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National Democratic Alliance (NDA)

After the 1989 coup, the banned parties gradually coordinated a common opposition strategy. Northern political leaders initiated a dialogue with the SPLM that resulted in early 1990 in a formal alliance among the SPLM, the Umma Party, and the DUP. This grouping, known as the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), an organization in exile, most of whose leaders lived in Cairo, provided the Umma and other parties with access to valuable radio transmitting facilities in SPLM-controlled areas.

After the 1989 military takeover, the Communist Party of Sudan [CPS] played a prominent role in the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), an umbrella of parties and forces opposed to the National Salvation Revolution [i.e. National Islamic Front led] rule of General Al Bashir. The Umma played a central role in forming the opposition umbrella NDA but left it in 1999, and Sadiq returned to Sudan from exile. In 1990, the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM) joined the opposition umbrella NDA. In 1995, the SPLA went on the military offensive again, while its NDA allies opened another front in Eastern Sudan.

The Beja Congress began an armed struggle in 1994, joining the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the Eritrean-backed opposition coalition. NDA control extended along the border with Eritrea, from and including the towns of Hameshkoreb in the north to Teluk in the south. The Democratic Unionist Party, led by Mohamed Osman al-Mirghani was a founding member of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), and went into opposition following the 1989 military takeover. DUP leader Mohamed Osman Al Mirghani became its chairman. When the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ended the war in the South in 2005, Mirghani signed a political reconciliation agreement with the government.

The NDA was further strengthened when several high-ranking military officers whom the RCC-NS had dismissed from service in 1989 established informal contacts with it. The most prominent of these officers was Lieutenant General Fathi Ahmad Ali, who had served as armed forces commander in chief prior to Bashir's coup. In January 1991, the NDA proposed to establish a government in exile for the purpose of overthrowing the Bashir regime. General Ali was named head of the government, and Garang his deputy. In March 1991, the NDA met in Ethiopia with representatives of military officers, professional associations, trade unions, and the Sudanese Communist Party to discuss ideas for organizing a national government.

Although all political parties remained officially banned in 1991, many precoup parties continued to operate underground or in exile. All the major Sudanese political parties in the north were affiliated with Islamic groups, a situation that has prevailed since before independence in 1956. Among the important religious organizations that sponsored political parties were the Ansar, the Khatmiyyah, and the Muslim Brotherhood. Although several secular parties had been set up between 1986 and 1989, except for the long-established Sudanese Communist Party and the Baath (Arab Socialist Resurrection) Party, none of these had effective organizations after the coup.

In 2005 June the Government and exiled opposition grouping National Democratic Alliance (NDA) signed reconciliation deal allowing NDA into power-sharing administration.



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