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Soyuz-5 / Phoenix (Feniks) rocket

"Phoenix" is the code name for a series of R&D (Research & Development), including space flight tests in 2025. The launch vehicle of the middle class "Phoenix" should replace the Russian-Ukrainian "Zenit", which since the days of the Soviet Union was made on "Pivdenmash" plant in Dnepropetrovsk. Currently, the "Zenith" is no longer available. With the "Phoenix", as in "Zenith", it was intended to install the Russian RD-171.

Initially, under the code name "Phoenix" - RSS "Progress" pushed the brand new space rocket "Soyuz-5", which would have fulfilled the new engines. Rocket-Space Center "Progress" was a double nominee for the work he is doing the whole line carrier rockets "Soyuz", consisting of 4 active carriers. This is a completely trouble-free "Soyuz-FG", which is used for manned flights into space A series of "Soyuz-2.1a", representing a digitized 'Soyuz-I" - a series of" Soyuz-2.1b ", modified the original version of the "Soyuz-2" with multi tonne payload - A series of "Soyuz-2.1V" without boosters and with the central stage on the basis of the NK-33, which are the beginning of the 2020s after the depletion of add-on will replace the RD-193 (Modified RD-191 from the first stages of "Angara").

The new version of the project "Phoenix" development is for the replacement for the "Zenith" with fully Russian components. As it is, Zenit was about 70% Russian, and less than a third was done by Pivdenmash, but it can not be operated without Ukraine. Therefore it was decided to replace Zenit. But that's only one problem with production. It was necessary to change the entire project, and even to adjust for any wishlist with potential customers. Therefore, change in a big way the housing diameter (3900 mm -> 4200 mm, as in "Proton"), decided to use tanks of larger diameter, changing the original layout.

In addition, the carrier weight increase by a hundred tons and after it proportionally scaled up and the payload increased. This meant to change the top stage and put a new RD-175 engine, which had been promised for the lunar program in the second half of the 2000s. The bottom line is that system was forced up to the level of 1.1 thousand tons thrust. The was with a modification of the "zenitovskih" RD-173 (RC-171M), which in turn is uprated RD-171, the original engine. The payload on this stack can grow well to the level of 19-20 tons, which is very, very interesting (In fact - this is a modified and reinforced "Zenith").

The new booster does not need a new launch pad, because it is just a slightly increased Zenith. Phoenix, flying away from the sea launch payload of 22-24 tons. At the same time, for GTO and GSO - the download will be much more, because from the equator to the same destination. Flight tests are scheduled for the carrier in the 2023-2025 period. That is, the same flights schedule as "Angara". But further, the new Russian Space Plan [PCF] calles for a new launching pad for new rockets.

The Soyuz-5 launch vehicle is a two-stage medium-range rocket with a sequential arrangement of stages. As the engine of the firsTt stage, it is planned to use the RD171MV unit, the second stage engine is RD0124MS. The starting mass of the rocket will be about 530 tons. The length is 61.87 m (with the transport manned spacecraft Federation - 65.9 m), the diameter is 4.1 m. The weight of the payload to be released to the low-earth orbit from the Baikonur cosmodrome will be about 18 tons.

The developers carried out a large amount of design studies to determine the appearance and characteristics of the medium-range missile complex, which confirmed the possibility of launching manned transport vehicles weighing up to 15.5 tons to Earth orbit, as well as the launch of automatic spacecraft into near-Earth orbits and trajectory trajectories to the Solar system," Roskosmos said. The basic elements and technologies that form the basis of Soyuz-5 will be used in the development of the super-heavy-class launch vehicle, which should ensure the implementation of promising space projects, primarily the lunar program.

As explained by TsNIImash, the creation of space rocket complex middle-class new generation (development work "Phoenix") with RD-170M engines was provided in the period from 2018 to 2025 the Federal Space Program for 2016-2025 years. The rocket is to provide injection into low orbit payload weighing up to 17 tons, including the manned program. The program also provides for the establishment and conduct flight tests of manned transport spacecraft new generation of "Federation". The weight of the ship when flying into orbit will be depending upon refilling propulsion from 14.4 to 19 tons. Thus, at low fueling the rocket ship "Phoenix" is able to bring it into orbit.

The president of "Rocket and Space Corporation (RSC)" Energia "named after S. P. Korolova" Vladimir Solntsev stated in November 2016 that Energia was " working to create a launch vehicle of the middle class "Phoenix", which in the future should be a lateral super-heavy class rocket unit. Second, we use what has already been developed or is in the final stages of development. For example, we take all the most useful from the line of rockets "Angara". Already passed launches light launch vehicle "Angara-1" and heavy "Angara-5". The plans - the creation of modifications "Angara 5P" (the rocket option for manned launches new "Federation" ships from the Baikonur East). There is a variant missiles "Angara-5 V" with a hydrogen unit in the third stage. Elements of these missiles, we can also use it. For example, the second stage of "Angara" will be the third stage of super-heavy class rocket. In the first "phoenix" stage rocket is installed RD-171 engine, created NPO "Energomash", draft 800 tons. Today it is the most powerful rocket in the world. Its technology is good enough to work."

However, as explained by TsNIImash, the timing of the creation of the rocket "Phoenix" (the beginning of the flight tests - after 2025) did not fit into the time allotted on the flight spacecraft testing (2021 - the first unmanned launch, in 2023 - a manned mission). In addition, the new rocket should pass the stage of flight tests and be certified for manned launches before it will entrust the launch of the "Federation".

In the foreseeable future booster Phoenix "can not be regarded as a full launch vehicle manned transport spacecraft", - reported TsNIImash. Therefore, launch of the ship "Federation" into orbit was expected to be carried out a spaceport Vostochny using specially modified for manned launches variant heavy-class launch vehicle "Angara-A5P", according to TsNIImash.

Earlier it was reported that a new spacecraft "Federation", which leads the development of RSC "Energia" with its partners, will be released and is ready to flights already in 2021. But, as it turned out, deadlines ship in operation can move - reported by TASS with reference to sources in the space industry. Project development and construction of the carrier will require a little more time, but will not lead to serious modifications of the ship.

The launch of the Soyuz-5 medium-range carrier rocket should take place in 2022, Roscosmos CEO Igor Komarov said at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum 01 June 2017. "Most recently, we announced that we are starting a project for a prospective launch vehicle - the so-called R & D" Phoenix ", and we should launch a Soyuz-5 medium-class carrier rocket in 2022," he said. The new medium-class launch vehicle Soyuz-5 is scheduled to be launched from the Sea Launch. "This project (" Soyuz-5 "- TASS commentary) will be used by our private partners, we are going to use it on the" Sea Launch. "And the partnership with S7, which we signed last year, will develop," he said. he. According to Komarov, Roskosmos expects to use this project for both public and private needs. "We see serious prospects for increasing the number of private partners to make this project really interesting," he added.

The implementation of the Phoenix project will reduce the cost of the launch from $ 70 million to $ 55 million, Komarov said. "This project will provide competitive advantages and will allow reducing the cost of removing from existing $ 60-70, I think, up to $ 55 million," he said. The Federal Space Program for 2016-2025 envisages the creation of a new-generation middle-class space rocket complex (development work Phoenix) in the period from 2018 to 2025. Nearly 30 billion rubles will be allocated for the creation of the media. Budget financing of the project will begin in 2018.

Previously, the leaders of the rocket and space industry announced the possibility of reducing the time required to build a rocket to 4-5 years. To shorten the time frame for creation is planned at the expense of its development using the stock in Zenit rocket carrier in Russia (up to 85% of the rocket components that were assembled in Ukraine are produced in Russia).

To speed up the flight tests, it is planned to use the launch pad of the Zenit rocket available at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, which will be upgraded by Kazakhstan for a new Russian missile in the framework of the Baiterek project. The version of the rocket for Baikonur will be launched under the name "Sunkar" (Sokol). Also, flight tests of the launch vehicle, which is standardized with the Soyuz-5 and Sunkar, in maritime performance are supposed to be carried out from the Sea Launch complex.

As reported by the Deputy Director General of Roscosmos State Corporation Yuri Vlasov, the Phoenix development work will soon begin - this will be a new middle-class rocket, which will then be used as the first and second stages of the super-heavy rocket. Phoenix will be able to bring up to 17 tons of cargo into low Earth orbit, and up to 2.5 tons of cargo into geostationary orbit using the upper stage. This is stated in the materials of the Roscosmos State Corporation on the space industry development strategy 31 March 2018.

Launch mass

532 t

Number of stages


Total length (manned / unmanned)

65.908 / 63.706 m

Nose fairing diameter

4.1; 4.11; 4.35 m



Liquid oxygen



Payload mass to inject into LEO:

- i=51.7, Np Na = minus 1,690 250 km

- i=51.7, Np Na = minus 140 200 km



23.0 t


16.7 t

Launch site

Baikonur, Sea Launch

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Page last modified: 16-01-2019 13:15:43 ZULU