TU-334 aircraft is a Russian short-range turbojet aircraft designed for 102 passengers with a flight range of 3150 km with designed payload. The Tu-334 can replace the ageing fleet of Tu-134 that are in wide service in CIS. The aircraft is not designed to break any records. The design is based entirely on proven technologies. TU-334 aircraft was manufactured on the base of advanced developments in dynamics, design, materials science, airborne equipment and is provided with high efficient engines. This allowed to obtain high aerodynamic characteristics and low operational costs. The Tu-334 is priced at approximately US $15 million, which is considerably cheaper than its Western analogs.
Passenger cabin layout can be designed as per customer desire Decorative finishing is made of incombustible materials. In passenger cabin overhead bins volume is increased. Noise level is low within cabin. Audio/video entertainment systems are provided and SATCOM satellite communication system is provided.
Turbofan D-436T-1 engine with reversers (2x73.6 kN, 2x7500 kgf) produced by Zaporozhie Engine Manufacturing Design Bureau provided . Engine was certified in 2000. Low fuel consumption, high ecological data, low operational costs at long life. Engine is produced in co-operation with "Motor Sich" JSC (Ukrain), "Moscow Engineering Manufacturing Corporation"Salut" JSC (Russia), "Ufa Engine Manufacturing Corporation" JSC (Russia). TU-334 aircraft modifications are supposed to be provided with turbofan D-436T-2 engines with thrust of 80.4-83.4 kN (8200 kgf) each.
The cockpit is in commonality with TU-204 aircraft. Cockpit was designed on the base of state-of-the-art ergonomic standards and new designers approaches associated with electronic displays and means of computerized aircrfat control. "Dark" cockpit concept was applied with illumination of certain areas.
Work on the Tu-334 started in the early 1990s, but proceeded slowly due to funding problems. The aircraft project was only approved in 1989, but it is clear that its design began at least in the mid-80s. Initially, the Tu-334 project was directed by L. Lanovsky. According to the terms of reference, the design of the aircraft was to be completed in 1992. But already at the start, difficulties began, they could not meet the deadline, and instead of Lanovsky, a new Chief Designer was appointed - I. Kalygin, who found it necessary to significantly improve the first prototype Tu-334. That is, the plane went wrong from the very beginning. At the moment when the project was supposed to be ready, the designer changes, which, moreover, begins to redo the project.
Initially the Tu-334 was designed for the D-236 propfan engines designed by Lotarev. But it became clear to Kalugin that this engine would not be ready on time, if ever it was ever made. Therefore, in a hurry, it was necessary to change the engine to the D-436T1 developed by the Zaporozhye design bureau. Thus, the plane suddenly lost its engines. At the same time, it was too late to change the fuselage.
The weight of the Tu-334 was one of the reasons for the strained relations between A.A. Tupolev and V.V. Sulimenkov. Vyacheslav Vasilievich went to work at TsAGI, and was replaced by Igor Borisovich Ginko, but the weight of the structure continued to grow. With this attitude of the designers to the aircraft, it was handed over to the chief designer Igor Stepanovich Kalygin. The overweight of the Tu-334 was already 4 tons: 46% of the structure, 14% of the power plant and 40% of the equipment.
Money shortages delayed the first flight by years. The prototype was competed in 1993, and rolled out in August 1995. A prototype was displayed in 1995, but it was little more than a mock-up with few systems installed.
A functional TU-334-100 aircraft first flight was performed on 08 February 1999. Production lines were established for the 102- seat -100 in Aviant's factory in Kiev, and for the 126-seat -200 in Aviacor's Samara factory. A second -100 factory was also planned by Tavia at Taganrog. By 1996 series production of the Tu-334 at the Aviant factory in Kiev was 90% ready, but on 05 October 1996 the Russian government decided that Russia's MIG MAPO was to take over from Kiev the manufacture of the new Tu-334 airliner. MIG MAPO had offered co-operation with Aviant: the Kiev plant would handover production tooling for half the aircraft parts to Moscow, the other half would be manufactured in Kiev and delivered to Moscow. Aviant had no choice since the rights for intellectual property of the aircraft belong to Russia. The assembly shop at the aircraft factory in Lukhovitsy was built especially for its production.
In February 2000 Vladimir Kravchuk, Deputy Director, Tu-334 program said the MiG Aircraft Concern was currently making production contracts and agreements on Tu-334 program with various aerospace enterprises in Russia and Ukraine. The Company had entered into an agreement with aircraft plants at Taganrog, which were expected to deliver a ready Tu-334 fuselage in March 2000. Ulyanovsk-based aircraft plant will produce nose parts of Tu-334. These were made identical to nose parts of Tu-204 being mass-produced at Ulyanovsk. Russia's Government had designated MiG the principle facility for producing Tu-334. The production will cost 370 mln US dollars. The plan envisages the cost recovery after 7.5 years under production of at least 67 planes.
In 2003 plans were announced for an international Russian-Ukrainian consortium to produce the Tu-334 aircraft. According to the Tu-334 RSC MiG Program Director Vladimir Kravchuk, the consortium will be formed by all the parent enterprises producing the components. The new consortium was to be involved in R&D work, commercial production, certification, selling, pre-sale and technical service, maintenance, and other activities up to the utilization of worked out planes. Financial issues at all stages of the production and exploitation will be the consortium's responsibility. To 2004, it was planned to have produced and prepared for sale four Tu-334 aircrafts, the price per unit not to exceed $16 million. First models will be sold at the price lower than the costs. To 2010, Russian companies was envisioned to have purchased 122 Tu-334 planes. Ukraine was estimated to need just 8 units. All market estimations had been made with basing on the financial leasing conditions of the aircrafts' delivery.
Serial production of TU-334-100 preparation has started at KAPO n.a.Gorbunov in accordance with Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of 15 April, 2005 No.217 "On organization of serial production of TU-334 a/c and its versions at FGUP "KAPO n.a.Gorbunov". In January 2007 the oil-rich Russian republic of Tatarstan proposed to adopt the twinjet as the vehicle for the upgrade of its Gorbunov Aircraft Manufacturing Association (KAPO) manufacturing plant. The KAPO plant could take over production of dormant twinjet in exchange for $100 million to renovate factory.
In December 2007 it was reported that Iran was ready to make a purchase of up to 130 Tupolev Tu-214 and Tu-334 over ten years.
In June 2008 the Russian government bought 6 Tu-334. Four planes were Tu-334-100 with VIP-interiors and two planes were for the Federal Security Service. GTK Rossiya, the Russian government airline that provides flight services to the president and FSO federal security service, selected the Tupolev Tu-334 over Sukhoi's Superjet 100 and Antonov's An-148 in a tender for four aircraft, for delivery no later than 2010. Delivery under the state contract was planned as follows: 2010 - one plane, 2011 - two and in 2012 - three. It is important to note that the decision on buying Tu-334 was taken after a tender where An-148 and Sukhoi Superjet 100 participated too. KAPO resumed building Tu 334-100. This is the hull #03 of the experimental batch. While the second aircraft of this batch (#05 built by Aviant Kiev State Aviation Plant) was still flying to extend the certified conditions of operation, this one was likely to become the first Tu-334 sold as a product.
On 31 July 2008 Sergei Ilyushenkov, managing director of the Tupolev joint-stock company, said commercial production of a new Russian short-haul passenger airliner, the Tu-334, will start within the next six months. The Tu-334, including its business-class version, would be assembled at the KAPO Kazan aircraft plant. The project will be funded by a private investor. The executive said the airplane, which seats up to 102 passengers, was unique and had "no match either in Russia or elsewhere." He said the Tu-334 business version would cost around $43-44 million, compared with over $60 million for a Bombardier business jet. Ilyushenkov also said the Tu-334's range could subsequently be increased to 6,400 km by using additional fuel tanks.
Until recently, Sukhoi's SuperJet 100 was considered the main regional project. With the government also funding the Tu-334 family, some experts believed that the latter are much better fitted for small airports in Siberia and the Far East with their obsolete infrastructure and poor maintenance. The aircraft had already gone through certification, and can be launched into serial production at a minor expense once there were reliable orders from air carriers.
In mid-2009 the newly created United Aircraft (UAC) decided which programs to advance and which to drop. The Tu-334 regional jet was finally laid to rest in favor of the Superjet and more utilitarian Antonov An-148.
- TU-334 is a state-of-the-art short-haul aircraft designed on the basis of advanced developments in aerodynamics, structure, and avionics ensuring high-level comfort and safety, and high-quality standards traditional for "TUPOLEV" PSC. Various versions, universal layouts and up-to-date avionics allow operators to choose the TU-334 aircraft version that would be ideal for any flight mission.
- TU-334-100 is a basic version designated to carry 102 passengers in tourist class. The aircraft is powered by D436T1 engines. In 2003 it was certified against AP-25 Russian Airworthiness Rules.
- TU-334-100C is a TU-334-100 cargo version.
- TU-334 VIP version is characterised by unique performance and highest comfort level.
- Tu-334K / Tu-336 - Tupolev began design work on the creation of the Tu-334K passenger aircraft with the BR-710c engines on the basis of the Tu-334 aircraft. It would be able to transport 102 passengers up to a distance to 2000 km at the height to 10,6 km into the aircraft it is repaired with 7 t [SPG] and by 2 t of kerosene as the avigational reserve. The basic elements of cryogenic system can be used from the aircraft Tu-156.
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