48.4 N 45.8 E
Kapustin Yar in the Astrakhan region - the first domestic ground and the spaceport. It was formed on May 13, 1946. Kapustin Yar, .. Cap. Yar, as they used to call it in everyday life, and now Znamensk, a city not even marked on maps, mysterious to others, discreet in appearance ... But at the same time, the city-worker and city-soldier, the cradle of practical domestic astronautics, is a small part of immense Russia, who made an invaluable contribution to its power, strength and independence.
The first head of the test site was Hero of Socialist Labor, Colonel General of Artillery V.I. Voznyuk, who commanded the test site from 1946 to 1973. His name is associated with the formation and development of the test site and the city of Znamensk. V.I. Voznyuk is an honorary citizen of Znamensk, one of the streets of which is named in his honor. He is buried in the city park.
Kapustin Yar - rocket military range in the north-western part of the Astrakhan region. Official name: 4th State Central Interdepartmental Test Site of the Russian Federation (4 GPC). The test site area is about 650 km˛. The administrative and residential center of the test site is the city of Znamensk (CATU) with a population of 32.1 thousand people. (2005). Kapustin Yar was created in 1946 to test the first Soviet ballistic missiles. The name was given by the old village (now urban settlement) Kapustin Yar, located nearby.
Coordinates, degrees: 48.5 north latitude; 45.8 east longitude. Orbits of inclination, degrees: minimum 48.4; maximum 50.7. Astrakhan region, Znamensk. Former test center of the first domestic ballistic missiles. The official name is "The 4th State Central Interdepartmental Test Site of the Russian Federation." Spaceport auxiliary values; From 1988 to 1999, orbital launches were not made. Among the RNs there are “R-7”, “R-7A” the “Cosmos” family.
About twenty strategic missile complexes, including R-7, R-12, R-14, R-5M, and Pioneer, have been "put on their feet here". At the joint interspecific test site, 10 rocket complexes of the Ground Forces, 64 complexes and air defense systems, 5 - anti-missile defense, 54 space vehicles were given a start.
From here were launched the world's first astronaut dogs - Dezik and Gypsy. The successful flight of the reusable Buran spacecraft was largely predetermined by tests on the Astrakhan land. The names of great scientists and designers Sergey Korolev, Mikhail Yangel, Vladimir Chelomey, Pyotr Grushin, Alexander Raspletin, Columbus of the national missile defense system Grigory Kisunko are associated with Kapustin Yar.
On May 13, 1946, by order of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the State Central Test Range of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation "Kapustin Yar" was created to carry out scientific research and testing of missile technology.
October 18, 1947 at the site "Kapustin Yar" for the first time was launched ballistic missiles. This day entered the history of an unforgettable milestone in the development of Soviet scientific and technical thought, became the starting point of the national rocket science. In July 1951, for the first time in the world, a rocket with animals on board was launched. These were the dogs Dezik and Gypsy, in total 48 dogs were launched from Kapustin Yar into space. In March 1962, the first artificial Earth satellite of the Cosmos series was launched from the Mayak-2 launch position into space orbit. Under this program, the test site worked until 1987. On October 14, 1969, the first artificial satellite of the Earth of the Intercosmos series was launched at the test site. This event marked the beginning of space exploration in the interests of the world community. Until 1983, 18 artificial space satellites of the Intercosmos series, 11 Vertical geophysical rockets, 15 meteorological missiles, 5 satellites of foreign countries were launched into space. Polygon is today one of the largest research and testing centers.
Successful tests of the first sample allowed to continue work on the creation of the country's missile shield, which resulted in the creation in the early 50s of the first generation of missile systems (P-1, R-2).
All further work of the test site in this area consisted both in the improvement of the complexes already in service and in the development of new ones. In the course of the demonstration of all available types of missiles in September 1958 to the leaders of the state with the conduct of group and single launches, the advantage of centralized use of these systems was shown. As a result, in December 1959, a historic decision was made to create the Strategic Missile Forces. In the early 60s, new missile technology samples were tested at the test site, including one of the most powerful medium-range R-14 missiles and the mine version of the R-12 missile. At the site were also tested solid propellant rockets, including the famous RSD-10 (SS-20 according to the Western classification).
Effective use of the latest rocket technology can not be imagined without the presence of well-trained rocket specialists. The Directive of the Civil Code of the North Sea District dated May 20, 1960 on the territory of the State test site was established the Training Center of the Rocket Forces of the Ground Forces, whose tasks included the formation of combat coordination of the missile units created, training and retraining of missile specialists, the creation of regulatory documents for all-round combat activities of the missile units of the Ground Forces.
Not only strategic missiles began their journey here at the test site, but also operational tactical complexes, as well as missile systems for the Air Defense Forces, including the famous S-300PMU complex. At the present time, tests of the newest complex, the S-400 Triumph anti-aircraft missile system, are being completed at the test site. The principal feature of the S-400 is its ability to effectively destroy all existing and promising means of air attack in the world. Priority targets for such air defense systems will be the previously unavailable aircraft of the AWACS system - jammers that ensure the implementation of air offensive operations. The estimated efficiency of the C-400 is 2-2.5 times higher than that of the previous generation C-300 system.
At the end of the 1980s, work was carried out at the test site to eliminate medium-range missiles RSD-10 in accordance with the Soviet-American treaty. These events were under the scrutiny of the whole world. An explosion technology was developed that ensured the complete and safe elimination of the structure and fuel, and the preservation of the ecological situation.
In 1994, the 4th TSC of the Russian Defense Ministry entered the testing ground of the Air Defense Forces, the military part 29139, whose military teams perform tasks of national importance to test the latest samples of anti-aircraft missile systems.
In accordance with the implementation of plans for the phased reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in October 1998, the 4th State Central Test Site was transformed into the 4th State Central Interspecific Test Site. It included the testing grounds "Sary-Shagan" and "Emba-5". The latter was relocated to the Znamensky garrison at the end of 1999.
The Kapustin Yar proving ground is unique and the only one in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation that tests rocket armament and equipment for all types of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. And today, the test site remains one of the leading research institutions of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Federation; it has great prospects in its development in testing rocket technology produced at 30 enterprises of the military-industrial complex of the country.
During its existence, the test site became the basis for conducting flight and ground tests of missile weapons for all types and types of troops, a powerful research center of the country, a school of direct preparation and training of many generations of rocket engineers.
On the Banner of Battle 4 GTSMP two orders. Among the awards are a number of Passing and Memorable Flags, the pennant of the Minister of Defense "For courage and military prowess", commemorative Letters, Signs. Currently, the test site has a large squad of highly skilled military personnel. Here, 2 doctors and 161 candidates of technical sciences, 210 laureates of the State and Lenin Prizes, more than 2,000 servicemen for development, testing and conscientious military labor were awarded state awards of the Motherland.
Besides the Kapustin Yar test site, it is a forge of high-class technical specialists. Here, starting in October 1949, specialists for the Strategic Missile Forces, Ground Forces and other types of troops are trained and retrained. Training units of 161 military school technicians, 167 training center of the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation, 60 training center of the Ground Forces prepared more than one generation of military specialists.
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