Typhoid: Biomedical Mechanics
The Salmonella typhi bacteria enters the human body through the digestive system in contaminated food or water. The bacteria enters the blood system through Peyer's patches on the sides of the intestine. The Peyer's patches are lymphoid follicles in the small intestine found between epithelial tissues cells in the lamina propria of the submucosa. Part of the mucosal barrier of the human immune system, the Peyer's patches are formed by low cuboidal M-cells that help the immune response by allowing protein and peptide antigens to pass through the patches to reach the underlying tissue and then onto the dendritic cells and macrophages. The invasive Salmonella typhi bacteria passes through the M-cells of the small intestine and is transported to the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
In the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, the bacteria multiplies before returning to the blood stream to attack the gallbladder, biliary system that produces and transports bile, and lymphatic tissues in the bowel. At this point, the symptoms of the disease are revealed. The bacteria remains in the digestive tract of the victims.
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