistan to resolve peacefully the difficult and long-standing differences between them, including the issue of Kashmir. We welcome the resumption of dialogue between the two countries and encourage them to continue such dialogue, and we stand ready to assist in the implementation of confidence-building measures between them, and encourage the consideration of additional measures of this type.

Responsibilities of the United States and China

The United States and China have long sought friendly relations with both India and Pakistan. We reaffirm this goal and our hope that we can jointly and individually contribute to the achievement of a peaceful, prosperous, and secure South Asia. As P-5 members, and as states with important relationships with the countries of the region, we recognize our responsibility to contribute actively to the maintenance of peace, stability and security in the region, and to do all we can to address the root causes of tension.

We reaffirm that our respective policies are to prevent the export of equipment, materials or technology that could in any way assist programs in India or Pakistan for nuclear weapons or for ballistic missiles capable of delivering such weapons, and that to this end, we will strengthen our national export control systems.

Next Steps

Close coordination between the United States and China is essential to building strong international support behind the goals to which we are committed in response to nuclear testing by India and Pakistan. We will stay closely in touch on this issue, and will work with other members of the P-5 and the Security Council, with other Asian and Pacific countries, and with the broader international community to forestall further instability in South Asia, achieve a peaceful and mutually acceptable resolution of differences between India and Pakistan, and strengthen the global nonproliferation regime.

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