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British Conquests in India - 18th Century

India History Map - 1795In 1795 the boundaries of the Mahratta Confederacy reached their farthest extent. But the same year saw the Mahratta chiefs united for the last time under the banner of the Peshwa at Kurdla.

In 1752 Bhonsle of Nagpur withdrew his garrisons beyond the Painganga, thus restoring the territory between that river and the Godaveri to the Nizam. In 1757 Ahmadabad was finally taken by the Mahrattas, and Gujerat and Kathiawar were henceforth tributary to the Qaekwar, whilst Cutch remained independent. In 1760, after the battle of Udgir, the Mahrattas by treaty acquired from the Nizam several forts, and amongst them Daulatabad, Asirgarh, Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, and certain districts which included the provinces of Bijapur, Bidar, and Aurangabad, excepting however the last-named city.

In the north the provinces of Delhi and Agra were annexed in 1789 and the Moghul Emperor was entirely in the hands of Sindia. The Eajputs were made tributary to Sindia in 1792. In the south the Mahrattas by the treaty of Seringapatam (1792). received some districts between the Kistna and the Varadha.

The Nizam's dominions were considerably reduced. They were bounded on the north by the Painganga and Godaveri rivers, and on the east by the Northern Circars. In the south, however, they had been enlarged. By the treaty of Seringapatam (1792), Cumbum, Cuddapah (Kurpa), Gandikot, and districts between the lower Tungabhadra and the Kistna had been given to the Nizam.

The Afghans under Zaman Shah (1793-1800) still held the Punjab, Kashmir, and Sindh. In 1780 Bahawal Khan of Bahawalpur was forced to acknowledge the Afghan suzerainty. The nawabvizier of Oudh with the help of the British had added to his dominions the country occupied by the Rohillas.

The three Presidency towns, Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, had become growing centres of British influence, and under men like Olive, Warren Hastings, and Cornwallis, the English possessions had assumed considerable dimensions. In the south a life-and-death struggle between the English and the French had ended with a total defeat of the latter. Bankot, south of Bombay, the command of that river, and ten villages were ceded by the Peshwa to the English in 1756.

The Northern Circars comprising Kondapalli, Ellore, Eajamahendri, and Chicacole were taken from the French, and their acquisition was confirmed by imperial grant from Shah Alum, 1764. In 1765 the district of Chengalpat was ceded to the English by the nawab of the Carnatic. In the same year Bengal, Behar, and Orissa were granted by Shah Alum II. In 1775 the district of Benares, including Chanar and Ghazipur, were handed over by Shuja ud Daulah of Oudh. In the west Bassein had been conquered and the island of Salsette acquired. Quntur was ceded by the Nizam in 1788. In 1792 the provinces of Baramahal, Dindigul, and Malabar were acquired through the treaty of Seringapatam; thus Tippu's territories were considerably reduced.

The nawabvizier of Oudh was an ally of the English, and the nawab of Arcot was under their protection.




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