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Soviet and Russian Submarines - Generations

The Soviet and Russian nuclear submarines are divided into four generations according to their construction and combat capabilities. The first generation of nuclear submarines (the end of the 40s - the beginning of the 60s of the 20th century) - the childhood of nuclear powered ships; at this time, the formation of ideas about the appearance, the clarification of their capabilities. The second generation (60s - mid 70s) was marked by the massive construction of Soviet and American nuclear submarines (APL), the deployment of the Cold War submarine front throughout the World Ocean. The third generation (until the early 90s) was a silent war for dominance in the ocean. Now, at the beginning of the 21st century, fourth-generation nuclear submarines are

Nuclear Submarines - 1st Generation

Already in the spring of 1946, officers from the US Navy research laboratory Gann and Abelson proposed to equip the captured German submarine of the XXVI series of nuclear power plants with a reactor cooled by a potassium-sodium alloy. In 1949, construction of a ground-based prototype ship reactor began in the United States. And in September 1954, the world's first nuclear submarine SSN-571 (Nautilus, project EB-251A), equipped with an experimental S-2W type, was put into operation.

In the Soviet Union, the creation of nuclear submarines began in the fall of 1952. The first experimental boat, Project 627, was developed by the Special Design Office No. 143 (SKB-143, now SPMBM Malachite) under the supervision of Chief Designer V.N. Peregudov and supervisor Academician A.P. Alexandrov in 1953-1955 and was commissioned in 1958. Based on the project of the first submarine nuclear-powered ship, serial construction (12 ships) was launched, and an experimental boat with an electric propulsion system was built on a liquid-metal coolant (project 645), with BR (project 658), and with the CD ( pr. 675). Atomic ships of the 627A, could reach speeds of up to 30 knots (that is, one and a half times more than the first generation American submarines). This provided the ability to quickly move to the combat mission area, and also allowed to attack high-speed NK.

Thus, at the first stage of the creation of nuclear submarines in both the United States and the USSR, the main task was to achieve high propulsive qualities in the submerged position, turning the submarines from "diving" into a truly submarine ship. Naturally, this found expression in the architecture of the first submarines. In their appearance, the first American and Soviet nuclear submarines were strikingly different from each other, as each country went its own way.

American designers, mainly focused on the solutions obtained in the design of diesel-electric submarines "Tang". The first submarines maintained a significant lengthening of the hull (L / B = 11) and a long - up to 50-55% - cylindrical insert. The bow tip had the shape of a rounded stem, and the stern section was a new shape, close to axisymmetric, with a cruciform balance type. Rowing shafts (all boats were twin-shaft) passed through horizontal stabilizers, as on the German submarines of the XXI series. Fencing felling had a form similar to the submarine type "Tang", but was located closer to the nose.

Soviet torpedo submarines differed sharply in appearance from post-war diesel-electric submarines. Despite the fact that they retained a large elongation (L / B = 13.6), their body had a shape close to axisymmetric, with a streamlined drop-shaped nose. The cylindrical insert, like that of the Americans, was large and made up 50% of the body length. In the stern, the contours of the cross sections became elliptical and gradually reduced to flat. Aft plumage - similar to the German submarine XXI series.

A new form was attached to the fencing of the cabin, which in Soviet shipbuilding received the name "limousine", characterized by a ratio of height to length less than one and a smooth transition of the roof to the inclined stern edge. This form is characterized by a bulk flow and a low drag coefficient. An additional measure to reduce the resistance was the reduction in the number of poorly leaking parts on the body (bollards, stanchions, etc.).

When creating the first nuclear submarines, the American specialists made a rather bold design decision: for the most part of the length they switched to the single-hull structure, while the two-hull remained in the area of the nose torpedo compartments and the turbine compartment ("Nautilus" and "Seawolf" or the stern torpedo compartment ("Skate") ).

Thus, the architectural and constructive type of the first American submarines can be defined as a mixed (single-hull part of the length) with a developed superstructure. As a result, the reserve of buoyancy decreased from 30-35%, typical for diesel-electric submarines, to 14-16%. The choice of such a constructive solution was due to several factors. The desire to reduce the total submerged displacement and achieve higher speeds at full speed at the adopted power of the Nuclear Power Plant. There was no need to ensure high seaworthiness on the surface, as the dominant regime was diving. Of these factors, the most radical was the rejection of the single-standard standard of flooding - a certain leap occurred here with the transition to a qualitatively new level.

Unlike the American, the Soviet nuclear submarines of the first generation retained a fully double-hull architectural and constructive type, since the need to ensure surface flooding during flooding of one compartment was not questioned. In addition, the outer casing provided smooth, well-rounded lines, which, together with an increase in power, the EI compensated for the increase in the total underwater volume when the required travel speed was reached. The overall layout of the first submarines, both in the USA and in the USSR, did not undergo a radical change compared with the post-war diesel-electric submarines.

The most characteristic features of the first generation submarines (projects 627, 645, 658, 659, 675) are two shaft two reactors energy generator. The benefits of this construction are the high speed and reliability of energy system due to doubling of all systems. The handicap of the first generation submarines - high level of noise and fire hazard caused by the usage of chemical means for carbon-dioxide absorption. When the Project 667A/Yankee SSBNs went to sea in the late 1960s, the Soviet Navy was given another high-priority mission: Strategic (nuclear) strike against the United States and the protection of its own missile submarines by naval forces. But the Soviet Submarines were inferior to American ones in effectiveness of their missile armament.

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Page last modified: 04-08-2019 18:53:58 ZULU