SU-5 self-propelled artillery
In the early 1930s, Soviet military experts came to a well-grounded decision that 76mm cannon, 122mm howitzer and 152mm mortars were necessary components for divisional artillery. All of these systems (both existing and perepektivnye) had approximately the same mass on the march and could solve the entire imaginable range of tasks facing the regular artillery of the division. But the towed guns did not have the mobility required for mechanized parts and connections, so there was more than a sound idea - to install their swinging parts on a self-propelled base.
On August 5, 1933, the resolution of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR “System of Artillery Equipment of the Red Army for the Second Five-Year Plan” was adopted, which provided for the creation of three types of artillery pieces mounted on a single chassis. In the spring of 1934, the Leningrad Plant of Experimental Mechanical Engineering No. 185 named after S. M. Kirov began to develop a self-propelled artillery gun SU-5 on the chassis of a T-26 tank. By the autumn, the design bureau of the plant, under the leadership of P. N. Syachintov, manufactured three self-propelled artillery mounts: the SU-5-1, the SU-5-2 and the SU-5-3 - which differed mainly in armament - SU-5-1 armed with a 76-mm cannon arr. 1902/30, SU-5-2 - 122 mm howitzer arr. 1910/30, SU-5-3 - 152-mm mortar arr. 1931 (NM).
Factory tests of all three cars passed from October 1 to December 29, 1934. Production of the serial SU-5-2 was started in 1936, and by the summer of 1936 ten vehicles were produced, two of which were sent for tests to the troops. In 1937, the production of the SU-5-2 was discontinued. In the summer of 1938, five SU-5-2 were used by the Red Army during the fighting at Lake Hassan. Although the combat use of the SU-5-2 of the 2nd Mechanized Brigade of the Red Army in the battles at Lake Hassan was short, the documents of the military command noted that self-propelled guns "provided great support to infantry and tanks."
In parallel with the creation of high-powered self-propelled guns in the USSR, work began on creating a “small triplex” for divisional artillery, which was supposed to include self-propelled guns equipped with a 76.2-mm regimental gun, 121.9-mm howitzer and 152.4-mm mortar. According to the theory that existed at that time, the presence of such a triplex could fully cover the whole spectrum of army tasks. For the development of all three projects, the design bureau of the Kirov Plant of Experimental Machine-Building Plant (No. 185) was supervised by S.A. Ginzburg and P.N.Syachintov. V.Moskvin was appointed responsible designer.
The light tank T-26, model of 1933, which was produced in Leningrad, was chosen as the base chassis. Due to the fact that the existing tank layout was completely unsuitable for the ACS, the T-26 hull was radically redesigned. Department of management, along with the driver's seat and controls, as well as transmission elements were still in the bow, but the engine compartment was moved to the center of the case, separating it from the rest of the compartments with armored partitions. A standard 90 hp gasoline engine T-26 was installed here. with a shortened driveshaft, main friction clutch, fan, radiator, oil and fuel tanks, which were separated by sealed fences. The engine compartment was connected with a special pocket with side holes for the release of cooling air.
The fighting compartment, where there were places for the crew of 4 people and a gun, was moved to the aft part of the hull. To absorb recoil when firing on the ground, a special opener located at the stern was lowered. In addition, additional side stops could be used. However, the chassis has not changed. As on the T-26 serial tank, applied to each side, it consisted of the following components: 8 support rollers blocked in four trucks (1-2 and 3-4 trucks had a common suspension with damping on leaf springs), 4 supporting rollers, front drive and rear wheel guides. Self-propelled guns were given the general designation of the SU-5, but depending on the type of the gun to be installed, an index was added to it. Accordingly, the ACS were designated as SU-5-1 , SU-5-2 and SU-5-3.
The easiest, as one would expect, among them was the SU-5-1 - it weighed only 10,200 kg. A 76.2-mm regimental gun, model 1902 \ 1930, protected by a 15-mm frontal armor-guard was mounted on this ACS. The horizontal pointing angle of the gun was ± 15 °, vertical - from -5° to + 60°. Instrumentation guidance consisted of a panorama of Hertz and a telescopic sight. When firing from a place the polik of the loader fell. The ammunition of the gun, laid directly in the car, consisted of only eight shots.
The SU-5-2 self-propelled unit differed only in a 121.9-mm howitzer, model 1910 \ 1030. (now “rounding up” to 122 mm) and portable ammunition consisting of 4 shots and 6 sleeves.
The SU-5-3 was equipped with a 152.4-mm mortar. The mass of this ACS was 10,400 kg, despite the fact that the carried ammunition was completely absent.
At the joint factory tests conducted from October 1 to December 29, 1935, the SU-5-1 self-propelled gun passed 296 km, the SU-5-2 206 km and the SU-5-3 189 km. Further, at the artillery range, the first and second version of the triplex made 50 shots each, the “mortar” self-propelled gun - only 23.
After the completion of the test cycle, the SU-5-3 was delivered on November 1 to Moscow to participate in a parade in honor of the 18th anniversary of the October Revolution. At the same time, in the test report, the following conclusions were made: “Self-propelled rifles have tactical mobility, allowing them to move on and off roads. The transition to the combat position for the 76- and 122-mm SU-5 - immediately, for the 152-mm machine - 2-3 minutes (firing is required with a stop). Disadvantages: the strength of the bracket connecting the cradle with the trunnion cage is low, the tires of the support wheels are weak. All identified defects are of no fundamental importance and are completely removable. ”
However, only the SU-5-2 was chosen for serial construction. As for the other cars, their fate was decided as follows. In the question of the 76.2-mm self-propelled gun, greater preference was given to the AT-1 with the PS-3 cannon of the Syachintov design. This artillery system had more power and could effectively fight not only with infantry and field fortifications, but also with enemy tanks, which was also important. In addition, the AT-1 had the best armor of the crew compartment with the saved layout of the T-26 tank.
With the installation of the SU-5-3, everything was much simpler - to set up mass production just did not find the right amount of 152.4-mm mortars. In addition, the chassis from the T-26 is still considered rather weak for such a heavy artillery system.
The first 10 manufactured ACS SU-5-2 were handed over to the customer by the summer of 1936. Machines with serial numbers No. 003-G and No. 008-G were immediately sent to conduct military tests of shooting and mileage in the 7th mechanized corps of the Kiev VO. The test cycle, the purpose of which was to check the quality and identify structural deficiencies in the machines of the first installation series issued by plant No. 185, took place from June 25 to July 20, 1936.
The transition time from traveling to combat was 25-30 seconds. However, the ammunition was increased to 6 shots. Despite such positive qualities, the further fate of the SU-5-2 was quite modest. The next batch of 20 self-propelled guns differed in increased ammunition (8 shots), slightly shifted exhaust pipe and additional ventilation flap above the place of the driver. Some cars received a partially flap armor protection of the crew of 6 mm side armor plates.
For the SU-5-2, reliable destruction of the target, a close rendezvous with it was required, while the armor did not provide protection even from the fire of large-caliber machine guns. The open fighting compartment substituted the crew for small arms bullets and small fragments from the feeding directions, as well as for shock waves from close gaps. Tankers in the T-26 had complete protection against all these damaging factors.
To reduce the load on the chassis suspension increased by increasing the thickness of the main springs by 1-1.3 mm. This step did not give tangible results, since for a heavier SU-5-2 a new type of suspension was required. In addition, the self-propelled gun did not get a more powerful engine. In the first half of 1937, it was supposed to release an improved version of the SU-5-2, the test results of which could be used to refine the production machines, but life was completely different.
After the arrest of Syachintov and many other designers, the topic of self-propelled artillery faded into the background, and the machines and artillery systems created under their leadership fell into the category of “wrecking”.
However, self-propelled SU-5-2, in contrast to the PS-3 guns, were not decommissioned. About combat use of the SU-5-2 information remained quite a bit. Self-propelled guns entered service with mechanized corps and individual motorized brigades in pieces and rather served as a supplement for field artillery. To date, no SU-5-2 self-propelled gun has been preserved.
|SU-5-2 OBR. 1936|
|COMBAT MASS||10500 kg|
|Weapons||One 121.9-mm howitzer OBR. 1910 1930s.|
|AIMING DEVICES||Telescopic sight and Panorama of Gerza|
|Booking||Body forehead-15 mm
Shield guns-15 mm
|Engine||T-26, carburetor, 4-cylinder, with a capacity of 90 hp at 2100 rpm, tank capacity 192 liters|
|Transmission||Mechanical type: main friction of dry friction, cargiven shaft, 5-speed GEARBOX, onboard clutches, onboard transmissions and belt brakes|
|Undercarriage||(on one board) 8 support rollers, 4 supporting rollers, front directing and rear driving wheel, small-ring caterpillar from steel tracks|
|Speed||30 km/h on the highway
15 km/h on a Christmas tree
|HIGHWAY RESERVE||150 km on highway
170 km on a Christmas tree
|OBSTACLES TO OVERCOME|
|Lifting Angle, deg.||32 °|
|Wall Height, M||0.75|
|Depth of the Ford, M||0.80|
|Width of the moat, M||2.00|
|COMMUNICATION FACILITIES||Flag Alarm|
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