In Soviet times, the main parking lot of the Black Sea Fleet was Sevastopol. After the collapse of the USSR, Russia had to look for a new location for the Black Sea Fleet. The choice fell on Novorossiysk. With the return of Crimea, plans to equip the naval base practically did not change. To receive ships, Spetsstroy built five berths with a length of 100 m, one of them - floating. Also, a special pier for submarines was built in the bay. The plans for the reconstruction of the Novorossiysk base did not undergo significant adjustments after the entry of Crimea into Russia. Sevastopol again became the main base of the Black Sea Fleet, and the Novorossiysk naval base was assigned the role of a backup base.
In 2004 Sergei Ivanov, the Russian Defence Minister, announced plans to start building a new naval base in 2005 at the southern Russian port of Novorossiysk. He insisted that the Black Sea fleet would remain in Sevastopol, for which Moscow paid $6.4 million in rent in 2003 and expected to pay $12 million in 2004. "Two bases are always better than one," he said.
Russia will finish the construction of the naval base in country's port of Novorossiysk located at the country's Black Sea coast by 2020, Adm. Igor Kasatonov, the former head of Russia's Black Sea Fleet, said in an interview 28 July 2016. "It is difficult to announce the final terms of the base construction yet, but we will certainly finish it by 2020," Kasatonov, who also was the first deputy commander of Russia's Navy, told RIA Novosti.
He added that the construction of the base's western breakwater, which was important to protect ships from stormy weather, was expected to be finished in 2016. According to Kasatonov, Russia's Black Sea Fleet should have several stationing sites, including in Novorossiysk and in Sevastopol. The harbor for submarines can accommodate up to seven submarines of project 636.3. In everyday life they are more often called the new generation of "Varshavyanka".
It is usually called Geoport for brevity. In the post-war period, submarines of the Ministry of Fisheries were based in the Tsemes Bay of Novorossiysk, and there was a parking of hydrographic vessels. Hence the prefix "geo". Today Geoport is the deepest, most advanced and most protected naval harbor of our fleet. Compliance with the tight deadlines for the modernization of the facility is under special control by Minister of Defense Sergei Shoigu.
From space, there are 17 hectares of water area, which are "covered" by two piers - West 850 meters long, East - 1400. They form the perimeter of the base. Under it, 25-27 meters of water. Even lower is silt, the thickness of which reaches 15 meters. Below is the bottom, rocky soil. The piers stand on huge stilts. The pile is based on a steel pipe with a diameter of 1420 mm. They are placed as a fence-picket fence: in two rows, at an angle to each other. This arrangement provides maximum structural stability. And the coastline is fortified with hexobits - these are huge concrete blocks whose configuration is designed to attenuate the impact of the wave. There are over 30 thousand hexobits.
Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, main naval bases of the Black Sea Fleet were left outside the Russian Federation. Within the framework of the agreements with Kiev, Russia's Black Sea Fleet was mostly located in then-Ukrainian Crimea. In 2005, in order to create necessary infrastructure for the fleet in the country's Black Sea coast, Russian authorities initiated construction of the Novorossiysk naval base.
Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port (NCSP) is one of the largest transport nodal point of South Russia. NCSP has the largest cargo turnover among Russian ports (report of Association of Russian Sea Ports) and the fifth largest in Europe. NCSP handles approximately 20% of all export and import cargoes shipped via Russian Sea ports (report of Association of Russian Sea Ports). The stevedore holding company was established here in 2006. NCSP have consolidated 6 largest stevedore and port service companies. Above stevedore holding company includes the following organizations: OJSC «Novoroslesexport», OJSC «IPP», OJSC «Novorossiysk Grain Terminal», OJSC «Fleet of Novorossiysk Commercial Sea Port», OJSC «Novorossiysk Ship-Repair Yard». These companies handle about 97% of all cargoes in Port of Novorossiysk.
Novorossiysk is a city in southern Russia located in the south-west of Krasnodar krai, on the coast of Novorossiyskaya (Tsemesskaya) Bay of the Black Sea. The climate of Novorossiysk, due to the proximity of the sea and the nature of the relief, is moderately warm, although the amplitude between the absolute air temperatures of the cold and warm period reaches 60°. In the cold season, air circulation in temperate latitudes predominates, in the warm season, air transport from the subtropics prevails. But this does not exclude the fact that in winter the "spring-summer" type of weather is often observed due to the influx of air masses from the Mediterranean region. As a result, even in winter the average monthly temperature remains positive, within 0 ... + 5°. But there are cases of invasion of Arctic air when the weather is abnormally cold: at night and in the morning the temperature dropped to -20 °, which for this territory is classified as a dangerous weather phenomenon - severe frosts.
The hallmark of the cold season in Novorossiysk is the north-east wind of the Bora. Wind speed reaches 40-60 meters per second. There were cases when this wind tore off sea vessels from anchors and threw them onto coastal cliffs. Therefore, at this time, ships are forced to go into the open sea. Novorossiysk Bay is ice-free. Navigation in the seaport is carried out year-round. Mooring operations in the seaport are carried out around the clock, taking into account the wind-wave regime.
Novorossiysk is an important transport hub of the region. Novorossiysk sea port is one of the largest Russian sea ports that includes a passenger, freight and oil loading ports. Novorossiysk is also a naval base of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. The population of Novorossiysk is about 262,000 (2015), the area - 81 sq. km. The city stretches 25 km along the amphitheater of Tsemesskaya Bay, surrounded by mountains of the North Caucasus.
The seaport of Novorossiysk is located in the north-eastern part of the Black Sea. Within the seaport water area are the Inner Harbor, the harbor of the shipyard, Harbor "Combine Stroykomplekt", the oil ship "Sheskharis", the harbor in the village of Aleksino, the harbor of the sea terminal of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium-R. The inner harbor is located at the top of the Novorossiysk Bay north of the line connecting the West and East breakwater.
Penai banks are located in the Novorossiysk Bay. To the west and east of them lie the western (main) and eastern fairways, respectively. Approaches to the Novorossiysk Bay and sailing in it are provided with a sufficient amount of navigation equipment. The seaport provides transshipment services for general, bulk, container, food cargo, timber, crude oil and oil products.
The total length of the berth front is 14836 m, including 9822 m (58 berths for various purposes) on the Inner Harbor, 5014 m (28 berths for various purposes) on the rest of the port, 803.7 m shore banks, 3967.5 hydraulic structures m. Within the borders of the seaport of Novorossiysk, more than 80 business entities (stevedoring, agency, bunkering, surveyor companies, etc.) operate.
In the northeastern part of the seaport water area, there is an adjacent water area of the Russian naval ships basing site.
It is considered that the first people inhabited the outskirts of present Novorossiysk in the Paleolithic era. In the 5th century BC, it was a town of Bata located on the border with the kingdom of Bosporus with the capital in Pantikapeya (present Kerch). Bata was a Greek town mainly engaged in trade of grain and fish. In the 2nd century BC, Bata was destroyed by a nomadic tribe of the Alans. This invasion slowed the development of civilization on the shore of Tsemesskaya Bay. At this very time, the tribes of the Adyghes formed. They gave Tsemesskaya Bay its current name, after the Tsemes River (“tsiye” - a lot of insects, “mesy” - forest). The Adyghes were persecuted by the Khazars and the Mongols and finally these tribes had to move to the mountains.
In the 13th century, Tsemesskaya Bay belonged to the Golden Horde. Batario fortress was constructed at the mouth of the Tsemes River by people from Genoa, as they had control of sea trade ways between East and West at a time. The fortress defended the town from the Adyghes and was not preserved.
Chernomorskaya, formerly a province of Russia, North Caucasia, was later a separate military district of Kuban. By 1900 it included the narrow strip of land along the east coast of the Black Sea, from Novorossiysk, its capital, to nearly as far as Pitsunda, between the sea-coast and the waterparting of the main Caucasus range, which sends many spurs to the coast, leaving a narrow and extremely malarial belt between the mountains and the sea. A rich vegetation of a southern character, favored by copious rains, grows along the coast; but the country, since the forced exodus of the Tcherkesses, was very thinly populated. It was divided into three districts: Novorossiysk, capital of the province (20,511), Veliaminovsk, and Soch (chief town Dakhovskiy Posad, 1040). Novorossiysk is connected by rail with the main line of North Caucasia, and a mountain road is being made from Veliaminovskaya (Tuapse) to Maikop in Kuban. A road ran all along the coast, upon which small Russian and pretty Czech villages are growing up. Population (1896), 49,745, chiefly Russians, also Greeks, Czechs, Armenians, and about 1300 Tcherkesses.
During their 1920 operation against Novorossiysk and in the Kuban district, the Soviet army succeeded in capturing 12,000 officers and 100,000 men, 300 guns, enormous quantities of ammunition, rolling stock, and 15,000,000 pounds of benzine. Such important booty at the moment of the development of military operations against the Poles was an event of considerable importance. The Kuban Cossack people, in accepting the Soviet regime, represented a strong reinforcement for the Red Army engaged against the Poles.
After the battles ended in 1922, the Red Army was significantly reduced, and the military infrastructure of the Tsemess Bay was no longer given the same attention. In the late 1930s, due to the deterioration of the international political situation, the Soviet leadership decided to increase the composition of the base.
During World War II, Novorossiysk became a stronghold of support for the besieged Sevastopol and Odessa. The forces of the Novorossiysk naval base took part in the Kerch-Feodosia landing operation, which lasted from December 28, 1941 to May 20, 1942. In the first half of 1942, Novorossiysk sailors provided sea transportation and the evacuation of troops from Sevastopol and Kerch. In September 1942, as a result of fierce battles with the German invaders, most of Novorossiysk was occupied. It was possible to regain control of the city of the Soviet army a year later, however, when the Nazis retreated, they mined the port. Soviet troops spent several years eliminating the mine danger.
In 1947, the Novorossiysk naval base was disbanded. Tsemess Bay began to be used as a naval rear-based area of the Black Sea Fleet. Resources for the development of the Black Sea Fleet were invested in Sevastopol, the bay of which was more convenient.
Until 1991, the main forces of the USSR Black Sea Fleet were based on the territory of the Georgian and Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republics in the ports of Sevastopol, Odessa, Batumi and Poti. With the loss of Crimea, Russia lost convenient bays, airfields, warehouses, coastal defense and air defense units.
In 1997, as a result of difficult negotiations between the Russian Federation and Ukraine, agreements were signed on the division of the Black Sea Fleet. Moscow refused the previously put forward requirement to recognize Sevastopol as the main base of the Black Sea Fleet. However, the Russian Federation left the fleet headquarters in Sevastopol and received 81.7% of the ships. The rhetoric of Kiev made Moscow think about the need to recreate the Novorossiysk naval base. In fact, Tsemess Bay was the only alternative to Sevastopol for deploying Russian ships and submarines in the Black Sea. In November 1994, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, Felix Gromov, approved the composition of the forces of the Novorossiysk Naval Region (NVMR), and in March 1995 the management staff. The first commander of the NVMR was Rear Admiral Evgeny Orlov, later Vice Admiral, Deputy Commander of the Black Sea Fleet.
However, the Novorossiysk base required substantial modernization and expansion of infrastructure. In 2005, the federal target program "Creating a system for basing the Black Sea Fleet in the Russian Federation in the period 2005-2020" was adopted. Within the framework of this document, the Spetsstroy of Russia (now part of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation) has begun construction of new facilities on the territory of the base. For these purposes, 90 billion rubles were allocated from the state budget. One of the most complex and unique parts of the project was the construction of a pier to protect the port from the waves. The pier is a grand construction of hydraulic concrete, which protects the port's internal roads from storms.
The combat structure of the base, in addition to submarines, includes the connection of water area protection ships, anti-submarine and anti-mine ships, coastal missile and artillery units, parts of the marine corps and engineering services, search and rescue and hydrographic vessels, parts of the rear and ship repair, as well as a number of units and security services.
In particular, the naval fleet includes three small anti-submarine ships of the Albatros type, project 1124M, eight sea minesweepers, two diving vessels, three rescue tugboats, one search boat and one fire boat.
It is planned to place eight of the newest patrol ships of Project 22160 armed with Caliber-NK missiles in the Tsemess Bay. In 2018, two corvettes “Vasil Bykov” and “Dmitry Rogachev” will be transferred to the coast guard of the border control of the FSB of Russia. The remaining six ships will receive the Black Sea Fleet.
The operation in Syria became one of the incentives for the development of the Black Sea Fleet and the Novorossiysk naval base. Tsemess Bay has turned into an important transport hub to provide the necessary cargo for Russian troops in the SAR. Landing ships and two commercial bulk carriers are used for cargo delivery. The sea shipping route was chosen because of the obstacles that the Western coalition in the field of air communication with Syria poses to Russia.
The land component of the Novorossiysk naval base is represented by the 382nd separate marines battalion (Temryuk) and the 11th separate coastal missile and artillery brigade of the Black Sea Fleet (Utash). The missile brigade has three Bastion-P coastal missile systems, put into service in 2009, in its arsenal. The "Bastion-P" includes four mobile launchers, a control machine. Also missile launchers can use target designation machines, training and transport-loading machines. The basis of the complex is the 3M55 Onyx / Yakhont supersonic homing anti-ship cruise missiles with a firing range of up to 300 km.
The 11th brigade has one battery of the Redut coastal mobile missile system, two Rubezh complexes and one Bal backup system. The artillery component is represented by six 130-mm self-propelled artillery mounts of the coastal coastal complex.
The 382nd separate marine corps battalion deserves special attention. The number of personnel in this tactical unit as of 2010 was estimated at 410 people. Marines took part in liquidating the consequences of the oil spill in the Kerch Strait, in the South Ossetian conflict, anti-terrorist operations in Dagestan (2010-2011), eliminating the effects of flooding in Krymsk, operations on the Crimean peninsula. Later they were involved in a military mission in Syria.
The Novorossiysk base is inferior to Sevastopol in terms of the volume of the ship’s composition and the capabilities of support, however, the presence of another full-fledged base allows the Black Sea Fleet to have sufficient basing and combat stability.
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