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CZ-5 Space Launch Vehicle

The Long March-5 rocket will be the key for China's future space missions. China's second attempt to fire a heavy-duty heavy-rocket of the "Long March 5" ("LM-5") failed on 02 July 2017. Xinhua initially reported "China's launch of Long March-5 Y2 carrier rocket fails." It then reported: "Anomaly was detected during its flight and further investigation will be carried out." Analysis based on computer simulations and ground tests showed that a problem occurred in a turbine exhaust device in the engine of the first stage of the rocket, the China National Space Administration said.

The rocket flew to 346 seconds and suddenly failed. According to the analysis and simulation calculation and ground test results, the cause of the failure is that the core-stage liquid-hydrogen liquid-oxygen engine has an abnormality in the local structure, and the engine thrust is instantaneously dropped, causing the launch task to be defeated.

The Long March-5 made its maiden flight in November 2016 in Wenchang. It can carry a payload of 25 tonnes into low Earth orbit and 14 tonnes in geostationary orbit, over two times the capacity of previous Chinese carrier rockets. China had scheduled eight launches of Long March-5 in the coming years for the nation's lunar probe, manned space station and Mars probe missions.

China launched the Long March-5 Y2, the country's second heavy-lift carrier rocket, from the Wenchang Space Launch Center in southern China's Hainan Province on 02 July 2017. Propellant for the rocket, which was to send the Shijian-18 communication satellite into orbit, began to be pumped in on the afternoon of 01 July 2917. After arriving at the launch base in early May, the rocket had been assembled and tested there. The launch was to be the last drill for the Long March-5 series before it carried the Chang'e-5 lunar probe into space in the latter half of 2017.

China on 03 November 2016 launched its new heavy-lift carrier rocket Long March-5 from the Wenchang Space Launch Center in south China's Hainan Province. The rocket, which looked much "fatter" than other rockets of Long March series, blasted off at 8:43 p.m. Beijing Time from the launch center. The payload was successfully sent into a preset orbit about 30 minutes later. The State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence later announced the complete success of the launch. It was the second launch from the coastal Wenchang center. On June 25, China's new generation medium-sized Long March-7 made its debut at the site.

The Long March-5 is a large, two-stage rocket with a payload capacity of 25 tonnes to low-Earth orbit, the largest of China's carrier rockets. According to China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC), the developer of Long March-5, the rocket uses two kinds of fuel, kerosene and liquid oxygen as well as liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, rather than highly toxic propellant, making it more environmental friendly and less expensive.

Included in the same family of launch vehicles, which is named in honor of the long march of the army in the years 1934-1936. - operation of regrouping troops under the command of Mao Zedong. Is a new generation Chinese carrier rocket (also includes CZ-CZ-6 and 7) using a non-toxic liquid hydrogen, kerosene and liquid oxygen. Rockets of the previous series "Long March" used toxic heptyl.

China planned to send two new models of carrier rocket in the Long March series on their maiden space trips in 2016, the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASC) said on 16 January 2016. The country’s most powerful carrier rocket, Long March-5 has a payload capacity of 25 tonnes to low Earth orbit, or 14 tonnes to geostationary transfer orbit. It is scheduled to carry the Chang’e-5 lunar probe around 2017 to finish the last chapter in China’s three-step (orbiting, landing and return) moon exploration program. According to a CASC statement, which did not specify either of the rockets’ missions, Long March-5 was being tested at a launch site in south China’s Hainan Province.

“The two carrier rockets’ maiden flights will significantly boost our country’s ability to enter space and help realize leapfrog development in our space transportation system,” said the CASC. Both rockets were developed by the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology under the CASC.

Long March 5, the nation’s next-generation heavy lift launch system, is nearly 57 meters high, with a diameter of 5 meters. With a liftoff weight of around 800 metric tons, it will have a maximum payload capacity of 25 metric tons in low Earth orbit and 14 tons in geosynchronous transfer orbit, roughly comparable to the capacity of the United States’ Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles, such as the Delta IV and Atlas V.

The rocket will use liquid oxygen/kerosene and liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen as propellants for its engines, which means the craft will be more environmentally friendly than previous designs. The Long March 5 will be used to launch large lunar probes and the manned space station that China plans to send into orbit around 2020.

China will develop six configurations in its heavy-lift Long March 5 rocket family. The six designs will have different launch capacities. Engineers were initially focusing on the two types that will be used for the Chang'e-5 lunar probe and manned space station missions.

The version CZ-5 has two main stages, CZ-5B will have one. Liquid rocket engines basic steps used oxygen-hydrogen fuel. The first stage is further mounted four booster diameter of 3.35 m each, which run on a mixture of kerosene and liquid oxygen. The length (or height) of the rocket - 57 m or 53 m (CZ-5 and CZ-5B respectively), the diameter of the central unit - 5 m, the starting weight - about 870 m. The maximum capacity of the basic CZ-5 - 14 m version CZ-5B - 25 tons.

Preliminary work on the rocket CZ-5 began in 2002, the State Council officially approved the project in 2006. The developer was the Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, CALT), which is included in the Chinese corporation Aerospace Science and Technology (China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, CASC; Beijing). According to Premier Zhu Rongji's instruction in his Government Work Report at the Fourth Session of the Ninth National People's Congress, the Chinese Government should lay emphasis on the important high-tech projects including a new generation launch vehicle. Now the advanced development of the new generation launch vehicle started completely. A symposium on reviewing the advanced development of China's new generation launch vehicle sponsored by Commission of Space, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) was held in Beijing on 10 May 2001.

The technological way to develop a new generation of launch vehicles is as follows: "one emphasis, the development of two propulsion systems and three modules". The "One Emphasis" is to develop the heavy launch vehicle with a diameter of 5 meters. The "Two Systems" are two new propulsion systems: one uses the 500kN hydrogen and oxygen propellant engine and another uses the 1200kN liquid oxygen/kerosene engine. The diameters of the "Three Modules" are 5m, 3.35m and 2.25m respectively.

The new generation launch vehicle will use 120 ton liquid oxygen/kerosene rocket engine and 50 ton LH/LO engine as its propulsion system. Its payload capability into LEO will be 1.5-25 ton, and into GTO be 1.5- 14 ton. It will be characterized by large thrust, non-toxic and pollution free propellants, low cost and high reliability. It can meet the demands of the market at home and abroad within the next 10-30 years.

For the new generation of space launch vehicle China plans to develop one series, two kinds of engines and three modules. That means, China will take the LOX/kerosene and LOX/LH engines as propulsion systems and finally realize the generalization, seriation and modularization. This will require gradually developing the new generation of launch vehicles with 5m, 3.35m and 2.25m diameter modules respectively, among which the 5m diameter core stage will use 3.35m diameter module as its booster, 3.35m diameter core stage will use 2.25m diameter module as its booster. And the 3.35m and 2.25m modules also can be used independently.

China's new generation launch vehicle will be based on the basic version. With boosters added on it such launch vehicle can launch various payloads ranging from 10 tons to 25 tons and with the upper stage module it can launch GTO payloads ranging from 6 tons to 13 tons. After China's new generation launch vehicle is successfully developed, the LEO payload capability will surpass 20 tons, and can launch a 20 tonnage permanent man-tended space station, promoting the development of our space application industry. Because the new heavy launch vehicle has fewer engines that ignite on the ground, fewer stages (one and a half) and better manned environment, and use nontoxic propellants. The new launch vehicle can either launch a large space telescope to promote the development of our astronomy, or launch deep space probes, such as a large lunar probe and Martian probe to promote the development of deep space exploration science. As it can launch two 6-ton GTO satellites or one 12-ton very large GTO satellite, it can basically meet the needs of the launch of the geo-synchronous communications satellite within decades.

Once the Long March -5 booster has demonstrated a reasonable level high reliability it will be considered for manned flight operations according to Chinese officials.

In 2007, the Long March 5 was due to make its first flight in 2013. At the Global Space Development Summit held in Beijing on 23 – 25 April 2008, China announced that multiple hot-fire tests have been conducted on new oxygen/kerosene and oxygen/hydrogen rocket engine systems for the forthcoming Long March 5 booster line, and are being integrated with their airframes and tankage for initial launches as early as 2010.

In 2012, the target had slipped to 2014. The first prototype ground test, systems and dynamic test articles of the LM-5E booster was planned to be ready for testing in 2012 while the static test version of each stage were expected to be ready for static test firings demonstrations in 2013. The prototype LM-5E first flight test was tentatively planned for 2014. The LM-5E first stage clustered 120 metric ton [264,600 lbsf] thrust engine has already accumulated over 10,000 seconds burn time as of the summer of 2010 after many years of R&D.

On March 25, 2013 Bradley Perrett of Aviation Week & Space Technology reported that the Long March 5 wouldd not launch until 2015. "Our plan has encountered some difficulties," Liang Xiaohong, deputy head of the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, told China Daily on March 04, 2013, referring to three failed experiments recently. The main difficulty lies in the rocket's structural elements, said Liang, who is also a member of the National Committee of the 12th Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. Though China's Long March rockets have recorded more than 100 successful launches, the Long March-5 is a new challenge due to its larger size - a diameter of 5 meters, instead of the 3.35 meters of all previous launch vehicles.

The larger design enables the Long March-5 to send heavy satellites and space station components into orbit, and it has six vehicle configurations planned for different missions. "But when an object is bigger, its technical risks and functional defects are also magnified," Liang said. The increased size has challenged the mechanical machining capabilities of Chinese manufacturers, who have never produced rocket parts as big before and lack the necessary equipment and technology, he added. "The Long March-5 project has reached the basic industry's ceiling," Liang said.

Also, the potential risks of a larger launch vehicle in space are unknown, and the designers must gauge these for six configurations of the craft instead of one, he said. Failure to solve the problem has prompted the academy to push manufacturers to improve their level of mechanical machining.

China plans to launch its heavy-lift carrier rocket, the Long March-5 Y3, in late 2018, after finding the cause of the failure of the Long March-5 Y2, according to the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense 17 April 2018. China will launch the Long March-5B carrier rocket into space in 2019, according to a spokesperson for the China Manned Space Engineering Office (CMSEO) on 05 March 2018. The rocket will help carry the core module and experiment modules to China's space station. The Long March-5B carrier rocket will undergo testing in March 2018 in preparation for the first launch mission. By April 2019 the improved core-stage liquid hydrogen liquid oxygen engine had completed multiple ground heat test tests to verify the effectiveness of the improvement measures.

China plans to launch its third Long March-5 large carrier rocket in July 2019, said Yang Baohua, vice president of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) on 29 January 2019.

He Xing, executive vice president of the China Great Wall Industry Corporation, informed attendees of the World Satellite Business Week in Paris, France, that the third launch of China’s Long March, or Changzheng, 5 would probably come before the end of 2019. “The exact cause of the failure has been pinpointed,” the official said at the annual international conference on 10 September 2019, informing guests that China’s forthcoming launch date will “probably be in this year.”

China conducted a successful launch of its delivery rocket, the Long March 5, carrying an experimental communications satellite, the Shijian 20, into orbit. The 57-meter-tall rocket, one of the biggest delivery rockets in China's fleet, was launched from the Wenchang Satellite Launch Center on Hainan Island in southern China. The move was being touted as a great leap forward in China's ambitious space exploration plans, which include unmanned return missions on Mars and collecting lunar samples.

With the third flight successful, the fourth Long March-5 carrier rocket will be tasked to send the Chang'e-5 lunar probe to the moon to bring lunar samples back to Earth. China's first Mars rover is scheduled for launch in mid-2020.

Long March-5B

Long March-5Long March VB Carrier Rocket System is mainly used for the development and launching of CZ-5B carrier rockets. CZ-5B carrier rocket, which carries out the launching of core capsules and experimental capsules in the space station, is currently the most powerful carrier rocket in China. The Long March 5B rocket uses a one-and a half configuration with a take-off weight of 837.5 tons and a near-Earth orbit carrying capacity greater than 22 tons.

On 19 June 2018, China Space Technology Group Co., Ltd. reported that China will launch the first flight of the Chang Zheng 5B or CZ-5B carrier rocket in June 2019. The rocket, designed by a Chinese space technology group based on CZ-5 technology, is in its first test phase to launch a space station.

China's Long March-5B carrier rocket was scheduled to make its maiden flight in the first half of 2020, according to the China Manned Space Engineering Office (CMSEO) 24 April 2019. A test version of the Long March-5B carrier rocket, which will serve China's manned space exploration mission, was under development, and the research and development of the core module of the country's space station have carried on as planned. The Long March-5B rocket, with a low-Earth orbit with a carrying capacity greater than 22 tonnes, will be used to launch the core module and experiment modules of China's space station in the future. Joint tests and exercises were carried out in the Wenchang Space Launch Center at the end of 2019 to make preparations for the maiden flight of the Long March-5B, which would help lay the groundwork for the construction of the space station.

On March 16 and April 9 of 2019, elements of China's space launch failed twice. For more than a month, the model team and the aerospace experts concentrated on efforts to carry out in-depth review of problems, cause analysis, and test verification. The fault location and mechanism of the two failures were basically clear. At the same time, the relevant departments organized a comprehensive quality rectification and review review across the entire spaceflight, and made appropriate adjustments to the rocket launch plan originally scheduled to be implemented in the near future. On the basis of a large amount of quality safety and reliability work carried out in the early stage, in response to the two recent launch failures, the Long March 5B carrier rocket and mission-related systems immediately carried out fault stripping and inferences, and re-checked the technical status and product quality Review and confirm again, comprehensively investigate risks and weak links, further improve the plan, and strive to turn the lessons of failure into valuable wealth.

The first flight mission verified the correctness of the rocket program and evaluated the functional performance of the rocket. In order to give full play to the comprehensive benefits of the first flight mission, the rocket was equipped with a "new-generation manned spaceship test ship", a flexible inflatable cargo return cabin test cabin, and more than 10 experimental loads.

Among them, the new generation of manned spaceship test ship is a new generation of space shuttle for the operation of China’s space station and future manned moon exploration. The new prototype expands the number of crew that can be sent into space to six from three in an earlier model. This mission provided heat protection, control, and group umbrella for the high-speed reentry of the spacecraft Key technologies such as recycling and partial reuse are verified; the flexible inflatable cargo return cabin test cabin was a test for China's new type of space transportation aircraft. This mission will verify the key technologies of the inflatable deployable return aircraft orbit reentry. According to the flight procedures, the test cabin and the test ship will return to the Dongfeng landing site on May 6 and 8 after completing the on-orbit test.

According to plan, China's space station will be completed around 2022, and a total of 12 flight missions are planned. After this mission, China will launch the Tianhe core module, Wentian experimental module and Mengtian experimental module successively to carry out the on-orbit assembly and construction of the basic configuration of the space station; Spaceship, astronaut crew rotation and cargo replenishment. At present, the core module of China's space station has completed the assembly of the prototype product, and the first prototype development of the Wentian experimental module and the Mengtian experimental module is being carried out. The crew has been selected and is conducting mission training. In addition, China's third batch of astronaut selection work will also be completed around July this year.

At 18:00 on May 5, 2020, the Long March 5B carrier rocket carried a new-generation manned spaceship test ship and a flexible inflatable cargo return test cabin, and lifted off from the Wenchang Space Launch Site in China The mission was a complete success. Ji Qiming, assistant director of the China Manned Space Engineering Office, said at the press conference that evening that the successful launch not only achieved the success of the first mission of the manned space project, but also fought for China Aerospace for follow-up.

Long March 9's carrying capacity is five times that of the Long March 5-currently the strongest member of China's carrier rocket family. The 20-story-tall Long March 5 has a liftoff weight of 869 tons and a maximum carrying capacity of 25 tons to a low-Earth orbit. Long March 9 will have a length of nearly 100 meters and a diameter of 9.5 meters, and will be propelled by a new-generation liquid oxygen/kerosene engine with 500 tons of thrust power. If the research and development proceed well, the Long March 9 will carry out its first flight around 2030, and then it will enable China to land astronauts on the moon and take humans and probes beyond the moon and into deep space.

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China's new prototype spacecraft "successfully landed" on 08 May 2020, marking an important step in its ambitions to run a permanent space station and send astronauts to the moon. The spacecraft arrived safely at a predetermined site, the China Manned Space Agency said, after a hitch in an earlier part of the key test. It said the cabin structure of the spacecraft had been confirmed on site as being intact. The test vessel was launched with a cargo capsule aboard a new type of carrier rocket from the Wenchang launch site on the southern island of Hainan. The space agency said the vessel was in orbit for two days and 19 hours and had completed a number of experiments.

The return also verified the spacecraft's capabilities such as its heat resistance. It was hoped the spaceship will one day transport astronauts to a space station that China plans to complete by 2022 - and eventually to the Moon. The safe landing follows a snag in an earlier part of the test when an unspecified "anomaly" occurred during the return of the cargo capsule.

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