TALL KING - P-140U Upgrade
The purpose of modernization of the P-14:
- Improving the performance characteristics and combat capabilities of the P-14 radar;
- Resource renewal,
- Reducing the cost of operation, as well as reducing the cost and time of maintenance and repair of the radar.
Radar preparation for modernization includes:
- delivery of a new module (TOE.240.70.000) which houses the new digital, solid-state equipment of the station, remote workstation;
- modernization of the antenna mast device;
- supply of two power supply units 380 V, 50 Hz with a capacity of not more than 85 kW with an automatic switching system (TOE.240.80.000);
Modernization of radar electronic equipment provides for replacing the hardware cabin on the old element base with a new module (TOE.240.70.000), consisting of:
- solid state transmitter;
- solid state digital receiver:
- digital processing unit (including SDC system) and synchronization;
- operator workstation;
- remote automated workplace of the operator with remote control;
- automated climate control system;
- power distribution unit and lighting;
- fire system;
- operational command communication systems;
- distribution board;
When repairing an antenna mast device, individual AMU components and assemblies are replaced with more modern, reliable and economical ones:
- rotation motor - M 3AA 180L or similar;
- high frequency feeder (RF cable);
- current collector;
Additionally, as options, can be supplied:
- information documentation system;
- training apparatus;
- 4-channel auto-compensator of active noise interference acting on the side lobes of the radar antenna pattern.
Advantages of the P-140U radar
Due to the use of new radio components and software for the work of the newly created equipment, it is possible to solve a number of issues of improving the tactical and technical characteristics and combat capabilities, namely, increasing the noise immunity - by increasing:
- 2 times, compared with the outdated radar, the energy of the emitted signal;
- dynamic range of the receiver, which is at least 100 dB,
as well as the use of a high-performance digital filter.
The structure of the electronic equipment of the modernized radar includes a digital signal processing unit that performs all the functions of generating and processing signals, including moving target selection (SDC) and the operator’s remote workstation (AWP), which implements all the functions of signal trajectory processing and information and calculation tasks.
Improving reliability - through the use of modern radio components and new technical solutions, reducing the amount of equipment. The average time between failures of the equipment of the installation kit is 5000 hours, which is approximately 100 times higher than the performance of an un-upgraded radar.
Increase in maintainability - due to the construction of equipment on a block-modular basis, due to manufacturability, accessibility, and ease of maintenance. The upgraded radar has full internal diagnostics and an indication of the technical condition with details to a removable unit or module, and the transmitter to a separate transistor. Aggregate repair method is provided by replacing a faulty unit or assembly. Thus, the recovery time does not exceed 30 minutes, which is several times higher than the previous samples.
Increased survivability - by reducing the number of constituent units in the radar kit, significantly reducing cable management (after the modernization, only the power cable, antenna-feeder cable and four-wire communication cable for communication with the remote workstation remain), increasing the efficiency of the anti-radar missile defense system.
The use of modern systems for the collection and transmission of radar information allows excluding a human operator from the system and significantly increase the distance to consumers of this information (CP RTV, ZRV and fighter aircraft).
Increasing the electromagnetic compatibility of a modernized radar is ensured by the presence of automatic frequency tuning in the operating frequency range of the radar and a minimally low level of intrinsic out-of-band emissions.
The main advantage of modernized radars is the complete automation of signal processing, target detection and information output. Since all processes are carried out completely automatically (without the participation of a human operator), the radar calculation is reduced by the number of operators, which means that human operator errors during combat work are eliminated.
The P-140U ground-based mobile radar station is designed to automatically detect targets, determine their current coordinates (azimuth and range) and automatically track the trajectories of airborne objects.
The P-140U radar performs the following main functions:
- detection, display and automatic determination of the coordinates of the azimuth and range of airborne objects (IN);
- automatic tying and tracking of HE routes, calculation of parameters of their movement;
- automatic and semi-automatic control of the ground-based radar interrogator (NRZ) and the assignment of an identification sign;
- reception, display and processing of radar data from a similar radar or from a radar equipped with an A-1000M extractor, and the formation of traces;
- automatic control of radio altimeters (PRV) equipped with A-1000N extractors, calculation and reference of height to plane coordinates of VO;
- automatic issuance of radar information (RLI) over the telephone channel to the consumer;
- the possibility of manual (“manual”) radar acquisition according to the digital data of HE forms in the azimuth – range coordinates or in squares of a single air defense grid in manual groups;
- documentation of radar information;
- monitoring the technical condition and diagnostics of the main radar devices.
On the basis of the 5N84M (5N84AM) radar, a first-level command post (command post) can be organized. The volume and list of specific functions performed, the composition of individual software and hardware may vary depending on the configuration of the unit and the radar design.
Interference immunity of the P-140U radar
Radar 5N84 (5N84AM) has effective protection against the following types of interference:
- impulse noise;
- passive interference;
- active noise interference (ACP).
Impulse noise of various kinds is completely suppressed by digital signal processing.
Protection against passive interference is provided by an adaptive digital SDS system and the creation of an interference map.
Parameters of the adaptive system of SDS:
- working area: 0 - 500 km;
- coefficient of suppression of reflections from local objects:> 40 dB.
Protection against active noise interference is provided by:
- automatic monitoring of the interference environment and the display of its results at the operator’s workplace;
- tuning of the radar operating frequency in 0.2 MHz increments;
- a large dynamic range of the receiver and the digital signal processing unit equal to 105 dB;
- an additional expansion of the dynamic range by 32 dB due to the use of AGC.
For a visual representation of the state of the noise situation on the monitor screen of the operator’s workstation (AWS-O), in addition to the echo signal, an additional “noise track” is also displayed in the form of a circular noise line of irregular shape at a variable range.
The display range of the "noise track" decreases with increasing noise level (interference) at the input of the receiver and vice versa. If there is interference from certain directions, dips are displayed in the area.
As a result, the “noise track” shows the operator the relative change in the field of view under the influence of the ACP. By changing the frequency of the radar, the operator can choose its most optimal value by minimizing the reduction of the field of view.
Operational characteristics of the P-140 radar
The radar is supplied from a three-phase alternating voltage network 380 V 50 Hz or from power supply units of a power plant.
- Power consumption - 40 kW;
- Turn-on time of the equipment: from the network - 3 minutes; from the unit 3-5 min.
The radar can operate at any time of the day, in conditions of changes in the ambient temperature of the outdoor air from minus 40 to plus 50 ° C (at wind speeds up to 30 m / s) and when exposed to atmospheric precipitation. The reception of radar data from other radar equipment and the issuance of radar data to the remote workstation AWS-V and to the consumer are carried out via a telephone communication channel using modems at a speed of 9600 bps using the ASTERIX protocol. Radar equipment can be transported on its own on roads of the 4th and 5th categories at a speed of 25-40 km / h., On roads of 1 - 3rd categories at a speed of 40-60 km / h.
General structural diagram of the P-140U radar
The P-140U radar includes:
- hardware cabin, which houses the main electronic radar equipment - trailer number 1;
- antenna mast device (AMU) with an antenna feeder system (AFS) (for 5N84AM - semi-trailer No. 2);
- two power supply units;
- sets of cable management and operational documentation.
Remote workstation can be removed from the hardware cabin and installed at the command post. AWP - B is equipped with the necessary means of communication and data exchange, the equipment of which is agreed with the customer. The extension range is limited by the length of standard communication cables (up to 500 m).
As part of the P-140U radar, the following functional systems and devices can be distinguished:
- Transmitting system (UI cabinet, subunit of formation of probing signals of FZS)
- Antenna-feeder system (blocks 154, 254, high-frequency feeder, current collector with selsyn sensors block (block 5), antenna-mast device, matching transformer T50 / 75, high-pass bandpass filter, coupler);
- Receiving system (UHF, main channel receiver, digital receiver, BTsOS);
- System for processing, displaying and issuing information (BTsOS block, AWP-O, AWP-V, modems);
- Control and diagnostic system;
- Power supply system, including a power plant, an isolation transformer and a switchboard for power distribution of ShchRP of a hardware cabin;
- System for rotating, tilting, raising and lowering the antenna (blocks 29, 31M, rotation regulator, winch);
- Communication system;
- Temperature Management System (COTR).
The division into systems is arbitrary, since individual devices are involved in several systems (for example, a central control unit), and individual elements are structurally placed in other systems.
The transmitting system generates sounding pulses (ZI) emitted by the antenna-feeder system (AFS) in a certain direction. The parameters of the emitted signals (frequency, structure, power) are set by the operator through the digital processing and synchronization unit (BTSC), which directly controls the operation of the transmitting system.
Antenna switch (AK) provides isolation of the transmitting and receiving systems and switching the AFS to the output of the transmitter or input of the receiver.
Antenna-feeder system (AFS) performs the functions of matching the elements of the antenna-feeder path, sewage and energy distribution from the transmitting system to the emitters, forming a specific radiation pattern and direct radiation of electromagnetic energy into space. When receiving the reflected signals by the emitters, they are summed up in the feeder path and sent through the antenna switch to the input of the receiving system.
The radar antenna system is made in the form of a parabolic mirror-type antenna with a mirror size of 32´11 m.
In the receiving system, the reflected echo signals are amplified in a low-noise high-frequency amplifier, transferred to an intermediate frequency, converted into digital data in the digital receiver unit and transmitted for processing to the digital processing and synchronization unit of the digital signal processing center.
All further processing to clear the signal from noise, interference of various kinds, select moving targets, detect target signals and determine their coordinates and motion parameters is performed by the processor of the digital processing and synchronization unit (radar processor) using special algorithms.
The system for displaying, processing and issuing radar data consists of the operator’s workstation (AWP-O), remote RM (AWP-V), a digital processing and synchronization unit (BTSC), and modems. The BTSOS processor performs the functions of controlling the generation of the probing signal, processing the received radar signal, controlling the inclusion of the request for nationality and processing the NRZ signals, as well as the functions of controlling the display of information on the ARM-O monitor and processing commands entered by the operator. Structurally, BTsOS is located in the AWP-O console.
The AWP-O hosts AWP power-on, control panels for rotating and tilting the antenna, a manipulator, a keyboard and an AKOS remote control. The remote workstation AWP-B can be carried out of the hardware cabin on the gearbox. Information output to ARM-V from BTsOS is organized via a modem channel.
The following tasks can also be performed on AWP-B:
- reception and processing of radar from another similar radar and the formation of a common route;
- automatic control of the altimeter and the alignment of the height to the plane coordinates of the HE;
- issue of radar information to the consumer (at commercial proposal);
- documentation of radar information and basic operations of the operator AWP-V.
To solve these problems in ARM-V, in addition to the processor unit and the monitor, 2-5 modems and hard drives and floppy disks are located. Information is exchanged with additional sources and the consumer via standard telephone communication channels with a bandwidth of 300–3400 Hz using modems.
The antenna rotation system (CBA) provides:
- smooth start-up and rotation of the radar antenna in azimuth at a speed specified by the operator;
- the formation of voltage synchronous - servo drive (SSP) to provide information about the angular position of the antenna in the bcc;
- SSP voltage generation for controlling synchronous rotation of NRZ;
- raising and lowering the antenna during deployment and folding.
The monitoring and diagnostic system performs the following main functions:
- control of synchronization signals;
- monitoring and diagnostics of elements of the transmission system;
- reception system control;
- control of radar signal processing at the main stages;
- testing and monitoring the health of the workstation;
- control of reception and delivery of information.
The power supply system consists of a diesel power plant (ESD) and a switchboard for power distribution of the ShchRP installed in the hardware cabin. The power plant includes two power supply units, a 380/220 V isolation transformer, switching and other equipment. The equipment is powered by a three-phase voltage of 220 V, 50 Hz with isolated neutral. The voltage of the external network can be 380V 50 Hz with a grounded or isolated neutral. Workstation power is supplied through UPS uninterruptible power supplies.
The communication system is formed by the equipment of command and operational communication AKOS-1, installed at workplaces. AKOS-1 equipment provides loud-speaking and telephone communication with combat crew and command posts. If necessary (organization of a guidance point), in the corresponding configuration option, an additional control system for radio control stations for radio communication systems for communication with aircraft crews can be additionally installed.
The P-140U radar station consists of two main components:
- New hardware cabin;
- Upgraded Antenna Feeder System
Structural components of equipment
Structurally, the station equipment consists of the following individual blocks and elements:
- high-frequency current collector;
- high frequency power divider;
- cabinet of a pulse amplifier MV 30 kW (UI), consisting of:
- unit of the preliminary pulse amplifier BIU1 1 kW;
- blocks of output pulse amplifiers BIU2 2kW;
- block adder BS;
- switching unit BKM;
- control unit BC;
- PSU power supplies;
- power supply filter;
- directional coupler;
- matching transformer T50 / 75;
- high-pass filter;
- low-noise high-frequency amplifier (UHF), placed in the BKM unit of the UI cabinet;
- the receiver unit and the driver of the probing signals (PFZS block);
- Operator’s workstation (AWP-O) consisting of:
- digital receiver unit;
- block of digital processing and synchronization (BTsOS);
- monitor, keyboard, manipulator
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