Far Eastern Military District
The Far Eastern Military District, headquartered in Khabarovsk, included four combined arms armies and one army corps. Among them, those units have three tank divisions and thirteen motorized rifle divisions, of which one tank division and two motorized rifle divisions have headquarters that serve as district training centers. One artillery division and five machine gun-artillery divisions are directly subordinate to the district headquarters. Far East Military District (FED) - operational and strategic territorial unification of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation located in the far eastern region of the country. It was formed May 31, 1918. It was stationed on the territories of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Primorsky and Khabarovsk, Amur, Kamchatka, Magadan, Sakhalin regions, Koryak and Chukchi autonomous regions, the Jewish Autonomous Region. The headquarters was located in the city of Khabarovsk.
History of the Far Eastern Military District absorbed the fate of hundreds of thousands of soldiers - from the soldier to the marshal of the major historic personalities to the people whose names were left out of the chronicle of events.
The founding date of the county is considered to be 31 July 1918. On this day, the young Red Army units and divisions stormed Kaulskimi heights, defeating a heavy bloody battles of the interventionists and White Guards.
Repeatedly changed its name in the XX century, the Far Eastern Military District is the direct successor of the Amur Military District.
Amur - Far Eastern military district in the history of the country originally occupied a special position. His role as an outpost of Russia in the Far East was predetermined at a time when the period from 1650 to 1653 years of distinguished explorer, merchant and industrialist person Erofei Khabarov in many battles defeated troops Daur, dyucherov, Manchu and attached to the Moscow State Amur. Further spread of Russian influence in the Far East is inextricably linked with the names of Poyarkova, O. and P. Stepanov Beketova Bering, I. Antipina, G. Nevelskogo NNMuravev (later nicknamed Murav'ev-Amur), and many others.
By the end of the XVII century. as the southern areas of the Far East (Amur, Primorye) and all of its northern margin (the Okhotsk-Kolyma region, Kamchatka, Chukotka) were the Russian possessions.
In the XVIII century. Russian firmly anchored in Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, and the tribes of the Ainu, who lived in these places have taken citizenship of the Russian Empire. In the first decades of the XIX century. intensive study was conducted Russian America.
Russian settlement of the Pacific coast was happening so fast and wide that the entire north-western part of the ocean was the end of the XVIII century. Russian inland sea. Giant ring of Russian settlements transformed the Sea of ??Okhotsk and the Bering Sea in Russia's internal waters.
Protection of Russian Far Eastern possessions, their administrative improvement and economic development have become the most important tasks in the XIX century. To this end, in 1854-1858gg. from Siberia to the Far East being transferred first units of regular units of the Russian Imperial Army, created an independent Trans-Baikal Cossack army. At the same time, actively being built military posts.
August 1, 1850 - at the mouth of the Amur Nicholas founded a military post (now Nikolaevsk-on-Amur). 31 May 1858 - based post Khabarovka (from 1893 - the city of Khabarovsk) 1860 - in Primorye based positions: Vladivostok (since 1870 - the city of Vladivostok), Novgorod, Kiev-Novo (since 1938 - the settlement. Kraskino) and Turij Horn. These events marked the beginning of the formation of the management structure and military organization designed to provide armed protection of the Russian Far East.
In 1862-1864 gg military districts were formed in the central part of Russia, and in 1865-1867 yy - And on its outskirts. So in 1865 on the eastern edge of Russia arose East Siberian Military District, whose territory included the Irkutsk and Yenisei province, Yakutsk and Kamchatka region, the Amur Territory. County Office housed in Irkutsk. All troops, the military administration and institutions in these areas submitted to the Governor-General of Eastern Siberia, is also the commander of the East Siberian Military District.
May 20, 1884 Mr. Alexander III approved the Regulations on Education Amur governor-general with the administrative center of Khabarovka, consisting of the Trans-Baikal, Amur, Primorye Region, Vladivostok military governorship and the island of Sakhalin. At the same time the East Siberian Military District was divided into two districts - Irkutsk and Amur, which was announced in the order of the Minister of War number 215 of July 14, 1884
In the Amur Military District, all power belongs Priamurskie the Governor-General, at the same time is a district commander and troop ataman Priamurskie Cossack troops. Priamurskie the first governor-general in 1884 and became a lieutenant general (from 1890 - Adjutant General) Baron A. Korf. At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries district army took an active part in the construction of the CER, the development of Manchuria and the Liaodong Peninsula.
During the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905gg merits of a number of military units of the district were awarded marks of distinction: the banner of St. George, St. George's silver tubes and signs on hats.
On the battlefields of the First World War, and units of the Amur Military District were in the thick of things. Warriors Far East defended Warsaw against the onslaught of the Germans, took part in the Battle of Galicia and the Brusilov breakthrough.
Soldiers of the Amur Military District strongly supported the revolutionary events of 1917. The first practical steps of military construction in the Far East coincided with the outbreak of civil war and foreign intervention. Against the far eastern parts of Young Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army were the forces of internal counterrevolution in the face of the Cossack chieftains: Semenova - in the Trans-Baikal, Gamow and Kuznetsova - in the Amur region, Kalmikova - in Primorye, a division of the armies of Britain, France, the U.S. and Japan, as well as the Czechoslovak Corps French army.
July 31, 1918 Red Army battalions Ussuri Front defeated the enemy in Kaulskih heights Shmakovka and Spassky. This day was actually the beginning of the combat troops of the Red stories Far Eastern Military District.
However, using a decisive superiority in manpower and technology interventionists and White Guards were able to seize the initiative. In August 1918, the Czechs began an offensive in the Trans-Baikal region. In the late summer of Soviet power in the Trans-Baikal region and the Far East was overthrown.
From September 1918 to March 1920 the struggle against the US-Japanese invaders waged a form of guerrilla warfare. In February 1920, by the decision of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) and the CPC of the RSFSR created a buffer state - Far Eastern Republic, composed of the Trans-Baikal, Amur, Primorye, Sakhalin, Kamchatka region and the right of way of CEL (the capital - until October 1920 Verkhneudinsk ( Ulan-Ude), from October - Chita). At the same time organized the People's Revolutionary Army (NRA) on the model of the Red Army.
In autumn 1922 the NRA troops defeated the remnants of the White Guard troops Cossack chieftains and expelled from the territory of the Far East, the Japanese invaders. November 16, 1922 the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee announced the Far East inseparable part of Soviet Russia and distributed in its territory the laws of the Russian Federation. The Civil War ended. People's Revolutionary Army was renamed the 5th Red Banner Army, with its headquarters in the city of Chita, and in June 1924 the 5th Red Banner Far Eastern Army was abolished. All troops and military facilities located in the Far East, on the orders of RVSR number 757/138 became part of the Siberian Military District.
Due to the constantly increasing the danger of war, and the provocations of the Chinese troops in the CER in 1929, the troops of the Far East were spun off from the Siberian Military District, an independent union. Order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR on August 6, 1929 created Special Far Eastern Army (Odwan).
For successful performance of combat missions, for valor and courage in the soldiers and commanders in the defense of the Soviet Far Eastern borders, Odwan decision of the CEC of the USSR from January 1, 1930 was awarded the Order of the Red Banner and was renamed the Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army.
Since January 1932 begins increase the size of the strengthening of technical equipment and troops in the Far East. May 17, 1935, on the basis of OKDVA created Far Eastern Military District. However, he lasted just a few days and already 2 June 1935 was once again transformed into OKDVA. In view of the increased threat of attack by Japan OKDVA July 1, 1938 converted to the Far Eastern front.
Great courage, fortitude and greatness of spirit demonstrated warriors of the Far East during the conflict at Lake Khasan in 1938 and the events on Khalkhin Goal in 1939.
The Red Banner Army of the Far East took a special position in the Soviet Armed Forces. That army unit was organized as a separate, almost independent organization for strategic reasons. It was the only army unit that was commanded by experienced army figure, Marshal Blucher.
The intensive terror was going on for five weeks, and ended up with the fact that Blucher returned to the Far East and started executing his obligations there. There was a skirmish between Soviet and Japanese troops on June 30, 1937 on the Amur river. The Japanese occupied the Island of Bolshoi on July 6th. There were protests, but the Soviet troops did not attempt to oust the invaders.
It stands the reason that it was just a test of forces for the Japanese, for they came to conclusion that the combat efficiency of the Soviet troops in the Far East was paralyzed with the cleansing at the Red Banner Army of the Far East. When Vasily Blucher returned to the Far East, he immediately took measures against the organizational mess in the army. Admiral Kuznetsov said that Blucher was very depressed with Marshal Tuchachevskyís execution as well as with arrests amid the army leadership. However, Stalin left Blucher alone for a while on account of a military danger.
Yet, the arrests of army commanders resumed next winter. They were seized, beaten and taken to jails. Stalinís emissaries were going to arrange an outburst of terror for that army. All political and police forces were ready for the terror strike. Blucherís headquarters were arrested in groups. NKVD (internal affairs department) vans took away 40% of sub-regimental level, 70% of division and corps level and over 80% of top commanders. By the end of June Blucher found himself on the ruins of what he commanded just a short time ago.
He was lucky again that time: Stalin had mercy on the marshal for the same reason as before. The Japanese thought that it was a good opportunity for them. Japan started the offensive on July 6th, 1938 with a goal to sound out the power of the Soviet troops near Hasan Lake. Fortunately, some experienced commanders survived the terror and several military specialists were sent to the Far East to deal with the situation there.
Commander Stern was one of those people. He served as a military advisor in Spain before. He became the head of one of Blucherís reorganized armies of the Far Eastern front. Stern conducted military operations against the Japanese troops and even reported on that in 1939 at the XVIII Congress of the Communist Party. He disappeared forever after that.
Japan was stopped near Hasan Lake after five weeks of battles. They were forced to retreat soon. Everything was over by August 11th of 1938. Marshal Blucher was called to go to Moscow a week ago, on August 18th. The marshal thought that he was going to be arrested, so he contacted his wife and saved some money for her.
Vasily Blucher was arrested on October 22, 1938 on Stalinís personal order. Four NKVD agents wearing dark suits came to Blucherís house and arrested his entire family. Marshalís 16-year-old son Vsevolod was first sent to an isolation camp, but then the boy was released in 1941. When the war started, Vsevolod enrolled a military school, having changed his name. He proved to be a very brave soldier during the war. Marshal Blucher was taken to the town of Lefortovo, where he was questioned by NKVD head Lavrenty Beria. Lots of other interrogations were following one after another later.
The marshal was charged with longstanding spying for Japan. He was also charged with preparing an escape to Japan with the help of his brother, an air force commander. Those charges were not totally insane for marshalís brother escaped to Japan indeed. In addition to his family members, NKVD arrested marshalís first wife Galina. Investigators intimidated Blucher with his family membersí fate. However, they offered an agreement to the marshal: special agents told him that he would spend only ten years in jail, if he agreed to sign an indictment. Blucher refused. The heroes of recent battles in the Far East were awarded with decorations on October 28th 1938. Marshal Blucher, the true hero of those battles, was questioned and brutally tortured at NKVD.
Three weeks of those tortures killed him: Vasily Blucher died on November 9th. Marshal Blucher fell victim of the Stalin terror without any reasons. There was no investigation, not even a trial -
On the eve of World War II in the Army began reorganizing the front. Combat training was conducted on the principle of "do everything as in war." As of 1940-1941. form new connections and parts, they are transferred to the new types of organizations (numbering about 10 thousand people each).
During the Great Patriotic War, Far Eastern Front became a reliable source of reserves for the army. In the battle of Moscow, in the Battle of Stalingrad in the defense of Leningrad and breaking the siege in the battle of Kursk, in the crossing of the Dnieper, in the next major strategic operations that led Nazi Germany to the final defeat, shoulder-to-shoulder with the rest of the country participated warriors the Far East.
For military deeds performed on the Soviet-German front, hundreds of thousands of soldiers of the Far East were awarded orders and medals of the USSR, and about 1,600 soldiers and officers were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, more than 300 have become full holders of the Order of Glory.
After the defeat in the spring of 1945 Nazi Germany and its allies in Europe, the battles of the Second World War continued in the Far East and the Pacific. In August-September 1945 stationed in the Far East army uniform and combined, were part of the 1st and 2nd Far Eastern fronts, took an active part in the military campaign of the Soviet Armed Forces to defeat the most powerful group of Japanese Army in Manchuria , in southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. This military campaign was the final period of the Great Patriotic War and included the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation, South Sakhalin and the Kuril offensive amphibious operations.
Immediately after the war began the reorganization of troops in the Far East. Instead of the Far Eastern Front was formed three military districts: the Trans-Baikal-Amur to the city center in Khabarovsk, Primorye in the center of Ussuriysk and Far East and the center of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.
In May, 1947. on the basis of the Trans-Baikal-Amur management Military District troops formed management chief of the Far East. He was subject to the Far East, Primorye and Trans-Baikal military district, and the Pacific Fleet and the Amur Flotilla. All organizational activities of the High Command, the commanders and commanders at all levels subordinate to the main task - providing the state interests of the USSR in the Far East, the reliable protection of Far Eastern borders of our country, to improve combat training of personnel.
23.aprelya 1953 reorganized Far East, then a new management district based management Chief of the Soviet forces in the Far East (headquartered in Khabarovsk). Former management district (in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk) paid to the recruitment of the army. Seacoast IN paid to recruiting the army. ZabVO became independent.
June 17, 1967 the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the transfer of FED on the continuity of the Order of the Red Banner Far Eastern Army of the former. August 10, 1967 at the Sports Palace named the Order of Lenin in Khabarovsk was attached to Combat Banner County.
The 1990s and the beginning of the twenty-first century were marked by deep and large-scale geopolitical changes. In the early 90s on the political map of the world has not become the Soviet Union and the socialist countries, a thing of the past military confrontation between the two blocs - the Warsaw Pact and NATO. However, despite all this, the military-political situation in the world has not changed for the better. It is in this historical context passes formation of a new Russian army, which remains an integral part of the Far Eastern Military District.
However, in spite of the changed realities of the modern world challenges that solves district remain the same - is primarily protecting the integrity of the Far Eastern borders of the motherland. Since 1995., In connection with the operation to restore constitutional order in Chechnya, in addition to the internal troops of the county had to meet the challenges of training for forces in the North Caucasus. Servicemen of some units and parts FEB also took part in the fighting in Chechnya.
In total, during the fighting in the North Caucasus, more than 1,000 soldiers of the Red Banner Far Eastern Military District received state awards. The main effort in the district command aimed at maintaining a high level of training and units. Particular attention is paid to improving the professionalism of the officers. The district has successfully addressed issues related to the reform of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, the transfer of certain formations and units to contract acquisition, as well as social and legal protection of servicemen.
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