Somaliland, with population of 3.5 million (2017 estimate), declared unilateral independence from Somalia on May 18, 1991. It has been under pressure to hold talks with Somalia which have so far been futile. Described as the most peaceful state in the Horn of Africa region, Somaliland can boast of an army, its own currency and legal system. The territory has been experiencing stability and economic prosperity. It has been influential in the fight against piracy and terrorism in the Horn of Africa. Decades of diplomatic isolation has made it difficult for Somaliland to have access to loans from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. It is regarded as the autonomous region of Somalia and not a sovereign state.
Little is known as to the early history of the country. It was known to the Egyptians as Punt or Puanit, and the Egyptian records contain many references to expeditions made for the purpose of procuring the myrrh and frankincense, for which the country has always been famous, and which obtained for it its Roman name of 'Regio Thurifera' or 'Aromatifera.'
The rise of Mohammed in the seventh century was probably Influx of the cause of the introduction of the Arabic element. SomaliArabstradition asserts that their race is descended from noble Arabs who were driven from their country by internal dissensions, and from genealogies which are recited it would appear that this event took place some thirteen centuries ago.
It is only in the nineteenth century that its history really begins. In 1827 the captain of a British man-of-war entered into an agreement with the Sheikh of the Habr Awal tribe, which provided for the succour of shipwrecked crews; and after the acquisition of Aden in 1839 the opposite shore naturally attracted increased attention. In 1840 the Governor of Zeila signed a treaty with the East India Company, by which he bound himself not to cede any part of the adjoining coast to a foreign power, and a few years later other treaties were signed by the coast tribes, which included provisions for the suppression of the slave trade.
In 1870, the Khedive of Egypt, having purchased the vague occupation rights of sovereignty claimed by the Sultan of Turkey, established garrisons in the towns on the North coast and in the country of Harrar to the West. The Egyptian occupation lasted until 1884, when, in consequence of the Mahdist revolt, the garrisons were withdrawn. The abandoned territories Partition were almost immediately occupied by other Powers. Detachments from the garrison at Aden were placed in Zeila and Berbera, and treaties were made by Great Britain with nearly all the tribes now under British control, a protectorate over the Somali coast being proclaimed in 1885.
British Somaliland at first comprised an area of some British 75,000 square miles but, owing to the cession of some districts to Abyssinia in 1897, its extent was later only 68,000 Area. square miles, rather more than twice the size of Ireland. The climate of the maritime region is dry, and so hot in Climate. summer that the majority of the population retire to the interior for the summer months. Owing to the migratory habits of the people, no trustworthy statistics of the population are to be obtained, but by around 1900 the total number of inhabitants was believed to be about 300,000.
Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy.
The northern based SNM declared unilateral independence for Somaliland in May 1991, based on the former British Somaliland borders. The northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections.
The secessionists disassociated Somaliland from the south, and argued that independence was based on atrocities inflicted by the region by the previous system. Somaliland includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Those 5 regions comprise 18 of the regions of Somalia. The northwest continued to proclaim its independence within the borders of former British Somaliland, which had obtained independence from Britain in 1960 before joining the former Italian-ruled Somalia.
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