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IAR-93 / AVIOANE J-22 Orao (Eagle)

The IAR-93 multipurpose tactical aircraft is a joint product of the Romanian and Yugoslav industries. The program is named Juron, and, outside of Romania, the plane is known by the code name J-22 Orao. The engines of this traditional overhead swept-back wing model are located in the fuselage. It has two built-in 30-mm machine cannons, and, on its two weapon suspension points under each half-wing, and on the single one on the bottom of the fuselage, it carries air-to-air missiles and aerial bombs. The plane also has a two-seater trainer version.

The IAR 93 aircraft represents the birth certificate of AVIOANE CRAIOVA S.A. company and the second begining of reaction aviation in Romania after the first one - with mondial priority, done in 1910 by the romania engineer HENRI COANDA with his aircraft, built with the support of the great french Gustave Eiffel and Paul Painleve, aircraft that was presented at the Second Air Show in Paris. The first flight of the romanian prototipe of IAR 93 took place in Bacau, Romania on 31st of October 1974. The prototipe was realised with major contribution of U.R.A. - Bacau and I.R.M.A.- Bucuresti, locations in which part of the technical and manufacturing personel of the future Plant 444 - Craiova was trained.

The project was born as result of common ambitious initiative of the Jugoslavian president - Iosip Broz Tito and of Romanian at the time president, to achieve in co-operation an aircraft desired to become the fighter of the non aligned countries .

The Orao is a twin-engine, turbojet, high-wing aircraft intended for performing tactical assault missions within the zone of the front and also in the enemy rear. It is manufactured in single-seater (J-22) and two-seater (NJ-22) versions and as a single-seater (IJ-22) and two-seater (INJ-22) reconnaissance plane, though the latter's engine does not have afterburning. The wing is trapezoidal, swept-back, low thickness ratio with pronounced strakes (hybrid wings). The propulsion system consists of two single-shaft Rolls-Royce turbojet engines in the Viper family. The engines are located side by side, in the rear section of the fuselage.

Following the Yugoslav aircraft industry's success with the G-2 Galeb [Sea Gull] and J-1 Jastreb [Hawk] airplanes, attention turned to designing a more up-to-date combat aircraft to replace the F-84 Thunderjet in supporting the fleet of Jastreb light assault planes. In 1968 Yugoslav experts began work on developing a two-engine attacker of high subsonic speed-orao ( Eagle) type. Romania, intending to replace older models of the MiG-17, soon joined the new effort in 1970. The joint program was given the name YUROM (YUgoslavia-ROMania).

On May 20 1971, the governments of Romania and Yugoslavia signed an agreement for the formation of YuRom, a joint R&D venture. The program called for a transonic twin-engine plane, intended for support of units at the front and for assault operations, that would be simple to operate and easy to maintain. A secondary role was envisaged as a fighter-interceptor in combating helicopters, transport planes, and fighter-bombers. The series 600 Viper engines of Rolls-Royce were chosen for the power plant. The aircraft was of conventional twin-engine, high mounted wing monoplane configuration with all flying surfaces swept. The Rolls-Royce Viper was chosen as the powerplant, as Soko had experience with licence-building this engine.

The prototypes took off for the first time, one in Yugoslavia and the other in Romania, on 31 October 1974. The Yugoslav aircraft was christened the Orao, while in Romania the plane was given the designation IAR-93. In series production the plane was designated the J-22, with NJ-22 for the two-seater version. In the period 1981-1984 a total fo 25 one-seater IJ-22 reconnasaince aircrafts and 9 two seaters with VIPER Mk 632-41 engine. The reconnasance containers contain aero photo cameras A-30, ASCAFA-5M and vinten 880 and the infrared linear scanner ILS-401.

For the rearmament of fighter-bomber aviation in the period 1983-1992, 57 one-seaters J-22 and 21 NJ-22 twoseaters. Last series of oneseaters and all twoseaters had Mk 633-41 engines with chambers for afterburning. There were 33 Orao aircrafts in the SAF Air Force of which 16 were J-22, 7 NJ-22,8-IJ-22 and 2-INJ-22. Aircraft in flight condition are mostly concentrated on Ladjevci air base in 241. fighter-bomber escadrille.

For self-defense of the aircraft the arsenal of weapons has been bolstered with short-range air-to-air missiles with infrared homing, which are installed on two new armament lines on the wingtips, each with a carrying capacity of 100 kg. The assortment of weapons has also been broadened with laser, antiradar, and antiship missiles and short-range air-to-air projectiles. Armament includes two twin-barrel GS-23L 23-mm cannon with 200 rounds each. The maximum weapon-carrying capacity is 2,800 kg.

Since 1981, when the Orao was introduced into service, in the accidents (including the former) Yugoslavia in the air force, the FRY / Serbia and Montenegro, Serbian Republic and Serbia, 29 aircraft were lost (two planes on combat duty) of which 14 J- 22, 6 seater NJ-22, 4 scouts IJ-22 and 5-seater INJ-22. 8 pilots were killed and of 28 accidents before the last, in 17 cases the cause of the crash was technical failure.

As of 2013, the Serbian Air Force employed 9 units J-22 (of which three with engines that had "additional combustion" - ie afterburners), 7 of the 2-seater NJ-22, 8 Scouts IJ-22 two-seater INJ-22. Of these, at the hunter-bomber squadron "Tigers" on Ladevci had only three active J-22 and two NJ-22. Another J-22 had for years been at the Center for Technical and flight tests at Batajnica airport. Aircraft variants IJ-INJ-22 and 22 had not flown for almost 8 years and so there were no operational Serbian military reconnaissance planes.

Specifications
Purpose twin-engined, subsonic, close support, ground attack and tactical reconnaissance aircraft, with secondary capability as low level interceptor. It was built as single-seat main attack version or as a combat capable two-seat version for advanced flying and weapon training. It was developed as a joint Yugoslav-Romanian project in the 1970s for the air forces of both nations.
Length42 ft 8 in / 13.02-14,9 m
Wingspan30 ft 6 in / 9.3-9,62 m
wing area26 m2
Height14 ft 10 in / 4.52 m
Weight - Empty12,676 lb / 5.700-5,750 kg
normal loaded weight8.400 kg
Weight Max T/O24,030 lb / 10,900-11.200 kg
Powerplant2 Turbomecanica/Orao-built Rolls-Royce Viper Mk 632-47 turbojets w/ afterburner
Thrust
  • 8,000 lb
  • 10,000 lb w/ afterburner
Max Speed702 mph
max speed at 5.000 m1.160 km/h
max speed at sea level1.260 km/h
rate of climb4.500 m/min
service ceiling13.200 m
combat radiuswith lo-lo-lo profile with four 128 mm missile launchers 160 km
Range712 nm
Armament
  • five hardpoints-6,173 lb
  • Up to 2,800 kg (6,173 lb) of stores, including: AGM-65 Maverick TV guided AGM Grom-1 Radio-guided AGM (based on Soviet Kh-23) BL755 cluster bombs
  • two 23mm twin GSh-23L cannon
  • bombs
  • rockets
  • AA-2 Atoll AAM
Crew one, pilot

AVIOANE J-22 Orao (Eagle) AVIOANE J-22 Orao (Eagle) AVIOANE J-22 Orao (Eagle) AVIOANE J-22 Orao (Eagle) AVIOANE J-22 Orao (Eagle) AVIOANE J-22 Orao (Eagle)




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