Taiwan - Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ)
An Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) is an area of airspace beyond a country’s sovereign territory within which the country requires the identification, location, and air traffic control of aircraft in the interest of its national security. Maintaining ADIZ becomes fundamentally relevant from the perspective of international law when such a zone extends into airspace suprajacent to international waters. e, In international airspace the state of registry generally enjoys exclusive jurisdiction with respect to the aircraft carrying its national mark, but the ADIZ is deemed as exercising d quasi-territorial jurisdiction over extraterritorial acts by the state maintaining ADIZ. There is no international law that specifically governs ADIZs, although various norms pertain, especially freedom of navigation. The Convention on Civil Aviation advises that all nations refrain from the use of weapons against civilian aircraft. The United States was the first country to establish an ADIZ, which it did in 1950 during the Cold War with the Soviet Union. Canada, India, Japan, Pakistan, Norway, United Kingdom, China, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States are some examples of countries currently maintaining air defense identification zones.
Taiwan's air defense identification zone remains unchanged and none of the country's military training operations or patrols within the area have been affected by China's recent demarcation of an ADIZ over the East China Sea, Defense Minister Yen Ming said 02 December 2013. Yen said, however, that Beijing "did not consult with us beforehand," although part of China's newly designated ADIZ overlaps with Taiwan's. Speaking to the media before attending a hearing in the Legislature's Foreign Affairs and National Defense Committee, he said Taiwan's ADIZ has not changed and "our training operations and patrols" within the area remain normal.
China on 23 November 2013 announced its demarcation of the new ADIZ that includes the disputed Diaoyutai Islands, which are also claimed by Taiwan and Japan, and is asking to be notified of any flights passing through the zone. There is a possibility that China would also designate an ADIZ over the South China Sea at some point in the future, according to Taiwan's Defense Ministry.
Yen said Taiwan's military will continue to monitor developments in the region and will take response measures. Other government officials, including Foreign Minister David Lin and National Security Bureau (NSB) Director-General Tsai De-sheng, also appeared before the legislative committee to give their assessments of the situation.
National Security Council (NSC) Secretary-General Jason Yuan, however, did not accede to the committee's repeated request to attend the hearing to report on the government's stance and policies with regard to Beijing's recent move. The NSC is the main government unit that makes policies and decides on the response to such issues, said the committee's convener Chiu Yi-ying of the opposition Democratic Progress Party, explaining why Yuan was summoned. In a 4:3 vote, the committee later passed a motion to condemn Yuan for his failure to attend the hearing.
China stepped up military actions in the Taiwan Strait in an attempt to intimidate Taiwan. The previous week, Sept. 9 and 10, People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) planes and People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) ships carried out massive military drills off the southwest coast of Taiwan.
On 09 September 2020, a total of 30 PLAAF fighter planes and seven PLAN warships held joint air and sea exercises in Taiwan’s southwestern ADIZ, according to a Taiwan defense ministry official. Chinese fighter jets breached the country’s ADIZ 21 times on Sept. 9, with a similar number of incursions into the zone on Sept. 10 as well. News of the Chinese incursion came the same day as U.S. Under Secretary of State for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment Keith Krach was scheduled to visit Taiwan and attend a memorial service for former Taiwan President Lee Tung-hui, to be held on Sept. 19.
For the second day in a row on 18 September, a total of 18 Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) warplanes entered Taiwan's Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) — and were warned 24 times to leave the area before being driven away by Taiwanese fighter jets. the Chinese aircraft were detected inside the ADIZ at the altitudes of 5,700, 6,300, 7,000, 7,500, and 8,400 meters. Taiwan's Air Force broadcast 24 warnings to the PLAAF planes, including cautioning several times that they were "close to my airspace." This is a rarely used warning indicating they were close to penetrating Taiwan's sovereign airspace. According to the Ministry of National Defense (MND), two H-6 bombers, eight J-16 fighters, four J-10 fighters, and four J-11 fighters of the PLAAF crossed Taiwan's Median Line and intruded into the country's ADIZ.
The Ministry of National Defense on 19 September 2020 released the news of the Communist Army through the official website "Real-time Military Updates", announcing that a total of 19 military aircraft of the Communist Army have invaded Taiwan's airspace, and some of them have crossed the middle of the strait. The aircraft types include 12 F-16s, 2 J-10 fighters, 2 J-11 fighters, 2 H-6 fighters, and 1 Y-8 anti-submarine aircraft. In addition to dispatching air patrols and emergency take-offs, the Taiwan military responded by broadcasting, and use anti-aircraft missiles to pursue surveillance. The Ministry of National Defense stated that "the Chinese Communist People’s Liberation Army’s provocative actions that violated our sovereignty by crossing the middle line of the Strait for two consecutive days have severely undermined the status quo of peace and stability in the Taiwan Strait and the region. The producers should jointly maintain peace and security in the Taiwan Strait and the Indo-Pacific region".
On 23 September 2020, two PLA Y-8 ASW aircraft entered Taiwan’s southwest ADIZ again, the flight paths as illustrated. ROCAF fighters scrambled and deployed air defense missile system to monitor the activities.
Eight Chinese bomber planes and four fighter jets entered the southwestern corner of Taiwan's air defence identification zone on 23 January 2021, and Taiwan's air force deployed missiles to "monitor" the incursion, the island's Defence Ministry said. China had conducted almost daily flights over the waters between the southern part of Taiwan and the Taiwan-controlled Pratas Islands in the South China Sea in recent months. However, they have generally consisted of just one or two reconnaissance aircraft.
The presence of so many Chinese combat aircraft on this mission - Taiwan said it was made up of eight nuclear-capable H-6K bombers and four J-16 fighter jets - is unusual. A map provided by Taiwan's Defence Ministry showed that the Chinese aircraft, which also included a Y-8 anti-submarine aircraft, flew over the same waters where the most recent Chinese missions have been taking place near the Pratas Islands, though still well away from mainland Taiwan.
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