Tu-73 / "aircraft 73" (Tu-20) (2 "Nene-1" + "Derwent-5")
The Tu-72 project with a pressurized cabin evolved into a larger mid-winged bomber with a straight wing - the Tu-73, equipped with two 2268 kg dead weight mounted on a Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet wing and one Rolls-Royce Derwent turbo load 1588 kg in the rear fuselage. The Tu-73 performed the first flight on December 29, 1947. Soon, based on a bomber, the reconnaissance aircraft Tu-73R and Tu-74 were designed.
In 1946-47 the Tu-72 naval bomber appeared. Structurally, the aircraft was mid-wing with a non-swept wing, in which two engines were placed under the wings.
Initially, the Nene Rolls-Royce engines were chosen as power plants, but the Air Force command doubted whether it would be enough for an aircraft of this size and weight of only two engines. As a result, a similar, but larger aircraft - the Tu-73 - was designed, with another one in the rear fuselage - the third Derwent engine produced by Rolls-Royce with a capacity of 1,600 hp.
Work on both designs went in parallel.
Characteristic was the location of the air intake of this engine: in front of the keel on the fuselage. Twenty years would pass, and this layout became a classic for three-engine jets. For the first time the plane took to the air on December 29, 1947, test pilot Fedor Opadchiy. The flight was successful, and later, during state tests, the aircraft showed a maximum speed of 870 km / h, a range of 2,800 km and a working ceiling of 11,500 m.
The aircraft arrangement was characterized by the third engine installed in rear fuselage which was used during take-off and low-altitude penetration. It was the first aircraft of TU-14 jet bomber family.
Tu-73R / Tu-74 / Tu-20
The Tu-73 performed the first flight in December 1947. Soon, based on a bomber, the reconnaissance aircraft Tu-73R and Tu-74 were designed. It was planned to develop a model of the Tu-74 (or Tu-73R), intended for conducting aerial photointelligence, but this project was postponed.
The following aircraft - the Tu-78 and Tu-79 - in fact, were all the same Tu-73. Their only difference was the installation of the Soviet analog of the English engines "Nene" and "Derwent". Now the engines "Nene" called RD-45, and "Derweent" was held under the index RD-500. Guidance of the construction of a prototype at the 156th aircraft factory was entrusted to Sergei Eger.
The Tu-78 was distinguished by an increased bomb load and a comparable flight range to the IL-28; however, the cost for these performance improvements was higher cost and reduced maneuverability. Three Soviet turbofan engines were installed on the Tu-78: on the wing, two RD-45s and one RD-500 in the rear fuselage; on the layout of the power plant Tu-78 did not differ from the Tu-73.
On April 17, 1948, the first flight of the aircraft took place, and after that state tests were held until December. Soon there was a decision to start mass production of the aircraft under the name Tu-20 adopted by the Air Force, but this decision remained on paper due to lack of production capacity. Subsequently, the Tu-20 index was used to designate another aircraft.
"78" (2 "Nene-1" + "Derwent-5")
"78" (2 "Nene-1" + "Derwent-5") was a photo-reconnaissance aircraft prototype version of "73" (TU-14). The Tu-78, which performed the first flight on April 17, 1948 [or First flight was on 07 May 1948.], was distinguished by an increased bomb load and a comparable flight range to the IL-28; however, the cost for these performance improvements was higher cost and reduced maneuverability. Three Soviet turbofan engines were installed on the Tu-78: on the wing, two RD-45s and one RD-500 in the rear fuselage; on the layout of the power plant Tu-78 did not differ from the Tu-73.
Tu-73R / Tu-79
The Tu-79 aircraft was a long-range reconnaissance aircraft and was initially designated as the Tu-73R. By 1949, Klimov had finalized the Nin / RD-45 engine, and he was now developing a thrust of 2,700 kgf. It was assumed that the Tu-79 will have two such engines VK-1 instead of less powerful RD-45. In the series, the car had to go under the name of the Tu-22, which it was assigned to military aircraft. And although this aircraft was never built, the Tu-22 index was also later used to designate one of the Tupolev aircraft.
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