North-Caucasian Military District
The North Caucasian Military District [SKVO] with its headquarters in Rostov-on-Donu was responsible for the Caucasus region. This district includes all of the North Caucasus region and the Don-Volga lands from Rostov-on-Donu to Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea, and from Dagestan in the south to the Volgograd Region in the north. This Military District includes many ethno-national regions, including Kalmyk Republic, Dagestan, Karachaevo-Cherkess Republic, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, North Ossetia, Chechnya, and Ingushetia. It borders on four independent states: Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Georgia, and Azerbijan. Within Russia it borders on the Voronezh and Saratov Regions. The end of the Soviet Union turned this Military District from a supporting to a frontline role in a very complex threat environment where external threats and internal instability are linked.
The North Caucasus Military District faces the former Soviet republics of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. It was defended by the 58th Combined Arms Army and the 8th and 67th Army Corps. However, these are not robust forces. The 8th Army Corps and the 58th Army each include only one motorized rifle division, and the 67th Army Corps has only reserve forces with no heavy equipment. The weakness of these units has helped motivate Russian proposals to renegotiate CFE Treaty limitations to allow additional forces along Russia's southern flank.
In August 1999 the Russian military response in Chechenya initially included one reinforced motorized infantry battalion of the Russian Interior Ministry's 102nd Brigade, and one reinforced motorized infantry battalion of the Russian Army's 136th Motorized Infantry Brigade. These troops, mostly undertrained and underequipped conscripts, were no match for the guerrillas. Additional units deployed to Dagestan included one reinforced battalion of the 31st Airborne Brigade [formerly the 104th "Scorpion" Airborne Division], based in Ulyanovsk, deployed in mid-August 1999. The 31st Brigade, had seen regular combat action since 1988, and prepared a second battalion for deployment. One battalion of the Pskov Airborne Division deployed August 18. Some 400 paratroopers from the Pskov Division had deployed to Bosnia Herzegovina and Kosovo as well. One battalion of the 21st Stavropol Airborne Brigade, from the North Caucasus Military District, deployed on 12 August 1999. A battalion of Airborne troops stationed in Buynaksk, Dagestan, as well as a brigade of paratroopers from Asbest in the Sverdlovsk region, also deployed in mid-August, along with units of the 7th Airborne Division in Novorossiysk. A motorized infantry regiment and other units from the 20th Guards Motorized Rifle Division based in Volgograd, which was involved in the assault on Grozny during the first Chechen ward, eployed 18 August 1999. Other deployments included elements of Divisions of the 58th Army in Vladikavkaz specializing in mountain warfare.
Units from the North Caucasus Military District included 58th Army HQ and support elements, the 136th Motor Rifle Brigade, 205th Motor Rifle Brigade and 19th Motor Rifle Division. Units from the Moscow Military District included elements of the 3rd Motor Rifle Division, as well as troops from 2nd (Taman) Guards Motor Rifle and 4th (Kantemirov) Guards Tank Divisions. The Leningrad Military District sent elements of the 138th Motor Rifle Brigade, the Volga Military District contributed a "tactical group" from 27th Guards Motor Rifle Division, the Urals Military District sent a "permanent readiness" Motor Rifle Regiment (believed to be part of 34th Motor Rifle Division), while the Siberian Military District sent a "permanent readiness" Motor Rifle Brigade (possibly 74th MR Brigade). Airborne Forces (VDV) included five battalions drawn from the 7th (Novorossiysk), 76th (Pskov), 98th (Ivanovo) and 106th (Tula) Guards Airborne Divisions and 31st (Ulyanovsk) Airborne Brigades.
Deployments also included a variety of other Marines units from the Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad, as well as units of the Shumilov Brigade of the Russian Interior Ministry's Internal Troops in Nizhniy Novgorod and OMON elite military police troops Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Tagil, Samara and other locations.
Units never operated at anything approaching their notional strength. 20 Guards Motor Rifle Division deployed from its base in Volgograd with a total strength of 1700 men, only about two-thirds of the wartime establishment of a single regiment. The quality of the troops was notoriously low.
In October 1999, as many as 80,000 Russian troops were deployed to Chechnya and surrounding areas. The situation in Chechnya remained deadlocked in 2002, with more than 75,000 Russian troops deployed in the republic unable to root out rebel forces.
During the entire antiterrorist operation the strength of the Armed Forces group in Chechnya have not exceeded 50,000. By January 2001 it included 40,000 servicemen and 170 tanks. The 138th mechanized infantry brigade had returned to the place of its deployment in the Leningrad Military District, and the 162nd tank regiment had returned to the Siberian Military District. The artillery and mortar units were also reduced.) At that time President Putin had decided that the 42nd Division's 15,000 troops and an Interior Forces brigade of 6,000-7,000 troops would remain permanently deployed in the republic.
North-Caucasian military district was founded by the decree of the council of the people commissioners on 4 May, 1918, in the territory Stavropol, Black Sea, Daghestan provinces, the regions of the troops: Donskoy, Kubanskogo, Terskogo.
By the order Of revoyensoveta of the southern Front of 3 October of y9y8g. the Red Army of the North Caucasus was renamed into the 11th army.
In the fire it was combat Civil War at the southern Front it were borne the 1st horse army. The basis of its formation were the forces Of b. dumenko, S. Budenniy, P. shevkoplyas, P. kuryshko, O. gorodovikov, which during May 1918 were united into the 1st cavalry regiment. During August cavalry brigade was created, during November - obosaya cavalry division (by commander of the first of regiment, brigade and division he was B. dumenko, his assistant - S. Budenniy). In the beginning of 1919 from the fourth and first Stavropol divisions horse housing was formed. During November 1919 on Beza of horse housing the 1st horse army under the command Of s. Budenniy was created
Caucasian Front was disbanded after Civil War in accordance with the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the republic of 4 May of y92yg. and the administration of North-Caucasian military district was recreated. Staff SKVO was arranged v Rostov- on to the Don, that commands troops assigned K. Voroshilov.
In the years of conducting military reform (y92ya-y928gg) in SKVO was created the network of military educational institutions for training of military personnel. Into the troops entered the new models of weaponry and technology, at mastery of which worked the personnel.
In the pre-war years North-Caucasian military district was one of the foremost regions. In this the big enough merit of the experimental military leaders: I. uborevich, I. Belov, N. Kashirina, S. Timoshenko, S. Gribov, V. kachalova, M. yefremova, F. Kuznetsov, I. koneva, in the different time of commanded SKVO.
Region in the period of World War II
During the World War II, already during its first days with fortitude and stably battled with the fascists the soldiers of the 19th army, which was formed in May-June of 1941 from the soldiers SKVO. Commander assigned the former commander-in-chief of forces SKVO lieutenant general I. Konev. At the end of June - beginning of July during the schitannye days were formed the 50th Kuban (commander PK i. pliyev) and 53-4 Stavropol (commander brigade commander k. mel'nik) cavalry divisions. In the second-half of July these connections became part of Western Front.
The counterattack of Soviet troops in the environs of Rostov during November 1941 had enormous political and military value. For the first time in World War II of troops of Fascist Germany they suffered serious defeat. In combat in the environs of Rostov the hordes, which composed basic impact force of Hitler troops in the southern direction, were forged and destroyed. In the course of the counterattack on 29 November it was the first time freed to the Rostov-on- Don.
North-Caucasian military district became the smithy of military personnel. Officers for the acting army prepared the highest cavalry courses in Novocherkassk, military- infantry schools in Rostov, Krasnodar, Ordzhonikidze, Groznyy, makhachkala, Maykope, Buynakske. Armavirskiye advance courses of executive body, artillery and military-political schools in Rostov, Krasnodar zenith artillery school, Yeyskoye and Krasnodar military air schools, military aviation schools in Krasnodar, Batayske, Armavire, Groznyy, Taganrog and to the Nakhichevan'-on- Don.
Soldiers -severokavkazqy battled with the Fascist-German aggressors at many fronts of World War II. They participated in the crushing defeat of enemy in the environs of Moscow, Stalingrad, they freed the Ukraine and Belorussia, samootverzhenno they battled beyond the limits of the native land.
The basic events of second-half 1942 and first half of 1943 at the Soviet-German front they unrolled in the limits of North-Caucasian military district. Here passed simultaneously and to the close of immediate strategic connection two great battles: Stalingrad (y".0".ya2g.-2.02.yaeg.) and for the Caucasus (2shch.0".ya2g.-9.y0.yaeg.).
Stalingrad battle had an enormous effect on the motion entire World War II. It continued 200 days. On the bitterness and the tension, on the spreads and the consequences this battle exceeded everything that the history knew, until now. In its separate stages from both sides acted more than 2 million people, 26 thousand instruments also of mortars, more than 2 thousand tanks and SAU, more than 2 thousand combat aircraft.
Tens of thousands of soldiers, officers and Generals were honored government rewards, 127 to soldiers, who most be outstandiwas themselves in combat, appropriated the Title of Hero of the Soviet Union, 754000 participants were honored medal "for the defense of Stalingrad".
Battle for the Caucasus occupies important place in the history of World War II. It began on 25 July, 1942, and continued until 9 October, 1943. The bitter battles with the enemy were developed along the front from 320 to 1000 kilometers and at the depth from 400 to 800 kilometers. For the accomplishment of the first task - to the destruction of the Soviet troops between the lower flow of the Don and the Kuban - was created the army group "A", which counted 167000 soldiers and officers, 1130 tanks, 4550 instruments, 1700 mortars, are more than thousand aircraft. Soviet troops, which resisted this enemy group, contained 112 thousand people, 121 tank, 2160 instruments also of mortars, 170 aircraft.
Five months continued defensive actions for the Caucasus. In this time for Fascist-German troops with the price of large losses it was possible to leave to the foothills of main Caucasian ridge and to Terek river. The offensive of our troops in the North Caucasus began in the first days of January and continued until 9 October, 1943. Within the period of offensive Soviet troops passed with combat near 800kilometrov, destroyed 275 thousands and took into custody more than 6 thousand soldiers and officers of enemy.
On 9 October, 1943, the commander-in-chief of forces SKVO I. Petrov reported to the supreme commander-in-chief: "in the Kuban and the Taman peninsula it remained not one living German, except prisoners".
North-Caucasian military Front and management of the 56th army were disbanded in accordance with the directive of the General Headquarters of the Supreme Command of 20 November, 1943. Independent seaside army was formed on their base.
After the completion of war shooting in the territory SKVO the associations formed here, connections and parts continued to valiantly battle with the enemy at many fronts of World War II before the complete victory above Fascist Germany.
Immediately enormous work on the reformation of subdivisions, parts and formations of region, their equipping unrolled after war. For the transfer of army into the peaceful position the order of the people commissioner of defense of 9 July 1945 in the territory of the North Caucasus created three military districts: Donskoy, Stavropol'skiy and Kubanskiy. The boundaries of the military districts were established: Donskoy was located in the territory of the Rostov, Stalingrad and Astrakhan provinces, Stavropol military district - in the territory of the Stavropol territory, Groznyy region, Kabardino-Balkarii and North Osetia; Kuban military district - in the territory of Krasnodar edge. In to the Rostov-on- Don were located control and staff of Donskoy of military district, who was considered the heir of the traditions of North-Caucasian military district. In 1946 Donskoy the military district again obtained its previous designation - North-Caucasian.
Extensive work unrolled on the restoration of the destroyed infrastructure of region. For soldiers it was necessary itself to overhaul barracks, to construct dining rooms, to equip military posts. Aid military parts rendered the local organs of authority. In turn, and soldiers helped simple citizens, especially to the workers of agriculture, in gathering of harvest, the repair of inventory, the building of economic accomodations.
However, from the first postwar months the military council took measures to that so that the troops would deal with systematic combat and political training, would support and would strengthen the alert. Studies - from the company to the regimental - were conducted regularly, including in the mountain locality, and on sea coast.
In 1946 began building of one of the most important strategic objects in the territory SKVO - rocket range Of kapustin steep bank. On 18 October, 1947, here was for the first time realized the starting of the first domestic ballistic missile. This day was inscribed into the history by the unforgettable landmark of the development of scientific and technical thought. Today the range Of kapustin steep bank - largest scientific research and test center of the country.
Under the qualitatively new conditions of combat training training military personnel had decisive importance. Under the management of the commander by troops SKVO Of a. Yeremenko in the region was improved training young officer personnel. In the air schools of region 15 future subjugators of space brought up and were formed, 7 of them became twice Heroes of the Soviet Union: P. Popovich, V. bykovskiy, V. Komarov, V. shatalov, V. gorbatenko, V. dzhanibekov, Yu. malyshev.
The corona of the enormous work of entire personnel of region were participations in the troop maneuvers "Dvina", passed during March 1970. In the maneuvers all of a branch of the service of the armed forces OF THE USSR participated. They were carried out under the heavy winter-spring conditions in Belorussia. In these largest studies the soldiers of subdivisions SKVO, which participated in them, they showed outstanding training, skill successfully to act under the conditions for modern combat.
On 4 May, 1968, to North-Caucasian military district was entrusted the Order of the Red Banner, by which it was rewarded with the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 22 February, 1968, for the large contribution to the cause of strengthening the defense power of the Soviet State and its armed protection, the successes in the combat and political training and in connection with the 50- anniversary of the Soviet Army and the navy.
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