Volga-Ural Military District
The Volga Military District was combined with the Urals Military District in 1989. On 01 September 2001, the Urals and Volga Military Districts) were merged into a single district (designated Volga-Urals) headquartered in Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk Oblast). At that time the command staff of the Volga MD became the headquarters of the new Second Combined Arms Army (CAA). The formation of a Volga-Urals single military district in the central Asian strategic direction is a significant step forward in enhancing control of Russia's southern rims.
The Volga-Urals Military District lies within the administrative borders of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Republic of Mariy El, the Republic of Mordovia, the Republic of Tatarstan, the Udmurt Republic, the Chuvash Republic, Kirov, Kurgan, Orenburg, Penza, Perm, Samara, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk, and Chelyabinsk Oblasts, and the Komi-Permyak, Khanty-Mansiysk, and Yamalo-Nenetsk Autonomous Okrugs.
The Volga Military District, headquartered at Samara, is an interior district that includes the 2d Combined Arms Army, together with an airborne division that is operationally subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. The 2d Combined Arms Army is an understrength unit consisting of the 16th and 90th Tank Divisions. Also in the Volga district are the 27th Motorized Rifle Division and the 469th District Training Center, which are directly subordinate to the district commander. The center for training units in peacemaking, peacekeeping and peace support operations was been established by the Russian Defence Ministry in Totskoye, Volga Military District, on the southern Russian-Kazakhstan border. Here, the 27th Guards Motor Rifle Division was reconstituted into a peacekeeping division.
An unprecedented command and staff exercises with units of the US Army 3rd Mechanized Division and those of the Russian 27th Guards MRD took place in September 1994 at Totskoye. The 27th MRD had been designated for inclusion in the UN's reserve of peacekeeping forces but had little experience of interacting with the peacekeeping forces of other countries. The exercises, aimed at working out a single standard of documentation for coalition peacekeeping forces, involved 250 personnel from the US 3rd Infantry Division and 250 from the Russian 27th Guards Motor Rifle Division.
The Ural Military District lies south of the Northern district and east of the Ural Mountains, with the Siberian district to its east. The Ural district, whose headquarters is at Yekaterinburg, includes two tank divisions and two motorized rifle divisions.
In accordance with the President's Decree of the Russian Federation ? 337- 337-s of 24 March, 2001, on 1 September, 2001, on the base of Volga and Ural military districts is formed Volga- Ural military district. On the basis of the same edict, and also order of 23 April, 2001, ? of ?2-rps of the President of the Russian Federation and directive of the first deputy minister of defense RF of 17 April, 2001, ? 314/2/0300 control of Ural military district located in Ekaterinburg is re-formed in control of Volga- Ural military district. Covering the territory of twenty subjects of the Russian Federation with the population into 41 million 249 thousand people and an area of 2 million 783 thousand square kilometers, Volga- Ural military district are one of the most important associations of the armed forces of Russia. The extent of the land boundary of region exceeds 14 thousand kilometers, sea - is more than 5 thousand kilometers. These are the strongest, having heavy stock of resources region both by the personnel and on the economy. On a scale of Russia this composes one third.
The army of combined arms with the staff in Samara city is formed in the territory of the former Volga military district. As a result of this reformation of control elements noticeably increased the combat capabilities of forces and facilities in the Central-Asian direction.
Since the Volga- Ural military district is created not at the empty place, today we are right to be proud of the combat history of its predecessors - Ural, Volga and Kazan' military districts. By history, which counts not one decade, by the noted honest service and by the exploits of many generations of the soldiers of the Volga Region and Urals into the glory of Russia.
The history of Russian army to Volga Region and in the Urals departs to the depth it is age-long, to the times of connection in 1552 to Russia of Kazan' khanate. In 3 years, in 1555 as the tributary of Russian reign recognized himself the khan of the Siberian khanate Of ediger. But the first Russian military formations, which were appeared in these places, were the Cossack forces, whose efforts and connected to Russia Siberia. Samarskiye and isetskiye, Ural and Siberian, Astrakhan and Orenburg cossacks not only stood on the guard of the southern and eastern boundaries of the country, but also contributed to the expansion of the limits of the Russian Empire.
In 18th century in the boundary fortresses Of orenburzh'ya and in the large cities of Volga Region, Urals and West Siberia appeared also the first regiments and the battalions of regular Russian army. However, the creation in Russia of military- circumferential system as the component part of the Arms Forces Administration, relates to the later time, to the second-half KHYKH of century.
The separation of the territory of the country into the military districts occurred in the course of the military reform 1855-1881, whose measures were conducted under the management of such well-known servicemen and statesmen as the Generals OF A.F. Of rediger and D.A. Of milyutin. Passage to the new troop command and control system, which allowed to transmit the part of the functions of the central apparatus of the War Ministry regional military structures became the purpose of the reform, approved by emperor Aleksandr II. By the highly affirmed position of 6 August, 1864, and by the order of the Defense Minister ? 267 territory of Russia it was divided into 15 military districts. Each military district was the organ of combatant control of troops and simultaneously by the organ of military-administrative device, being the War Ministry on a local scale. In the regions artillery, engineering, comissariat and military medical administrations were created. In the number of others in the territory of the Volga province of the Russian Empire Kazan' military district with the staff in Kazan city was formed. As first commander-in-chief of forces of Kazan' military district was appointed lieutenant general knorring. In 1865 in the composition of Kazan' military district were included the troops of the special Orenburg military district, which are stationed in Ekaterinburg, while in 1871 special Orenburg military district with the territory from the Orenburg to Perm' completely became part Kazan' military district. In 1881 into KazVO entered Kazan', Orenburg and Ufa provinces, part of the territory of Permian province, and also Ural and Turgay regions.
Toward the end 19th century in the territory of Kazan' military district were stationed five reserve infantry brigades, the brigade of cavalry reserve, two (reserve and spare) artillery brigades, subdivisions of Astrakhan, Orenburg and Ural Cossack troops, and also four local brigades and separate reserve commands. Furthermore, in the territory of region were placed different comissariat, military medical and military-law establishments, and also whole series of military educational institutions.
"Kazan' military district is important as completely reliable basis for foodstuffs and supply of army, it was noted in the military encyclopedia, published in 1913 by the known Petersburg publishing house Of sytina, connected with outstanding aqueous and railway lines with the different regions of Europe and Asian Russia... the means of region are very significant: horses very much, bread, oats, hays, fishes, salts, fuels also of iron large surplus ".
The total area of the territory of region in those years was 1 million 917 thousand square versts with the population of 25 million people. In three more years prior to the beginning of the First World War, in 1911, on the base of the reserve parts of the Kazan' military district the development of the 16th and 24- GO of army corps began, and directly before beginning war on the base of the staff of region was formed the administration of the 4th army. In three years of war the region directed toward front 7951 march company, and from March through October 1917 - of 1160 additional march companies, or about 300 thousand soldiers.
In the fields of the battles of the First World War the formed in Kazan' military district 24-1 army corps of styazhal to itself immortal fame in the composition of the eighth army of General from the cavalry of Brusilov. In the famous Brusilovskom breakthrough differed also 195-1 Orovayskiy and 37-1 Ekaterinburg the infantry regiments, formed in Ekaterinburg. Regiments participated in the taking of fortress Galich in the Dniester, in the blockade Of peremyshlya, in combat in the Carpathians and in the invasion of the territory of Hungary. Heroically warred in the fields of battles and other formed in the Kazan' military district connections and the part of the regular troops, and also Orenburg and Ural cossacks. Orenburg Cossack army directed toward the fronts of the First World War of 19 horse it was regimental, 10 artillery batteries, 50 Cossack hundred, and Ural - 9 horse it was regimental, one battery, 10 Cossack hundred.
In 1916 in the composition of Kazan' military district they was registered: Vyatsky, Kazan', Ufa, Penza, Saratov, Astrakhan, Samarskaya, Permian (with the city by Ekaterinburg) and Orenburg provinces, Ural and Turgay regions, the territory of Orenburg and Ural Cossack troops.
In the beginning of 1917 in the region were 98 garrisons, in which 588 military parts also of establishments were placed, counted 17 thousand officers and more than 772 thousand soldiers and non-comissioned officers. In one Ekaterinburg alone at the beginning of 1917 in reserve regiments and battalions were quartered about 50 thousand soldiers. By that time into KazVO was created the fixed structure of the Arms Forces Administration, guarantee and preparation of reserves, calculation and call to the service of reservists. Nevertheless under the conditions of the tightened world war, failures, postigshikh Russian army at the front, among the quartered in the large cities of the region of soldiers spare parts ever more increased dissatisfaction. Influence on the soldier masses of the left parties, including Bolsheviks simultaneously grew. In Ekaterinburg, for example, the council of soldier deputies was formed on 11 March, 1917, while the council of working deputies appeared in the city only in the week, on 19 March. During July 1917 the soldier committees of all four quartered in Ekaterinburg spare it is regimental accepted Bolshevik resolutions about the passage of authority into the hands of councils. In the morning on 26 October, 1917, with obtaining from Petrograd Proceedings about the Bolshevik revolution the soldiers of Ekaterinburg garrison were collected over The kokovinskoy area to the meeting, at which the Bolsheviks Pavel khokhryakov and Yakov Yurovskiy declared about the passage of all authority to the councils of working, soldier, peasant and Cossack deputies. Toward the end of the month the Soviet regime was proclaimed in all large cities of the Volga Region and Urals. At the same time in a number of places, especially in the Orenburg province and the Ural region, the cossacks and the well-to-do peasantry showed the furious resistance to establishment of the Soviet regime.
It is formal after the October Revolution of 1917 the military districts of Russia, including Kazan', preserved their organizational and manning structures, systems of control and guarantee. During November 1917 at the post commander-in-chief of forces Kazan' military district of tsarist General Dobrynin replaced the ensign Nikolai Ershov, who was remaining himself on this post up to May of 1918. But state herself proved to be the split Civil War, in conditions of which old circumferential system proved to be incapable. Already during November 1917 in the South Urals the chieftain of Orenburg Cossack troops A.I. Of dutov raised cossacks to the armed riot against the authority of Bolsheviks. Only later anti-Soviet uprising under the management of the chieftain OF V.S. Of tolstova began also in the cossack villages of Ural Cossack troops. Arrived from Samara under the management V.K. of Blucher and from Petrograd under the command of the Warrant Officer OF S.D. Pavlov Red Guards forces during December 1917 knocked out White Cossacks from Troitska, and during January 1918 - from the Orenburg. However, the victory of the Soviet regime in many respects was caused by the fact that the old Russian army did not come out against it. Actually old army was liquidated to December 1917. The democratization of army, the transfer of all authority in the parts to the soldier committees, the abolition of military ranks and privileges, introduction to the electivity of executive body and other measures of council of peoples commissars deprived the counterrevolutionary disposed Generals and the officers of the possibility to use an army for dealing against the revolution. At the same time these measures led to reduction in discipline in the troops and loss by the army of combat efficiency. Soldiers left barracks and by entire subdivisions they left home, where the question main for them was solved: on the earth. Soviet government, going towards the interests of peasantry, which composed the majority of personnel of army, was forced to direct the spontaneous process of a "reduction" in the number of troops, and simply mass desertion, into the organized river bed. Already during December 1917 in Ekaterinburg control of local brigade disbands, and toward the end of February of 1918 are liquidated the administrations of local brigades, also, in all other large cities of Kazan' military district.
At the same time new government realizes the need for the presence of the armed force, capable of protecting the country. To the grown from the working guards, separate badly armed and not trained to military science forces of the Red Guards this task occurs clearly not on the forces. Therefore already during January 1918 THE III All-Russian congress of councils unanimously speaks out for the creation of the armed forces of the Soviet State, and on 15 January izdayetsya the decree of council of peoples commissars about the organization of the Working- peasant Red Army. However, the administrative staff of old military districts, including Kazan', in every way possible sabotaged measures for the creation of parts and connections of the Red Army; therefore on 31 March, 1918, the highest military council of republic makes decision about a change in the military-administrative division of the country. On the basis of this solution on 4 May, 1918, the chairman of the Council of Peoples' Commissars signs the decree, according to which are created Yaroslavl, Moscow, Orel, White Sea, Volga and Ural military districts. Volga military district with the center in Samara included The samarskeye, Simbirskeye, Penza and Astrakhan provinces. Into the composition of the Ural military district, whose center affirmed Ekaterinburg, entered Permian, Ufa, Orenburg, Vyatsky and Kazan' provinces. Thus, after the October Revolution of 1917 the territory of the former Kazan' military district proved to be as if subdivided between two newly created regions. By the first leaders (military commissars) of Volga and Ural military districts during May 1918 were assigned A.F. Of dolgushin (PriVO) and F.I. Of goloshchekin (UrVO).
From the first days of existence of new military districts their territory proved to be the arena of severe it was combat Civil War. During May 1918 raised armed rebellion the Czechoslovak housing, whose parts were located in the echelons, which were extended on the stations of Trans-Siberian main from Volga it was coast to East Siberia. Because of the complex situation on the approaches to Samara at the same time was accepted the solution about the redislocation of control of Volga military district into Kazan and about the transfer of Kazan' province from UrVO to PriVO. But on 8 August belochekhi took Kazan; therefore control of Volga military district moved still further to the West, into Nizhniy Novgorod, and Nizhniy-Novgorod province on the resolution of government also became part PriVO. After in the summer of 1918 in the hands of White Guards proved to be Ekaterinburg, for control of Ural military district also it was necessary for some time to replace the place for its dislocation. Nevertheless, as is known, in the internal Civil War in Russia victory gained the Soviet regime and its Red Army. In the battles with the army of the?verkhovnogo ruler of Russia? Admiral Kolchak, with the Czechoslovak housing and the White Cossack connections of chieftains Dutova and Tolstova was opened the leadership talent V.I. of Chapaev, G.D. of Gaius, I.S. Of kutyakova, V.M. of azine, V.K. of Blucher, M.N. Of tukhachevskogo, M.T. of Frunze and other well-known Soviet military leaders. At the eastern Front of Civil War, which penetrated trans-Volga steppes and Urals, gained glory the 20th Penza, 21-4 Permian, 24-4 Samara- Ulyanov iron, 25-4 Chapayevskaya, 26-4 Zlatoust, 27-4 Omsk, 28-4 Azinskaya rifle divisions and other connections and the part OF RKKA - WORKERS' AND PEASANTS' RED ARMY. After the expulsion of White Guards beyond the limits of Volga- Ural region during August 1919 was here formed the spare army of Soviet republic, which prepared in the years of Civil War combat reserves for the front number more than million people. In the large garrisons of Volga military district infantry, machine-gun, cavalry, artillery, engineering and war economy command courses were opened, and three armies were formed to the autumn of 1919 in its territory, several individual divisions, parts and subdivisions. Artillery and machine-gun courses were opened also in Ekaterinburg, and in the spring of 1918 here passed the first after the October Revolution collection of listeners into the evakuirovannuyu from Petrograd in the Urals academy of General Staff. The fixed structure of the Arms Forces Administration, guarantee and preparation of reserves was created to 1921 in the military districts OF RKKA - WORKERS' AND PEASANTS' RED ARMY, the work of establishments on the call of reservists to the service was fixed.
After the end of Civil War Soviet government made a decision about the significant reduction of army, first of all - in the internal regions. In connection with this on 21 April, 1922, Ural military district was disbanded. Its staff and control left to the complete outfitting of the apparatus of Western Siberian military district the center in Omsk, and territory and troops were transmitted to Western Siberian, Volga, Moscow and Petrograd military districts. Significant reductions were carry ouied also in the Volga military district, where many parts and connections were disbanded, and of 20 military educational institutions it remained 11. In the middle of the 20th the part of the Red Army they were annual transferred into the formation according to the regular territory principle. During November 1926 staff and control PriVO were united into the united apparatus, which received the designation of?Shtab of Volga military district?. The composition of territorial of shaping PriVO in the 30's substantially changed in connection with an increase in the technical equipment of troops. In 1932 into service of the parts, which were being stationed in the Volga Region and in the Urals, began to enter the tanks. In the rifle divisions, besides rifle, artillery and engineering it is regimental, appear tank companies, while in the rifle corps - truck companies. Are opened Ulyanov and Saratov armored schools, Orenburg antiaircraft-artillery school, Kazan' advance courses of the elder and average military technical composition of the mechanized troops OF RKKA - WORKERS' AND PEASANTS' RED ARMY, Ulyanov communication school. Active becomes to the wing military aviation. In PriVO are created the Vol'sk, Saratov and Orenburg schools of military pilots. In 1931 in Perm' aviation-engineering school was opened, is later preobrazovannaya into the aviation-engineering school. One of the first cadets of school became A.I. Of pokryshkin, subsequently proclaimed Soviet pilot, three times Hero of the Soviet Union, the Air Marshal. In 1932 from Kazan to Sverdlovsk the staff of the 13th rifle corps was transferred. In connection with the complicated international situation, the seizure in 1931 of Manchuria, the arrival in 1933 at the authority in Germany of Nazi party headed by Hitler in the world the centers of unleashing new world war were outlined by Japanese militarists. Under these conditions Ural military district in the composition of Kirov edge, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk provinces, Bashkir and UDMURTSKAYA A S S R is again created by the order of the druggie of the defense OF THE USSR of 17 May, 1935. Staff and control of region were located in Sverdlovsk. As the commander by troops of that recreated UrVO was appointed the hero of Civil War the corps commander OF I.I. Gar'kavyy. In 1937 I.I. Gar'kavyy was punished. The same lot of postigla and replaced it at this post of the corps commander OF YA.P. Of gaylita and assigned to this post in 1938 of the commander of 2 ranks G.P. Sofronova. Troops PriVO in those years commanded such well-known military leaders as the commander of 2 ranks P.E. Dybenko, Marshal of the Soviet Union M.N. Tukhachevskiy, the corps commanders OF M.G. Of efremov, P.A. of Bryansk, K.A. Of meretskov. They, as is known, they did not also avoid the repressions of the end of the thirtieth it was annual.
But not only by political repressions?ezhovshchinoy? and by judicial violence above the executive body OF RKKA - WORKERS' AND PEASANTS' RED ARMY are memorable those years. For twenty years between civil and World War IIX for the Soviet soldiers repeatedly it was necessary to undertake weapon for the protection of the national interests. And no matter where from threatened the danger in the fatherland, Volga and Ural military districts immediately sent troops to the protection of the inviolability of the boundaries of the native land. So it was in 1929 during the conflict on the Chinese- eastern railroad, in 1936, when the government of Spanish republic did turn to our country for help in the suppression of the Fascist mutiny of General Franco, in 1939, when Japanese militarists did untie conflict in the region of Khalkhin-Gol river, in 1940 during the?zimney war? with Finland. In combat in Khalkhin-Gol were characterized by 57-4 rifle division PriVO and 82-4 rifle division UrVO. During January 1940 to the North Western Front of war with Finland are moved formed in Urals 128-4 rifle division, 82-1 tank regiment, several separate automobile and ski battalions, hospital trains and field hospitals. World War II 1941-45 yr occupies special position in the history of Volga and Ural military districts. In those years in the territory of regions were stationed 203 military educational institutions, that prepared for the front of more than 1/3 total numbers of command personnel of acting army. Were here formed, trained and sent for the front more than three thousand associations, connections and parts. PriVO only directed toward the front in the years of war of approximately two million people the consisting of five armies, 132 divisions, more than 300 separate it was regimental, battalions and battalions. In the Ural military district was formed and diminished to the Western Front already during the first days of war the 22nd army, by commander of which was assigned commanded in the pre-war years troops UrVO the lieutenant general OF F.A. Of ershakov. In the course of persistent defensive it is combat in Belorussia connection and part of this army they appeared exceptional durability and courage. Then to the end of August of 1941 of the part of the army Velikie Luki persistently retained the boundaries of defense in the city district, forging the large forces of enemy and giving the possibility to unroll strategic reserves on the approaches to Moscow.
In August combat the rifle division formed in Sverdlovsk region 153-4 separately differed. For durability and courage, appeared in combat on the Belorussian and Smolensk earth, on 18 September, 1941, 153-4 Ural rifle division in the number of first four connections was honored guard title and was preobrazovana into the 3rd guard rifle division. In the fall of 1942 and in the winter of 1943 heroically battled in the environs of Stalingrad the soldiers of formed in the Urals from the parts of the 6th airborne corps 40th guard rifle division. In 1943 from the approval of the state committee of defense on voluntary noncompensated service and over the contingent of people, which were being directed to front according to the plan of the people's commissariat of defense, in the territory of the Sverdlovsk, Permian and Chelyabinsk provinces was formed the 30th Ural voluntary armored corps in the composition of 197-1 Sverdlovsk, 243-1 Permian and 244-1 Chelyabinsk of tank brigades. Into the composition of housing entered also the 30th powered rifle brigade and a number of individual parts and subdivisions. Entire combat technology, armament and the munitions for equipping the voluntary armored corps Uralians prepared over the plan on the overtime works. Subsequently housing for the differences in combat was renamed into the 10th guard Ural- L'vov voluntary armored corps. During April 1945 two Ural connections: 150-4 Major Generals OF V.M. Of shatilova and 171-4 Colonels OF A.I. Of negody rifle divisions first burst open to the reichstag. Victory banner above the cupola of reichstag erected the intelligence officers 756- GO of the regiment of 150-1 rifle division the sergeants OF M.A. Yegorov M.T. Of kantariya. Almost all Ural connections and parts, directed to the acting army in the years of World War II, were noted by honorable designations and rewarded with orders, many them them they became guard. The soldiers of the 5th and 6th guard armies formed in the Volga military district, 1st and 171-1 rifle divisions, 91-1 individual tank brigade and other formations and parts covered their banners in the fields of battles with the Fascist aggressors with the unfading glory. Personnel PriVO introduced into the fund for the defense of 17 million rubles, built to its means and sent to the front two tank columns (name EXPLOSIVE of Kuybyshev im. V.I. Chapaev), and also air squadron of?Komsomolets of Volga military district?. More than two and one-half thousands of Uralians and Volga-region natives for the exploits in combat in the fields of the battles of World War II were honored the Title of Hero of the Soviet Union. Among them such publicly well-known heroes as Aleksandr matrosov, Victor Talalikhin, Musa Of dzhalil', Mikhail devyatov, Nikolai Kuznetsov, and many others. In the glorious cohort of Heroes of the Soviet Union the sons and the daughters of all peoples of the Volga Region and Urals are represented.
In the years of war in in the years of war in city Kuybyshev (now Samara), was realized the colossal volume of works on the building of the units of the infrastructure of the political system of the state for connection and control. The basic composition of the government of the country and entire corps diplomatique of the embassies of foreign states was located from October 1941 through August 1943 in Kuybyshev. Control of the vital activity of state was accomplished from this city in the most critical period of war. The Urals in those years became basic arsenal and main base of the defense industry of the country. As long ago as 1941 from the western the fields and the republic ofs THE USSR many of hundreds of important industrial enterprises were here relocated, and the volume of the carrying out of the production of defense value in 1942 at the plants of the Urals grew in comparison with 1940 more than five. After the victory above Germany many thousands of soldiers PriVO and UrVO took active part in the liquidation of seat of war in the Far East. Rifle division formed in Volga 32-4, rifle divisions formed in Urals 215-4 and 371-4 especially differed in the war with Japan. The organizational and manning structure of regions and parts placed in them repeatedly changed in the postwar years. In 1945 together with PriVO and UrVO in the region it was created even and Kazan' military district in the composition of the Tatar, udmurt, mari and CHUVASHK ASSR, but in 1946 it was disbanded. In the same 1946 in the Volga military district large troop exercises were carry ouied. From February 1948 through March 1953 troops of Ural military district commanded the outstanding Soviet general Marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov. Takeing into account the experience of World War II and the new achievements of military science, Georgiy Constantinovich introduced serious changes in the organization of troops training. Combat training in the connections and the parts considerably was activated under his management. The tactical exercises with the prolonged detachment from the places for a constant dislocation, the accomplishment of marches up to the great distances more frequently began to be carried out. To Zhukov's arrival G.K. into UrVO of part they left to the summer into the different of camp, with it was equipped the united circumferential camp, in which seized craftsmanship rifle, tank, artillery and other parts, which made it possible to master questions of interaction of different it was ancestral troops.
50 years after great victory, during May 1995, into the memory about the service of the outstanding general in the Urals in Ekaterinburg over the area before the facade of the building of the staff of Ural military district was established majestic monument. The bronze horse statue of Marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov the works of well-known Ural sculptor Constantine gryundberg prepared the working foundry shops of Uralmashzavod - Ural Heavy Machinery Plant im. Sergo Ordzhonikidze, and the granite pedestal of monument elevated military builders UrVO. Increase in the technical equipment of subdivisions and parts, strengthening their maneuverability required improvement in the operational preparation of commanders and staffs. In the troops staff trainings and commanding staff studies in the locality more frequently began to be carried out. Combat materiel more complexly became; therefore for its study ever more advanced training and supply base was required. To its creation the efforts of innovators and inventors were directed. In 1950 into UrVO were introduced more than 6000 inventions and rationalizing suggestions, and at the circumferential conference of innovators and inventors in 1953 appreciation obtained acting of miniatures - tankpark, machine tool for the punching was trunk howitzers and adaptation to 120- mm to mortar for the shooting training mine. The first explosion of nuclear device in the Soviet Union in 1949 put an end to the monopoly OF THE USA to the atomic weapon. But on 14 September, 1954, in the territory of Volga military district on the range near The the totskogo in Orenburg region under the management of Marshal of the Soviet Union G.K. Zhukov was carry ouied large-scale study with the real application of nuclear weapons. In this study, during which were mastered operational questions of the offensive of combined arms unit, participated of approximately 45 thousand soldiers. During August 1957 in THE USSR was tested the first in the world intercontinental ballistic missile, which indicated the appearance of a fundamentally new nuclear rocket weapon. This required to radically change the organization of the combat training of troops. Furthermore, in the territory PriVO and UrVO from the end of the 50th it is annual they began to be placed the launching sites of parts and connections, arsenals and bases of strategic rocket forces. In the equipping of the garrisons of new military service the enormous contribution introduced the soldiers for construction administrations, UNR and construction units of the regions. The commanded troops of Ural military district in 1956-1958 well-known Soviet military leader Marshal of the Soviet Union N.I. Krylov in 1963 headed new military service OF THE USSR as the commander-in-chief OF RVSN.
In the post of the commander-in-chief of forces UrVO of the marshal OF N.I. Krylov in 1958 replaced not less renowned general of World War II twice Hero of the Soviet Union General of the Army D.D. Lelyushenko. Troops of Volga military district in the 60's commanded such well-known military leaders, as I.G. Pavlovsky, N.G. Lyashchenko, N.V. of candle-ends. The noticeable successes in the postwar years were achieved in the activity of those located on the territory PriVO and UrVO of military educational institutions. Special pride in the soldiers of our region causes the fact that the original discoverer of space became the pupil of the Orenburg military school of pilots Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin. Today in the Volga- Ural military district there are 27 military institutes also of schools, 3 Suvorov schools even 2 military schools, in connection with how region it remains the largest smithy of officer personnel for the armed forces of Russia. By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 15 January, 1974, for the large contribution to the cause of strengthening the defense power of the country and its armed protection Volga and Ural military districts were rewarded with the Order of the Red Banner. From 1979 through 1989 tens of thousands of Uralians and Volga-region natives carried out their military duty in Afghanistan, many of them were rewarded with orders and medals, and 17 soldiers PriVO and UrVO were honored the Title of Hero of the Soviet Union. After emergency on Chernobyl' AES in 1986 the soldiers of our regions were one first of that arrived in the region of radioactive contamination for overcoming of the consequences of extraordinary situation. On 1 September, 1989, on the base of Volga and Ural military districts was formed Volga- Ural military district with staff and control in Samara city. Commanding troops PUrVO assigned the colonel general OF A.M. Of makashov. In Ekaterinburg remained created on the base of staff UrVO the staff of army of combined arms. This was the time of the events, which radically changed situation inside the country, and the arrangement of forces in the world arena. Samorospuskom Oganizatsii of the Warsaw Pact did end existence the system of equilibrium?NATO? OVD? in Europe. The new independent states appeared in the territory of the former USSR, moreover not in all of them internal political situation was sufficient stable. For soldiers PUrVO was necessary in these years to participate in the peacemaking operations in the territory of South Osetia, Pridnestrov'ya, Tadzhikistan, Georgia. During June 1992 27-4 guard division PUrVO of the first in the armed forces Russian Federation obtained status of peacemaking connection.
After the collapse of the USSR Ural region became near-boundary with the number of the states of central Asia, part from which was characterized by extremely unstable situation. Under these conditions for the optimization of the command of troops, stationed in the Urals, for the performance of President's Decree RF? 757 of 7 July, 1992, and orders of Minister of Defense RF of 25 July, 1992, on the base of the red banner army of combined arms, whose staff was located in Ekaterinburg, in the range of the Sverdlovsk, Tyumen', Chelyabinsk and Kurgan provinces, Khanty Mansiysk and Yamalonenetskiy autonomous areas was restored Ural military district. As the commander by troops of that recreated UrVO were appointed experienced military leader, participant in the war shooting in Afghanistan the General OF YU.P. of Greeks, to of this served to the post first deputy commander-in-chief of forces Transcaucasian military district, group of Russian troops in Transcaucasia. Beginning from 1992 to the territory PriVO and UrVO additionally they were placed tens of connections and parts, concluded from the countries of near and far zarubezh'ya. Many of them were subsequently disbanded. This required enormous efforts from the side of the management of regions, local organs of authority on the guarantee of the dismissed on the reduction states in the reserve of soldiers by dwelling, their supply of material and job placement. During December 1997 in the composition of Volga military district the stationed in Tadzhikistan 201-4 motorized rifle division, which fulfills peacemaking functions in one of the unstable regions of central Asia, was included. Privolzhtsy did participate in the joint Russian- American studies of?Mirotvorets? 94? (Orenburg region, Russia) and?Mirotvorets? 95? (state of Kansas, USA). In the Ural military district since 1993 began training personnel of subdivisions, for which it subsequently was in prospect to fulfill peacemaking functions in the territory of Abkhaziya. More than 60 soldiers UrVO for courage and difference those appeared with the fulfillment of stated by command problems in the composition of peacemaking forces in Abkhaziya were noted by the state rewards to Russia.
In 1994-1996 the personnel of several parts PriVO and UrVO participated in the restoration of constitutional order in the territory of the Chechen republic. More than four thousand people were rewarded within this period with orders and medals, and six soldiers from the Volga and six of the Ural of military districts were honored the Title of Hero of Russia. In 2000 troops of Ural military district commanded a participant in the war shooting in the territory of the Chechen republic the colonel general OF EXPLOSIVES Tikhomirov (subsequently commander-in-chief of internal troop of Ministry of Internal Affairs RF). In the course of the continuous counter-terrorist operation in the North Caucasus and today carry out their military duty the soldiers of a number of individual parts Volga - Ural military district. Many of them for those appeared in this case heroism, courage and selflessness in 2000-2001 are rewarded with orders and medals. As is known, during August 1991 in the army were abolished political organs, party and Komsomol organizations. At the same time fundamentally new structures from the work with the personnel were created (at present the organs of educational work). For the past decade of control and the divisions, the deputy commanders of formations, parts and subdivisions according to educational work accumulated big enough experience of training soldiers, civil personnel, members of families in the patriotic spirit, faithfulness to military duty, and also experience of performing information and kul'turno-dosugovoy work with the personnel. Together with the commanders the training officers PurVO are active wires into the life of the measures of military reform.
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