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NM-1 / 2-RS / RSR (R-020)

P.V. Tsybin's OKB-256 was selected on 23 May 1955 to build the RS ramjet-powered Mach 3 intercontinental reconnaissance / strike aircraft. The aircraft, air-launched from a Tu-95N bomber, was in competition with the V M Myasishchev (OKB-23) RSS-52 system. Tsybin's OKB-256 built the rocket-propelled transonic research aircraft LL-1, LL-2, and LL-3 from 1945. The NM-1 was the full-scale model of rocket supersonic reconnaissance aircraft 2-RS.

By the decision of government from 04.09.1956 g. was provided for construction on TTT VVS of high-altitude (N=e' km) supersonic (M=e,2) reconnaissance aircraft (2 RS) with two ramjet engines D -21. For the accomplishment of this objective at the plant on 25 April, 1956, it was organized BY OKB-256 headed by chief designer v. n. tsybin and is begun the building of productive- design housing (housing ? 2).

With the mastery of this theme, in connection with many problems, which be subject to permission, job schedule provided their step by step fulfillment. Thus, in connection with the late delivery times of high-temperature (strength) materials (of type AB - aluminum-beryllium alloy) and of assembly, was accepted the solution: the landing practice of this aircraft to perform with the aid of the full-scale model (NM-1), whose glider was prepared in basic from the material D -16T, and according to the geometric dimensions it completely corresponded to the original of aircraft. Instead of the ramjet engines D-21 were established turbojet - RD-11-30. Model was prepared on 4 December, 1957, and it was sent for the tests in LEAH (g. Zhukovskiy). The hero OF THE USSR Amet- khan sultan tested this aircraft twice. Were perfected 70 flights. Dispatch tests successfully. The revealed deficiencies were removed operationally. Start with the aid of the expendable special trolley and landing on the ski were worked out.

For servicing the thematics OKB -256 at the plant the special stands were created:

  • the stand of the hot tests of tanks with the fuel (riveted tanks on different sealing compounds);
  • the stand of the vaporizers of propane (determination of cooling efficiency of the heated gas with the aid of the propionic vaporizers);
  • the stand of electrical equipment of article NM -1 and other stands.
  • In 1958 was built the housing 2. In it were placed productive- design services OKB -256 and OKB "rainbow".

In the process of the production of aircraft 2 RS the deficiencies in its construction were revealed:

  • because of the industrial production non-suitability of construction (absence of the pavement of wing) the cycle of assembling wing was very prolonged - 4-5 months;
  • the complex construction-engineering docking system of wing with the fuselage;
  • the used aluminum-beryllium alloy AB proved to be toxic and it was forbidden in the production;
  • the mastery of article 2 RS went with the large delay from those outlined it was timetable.

In 1963 government let out the decision about the reduction by the fact on the experimental thematics. Work on the theme 2 RS was ended, OKB -256 is abolished, the areas of housing ? 2 were transmitted to plant, BAR "rainbow" and to branch OKB -52 (chief designer V. n. chelomey).

NM-1 (PCP) In the first half of the 1950s, many Soviet design teams engaged in the design and construction of mainly class fighter aircraft. They shared a common desire to achieve in the next five years of flight speeds, twice the speed of sound, and uncoupling the desire of everyone to be the first, and, moreover, with the largest possible margin. Everything seemed to be the case, all according to plan, when suddenly against this background, in 1954, a group of not very well-known aviation specialists made a stunning bid. They decided to create a new aircraft, not in the spirit of the new, but not officially removed the Stalinist slogan "Fly faster than anyone, above all and beyond all!". Make an extraordinary plane, not only meets the requirements of time, but really necessary, but such that no one yet and that no one has yet developed, and does not, it was only possible in the presence of EDO Flawless experimental and production base. Such a problem is solved while it was almost impossible, or at least arhitrudno. By the early '50s all the planned experimental aircraft USSR was once and for all concentrated in a few large bureau. Top designers teams who stayed at Mape (after closing indiscriminate pilot enterprises in 1946-1949.) As if arm in arm, stood majeure monolithic wall. Dividing spheres of influence, they are not all available means to allow the light of new competitors. Go out with them in a row unless managed units, and that, as a rule, briefly (in 1951 was recreated OKB Myasishchev, which was housed in the factory - 23 and engaged in strategic bombers). One exception was the OKB-256, located on the territory of the plant - 256 in Podberezye the Moscow Sea (formerly worked at the plant IV Chetverikov with his bureau, and since 1947 - German aviation specialists led by B. Baade). It was headed by Pavel Tsibin (1905 - 1992), author of many sports, experimental and landing gliders, which were built prior to 1948 for the formation of his bureau he and his colleagues had to work to try to convince the top military and government to build the aircraft on their Sukhoi. This preliminary operating time and was actually a technical proposal Tsybina against those in power. March 4, 1954 PV Tsibin sent a secret letter to the Kremlin with a proposal to create a new plane, endowed with unprecedented properties. Maximum speed was to be his 3000 km / h, altitude 30,000 m and range of 14,000 km. Wow! And more! To achieve the stated characteristics have been proposed many novelty items. Wing and tail were prescribed hexagonal profiles with a meager relative thickness (2.5-3.5%), nowhere else do not apply to aircraft. Fuselage were selected contours similar style with rectilinear generators of surfaces of revolution. No less important for ensuring high flying machine data must be relevant and available power. It intended to obtain, first, through an unprecedented relief structures (and filling) with hitherto unprecedented impact weight - 80% (!) And, secondly, through the use of new, more powerful engines than existed at the time. Question that such a power plant had yet to create, at first for some reason does not bother anyone. Preliminary work was carried out in BNT TsAGI (Moscow area) a small group of specialists, temporary detachment under the command of PV Tsybina. It was VB Shavrov, A. Kondratyev, A. Eliseev, IK Kostenko, etc. According to the preliminary design, "PC" (jet) had unusual aerodynamic configuration. Apparatus rather elongated body shape (~ 30 m) with a tapered wing of low aspect ratio (range 10 m, area of ??65 m2 and a sweep of the front edge 58 ) had two engines on the wing tips, tail and bow ... horizontal tail. The tail of the plane was a peculiar twist Sukhoi. It was a resounding "special cargo" and should have been at the behest of the pilot (after the commands from the Kremlin) separated in flight ... It was a winged bomb (based on the product's "244N"), which came down from the castle bomb racks, was planning to target detected 250 km, being dropped 50 km away. Remains high (large) part of the aircraft and unfolded without entering the detection zone of enemy air defenses, returned to their territory ... without a tail. At the moment of separation "special cargo" "PC" turned into a plane scheme "duck", and in order to balance the flight under the new center of gravity (after all, a ton of the stern - down) to the control system had to include nasal all-moving horizontal surface. Since starting up and separation "trunk" with "rump" canards (PGO) worked in a slightly "zanevolennom" flyugiruyuschem mode. Cruise control surfaces bombs originally included in the control system "PC" on the rights of the stabilizer, the separation unit switched to autonomous control and perform their function to meet with the coveted goal. The aim could be London, New York, Boston, etc. Promised performance kremlyanam so pleased that they have become a powerful lure of the military rulers and the post-Stalinist Soviet Union, which led them to treat the proposal with utmost seriousness, despite some skeptical views about its solvency. Preliminary design was handed over to authorized persons of the IAP. Its consideration and study for an overall evaluation engaged in TsAGI. After an extended discussion on the Commission (Air Force and industry representatives) technical proposal was considered competent and capable. Institute specialists doubt the aviation industry about 80% load ratio led to the formation of a separate subcommittee headed by I. Tsebrikova (weight brigade chief Pavel Sukhoi OKB). The audit showed that 80% of the proposed scheme and the design of the apparatus are unrealistic and that could count no more than 60% (in the practice of the domestic aircraft have been able to create aircraft with a weight of more than 50% return. So, in 1943, the OKB H . Polikarpov was built wooden bomber NB ("T") with a weight of 55% return). Given that this result is promising, offering Tsybina received "green light." So, at all "for" and "against" success enthusiasts was full! Various commissions, inspections and checks on private matters artificially tightened inspection of the object "PC" for almost a year. When it came collective epiphany that carp do not what that suffering innovators have presentation of his "brainchild" on the expanded board MAP involving officials from the defense department of the Central Committee of the CPSU. Report PV Tsybina summit was held May 5, 1955, and on May 23 government issued a decree on the organization of the OKB-256 and on the construction of "PC". The document was signed the first 13 members of the Politburo and the Soviet government: Malenkov, Khrushchev, Bulganin, LM Kaganovich, Mikoyan, Mikhail Suslov, GK Zhukov, PN Pospelov, Voroshilov and others have identified and Then estimate of 224 million 115 thousand rubles. The date of release of the first flying machine was set to February 1, 1957, the understudy had to be completed by April 1, 1957 For everything given 1.5-2 years. Presumably, Paul V. and his associates made a real feat, organizing new business and opening their business. New bureau received room and production base of the plant - 256. Guide to the bureau included: PV Tsibin - Chief Designer AG Golyaev - Deputy of General Affairs, BA Merkulov - Deputy Science and IA Yakovlev - deputy for special equipment and systems. Head of the design department (fuselage, wing, empennage, landing gear, control, etc.) was appointed known aircraft VB Shavrov, led individual teams, who specialized on the listed units. As part of EDB had a lot of other divisions and brigades to fill state which opened wide reception and other major designers were instructed to allocate Tsybina certain number of people. In addition, freshly baked young professionals from universities and colleges have also been sent to OKB-256 distribution. From the standpoint of acquisition staffing Tsybina unlucky in that re-created not so long ago (1951-1952 gg.) DB-23 chief designer Myasishchev absorbed unclaimed human resources by filling its staff professionals are out of work after the reduction airlines in the second half of the 40s. Therefore, the OKB-256 qualified contingent left quite a bit. Of course, none of the main designers of its members did not give the best employees (all get rid of unwanted and unskilled). Thus, the professional level of the OKB-256 was generally lower than in other enterprises. However, this is not so bad. Almost all workers who came from the outside, not without reason, believed that their salary should not be lower than in the same place. In addition, large bureau, usually monthly premium paid up to 20% of salary, and a new OKB their pay was still not for that. So people began to qualify for upgrade and discharges to pull your future earnings to the level of earnings in other enterprises. Considerable inconvenience to the recruitment and distance represented plant - 256 from Moscow, which resulted in costs already at a certain budget.Chief Designer in a hurry with the filling of the state to soon begin work on the product, and in some cases went on overestimate discharges and other categories of designers and engineers. So, instead of 3rd and 2nd category given the 2nd and 1st, which is not always consistent with the actual qualifications. Also significant was the layer of top engineers and other "nechertyashih" officials and senior officials, clerks and public figures with even greater salary (heads of departments, teams, groups, together with their assistants and deputies, as well as all kinds of party, Komsomol, and trade union and freed poluosvobozhdennye secretaries). Meanwhile, the novelty and complexity of tasks required of the first rank specialists at all levels, starting with the leadership. Today, it is passed years, we can safely say that at first the OKB-256 design was beyond the power of performers. This is bound to affect the very first steps in the work. Do not have a consolidated kolllektiva general labor backlog from previous years, that long pre-joint venture (when people learn and adapt to one another), which provides the necessary amount of knowledge and scope. With great difficulty did manage a final general view device "PC" and even the scheme itself aircraft. For a long time (about two first years) was five layout drawings of the general form "PC" in 1:5 scale of nature, equally signed by chief designer, but only partially serve as a basis for detailed work, as the following types are not replaced earlier, which in this case have not been canceled. And not one major issue not think out to the end. In the design team was not complete agreement. Especially a lot of changes, make the equipment is constantly changing in order to improve it, when one system, something does not justify itself, replaced by another, usually more complex and capacious. Along with this was a lot of unnecessary work, arises in the mind is not in the mind of the action "deputies" and "pomov." So long exaggerated questions air conditioning, up to offer breed chlorella. Was built, but was not completed, or rather thrown at the beginning of its thermal vacuum chamber works. Was made, but has not been collected dynamically similar model aircraft 1/10 of the kind made in the details of the finest Energie and destined for future study deformations and vibrations in flight. In short, a lot has been done too much, attention dissipated, and therefore the main issues remained unresolved. For a long time the matter could not possibly emerge from all sorts of blind alleys, common and small. So we talk about specific achievements and clear acreages first two or three years almost not necessary. Work has gone into the mainstream almost stable under the curtain of the existence of the OKB. But first things first. The work was, of course, numerous consultations with the Naga and other sectoral institutions aviation industry under the watchful eye of the defense department of the Central Committee. As usual, the activities of all services bureau painful shudder of linking decisions with minders, aggregate plant and nemapovskimi departments and agencies. New business appeared in such breadth and fullness, about which neither the creators of "PC", neither customers nor the more legislators were unaware. But over time, many, if not all, as they say, "settled down" and stabilized. Conducted many purges and calculations, construction laboratory complexes, etc. The original "aces" the idea of ??the tail separated shortly after of prevalence of common sense was abandoned because it was found out the complexities associated with the separation and automatic rebalancing, with overlapped problems subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics inherent in a single unit and isolated parts of it. In the end, the designers settled on a normal airplane scheme with tail suspension and semi-flush "special cargo" under the fuselage. In this scheme had to be revised, the design and location of planting a retractable landing gear, which, remaining bike, get the front position of the main support legs at the tail and slightly modified side stand. In developing the conceptual design "PC" it turned out that the mass of the aircraft proposed to get more weight and impact, even in 60% think it is not necessary. By the end of 1955 it became clear that the range does not exceed 7500 km. The idea of ??suspension "PC" under the carrier Tu-95N. The joint mission was carried out at a distance of 3000-4000 km, followed by detachment and dispersal of "PC" using two coupled accelerators (with expander) mode climb and finally further solo flight object (after reset accelerators) for two propulsion SPVRD at a speed of 3000 km / h Reset bombs, as in the first embodiment, was to take place in 50 km to the target with its onboard radar detection at a distance of 200-250 km. As such, the conceptual design of the aircraft "PC" was released January 31, 1956 and approved by the chief designer. Long before that, almost from the beginning of work in OKB-670 Mikhail Kravchuk Bondaryuk was sent an official order for the development of supersonic ramjet jet engines. Two such SPVRD under the designation RD-013, developed a craving for 4400-4500 kgf design height. They had to achieve a desired rate "PC" in the 3000 km / h at an altitude of 20,000 m These "engines" have adjustable air intake external compression with a central cone, the diameter of the combustion chamber and 0.65 m total length of 5.5 m Around the same time, other OKB (Myasishchev and Lavochkin) develop alternative projects: product "40" and the product "350." It was unmanned, remotely controlled winged apparatus, known as the "Buran" and "Storm". They have also been designed for speeds of 3000 km / h and intercontinental (its still called transpolar) range and equipped with ramjet engines RD-018A and RD-012U (respectively) of the structure M. Bondaryuk. They differed vertical start from the ground by a rocket booster engines. The first launch of an intercontinental ballistic missile R-7 design Korolev, which took place May 15, 1957, and start the same estimated range missiles on August 21, 1957 contributed to the fact that it will soon work on winged strategic nuclear delivery vehicles appointments have been drastically reduced. For aircraft and combat aircraft fell on black days. Creators rocketry unable to form an opinion of the government and top army that aviation technology ceases to exist as a major strategic weapon. Were widely publicized new ideas about military equipment with a dominant position missiles. The epoch of the radical restructuring of the military-industrial complex. Warmly supported and lightly built in dogma view (biased supporters and participants rocket) was swollen bravura successes in space. This led to a definitive statement: "The rocket plane will replace", which became the driving slogan and transferred indiscriminately decision on military aircraft and tactical. Several aircraft-EDO and most powerful aircraft industry factories were permanently transferred to the Ministry of Medium Machine Building. Their equipment, technological equipment and accessories all aircraft were put under the pile driver. The rest of the aviation industry culture of design, engineering and production at all levels (from manufacture of parts to the general assembly of products) played an invaluable role in the formation of a powerful rocket, rocket engine and astronautics. Rocketeer again literally robbed aircraft and still, self-righteous, resting on their laurels. Suffice it to say that of large enterprises, for example, only plants - 1 (formerly Dux) and - 23 (former factory concession "Yunkerc") - the flagship of Soviet aircraft were hijacked by mass production of rockets SP Korolev and Chelomey . "It was a terrible time, - said the director of the factory - 1, twice Hero of Socialist Labor Viktor Yakovlevich Litvinov. - We airplane people to the bone, were forced to obey orders from the Kremlin, without any desire to destroy everything and start an alien thing for the soul . New calls and fresh banners hanging on the walls of buildings, were similar to appeal to suicide, and it was impossible to change ... " In those years, a huge amount of air military units and even compounds were deprived of the material and disbanded.Thousands warplanes destroyed right on the parking areas, to dismember a cutting torch. Generated by the massive destruction of aircraft, on an unprecedented scale grew and multiplied airplane graveyard. World has seen in its history, such unbridled vandalism in relation to the result of his labor, as people in their own country. Aircraft manufacturers and military aviators sift and were reclassified in missile and rocket scientists. Blue collar badges and shoulder straps with "wings" were incalculably drawn with black lining of trunks crosswise. Only one example of said adjustment plunges into bewilderment and strong trans. So, in the name of the chief designer of OKB Lavochkin former fyuzelyazhniki began to develop housing satellites and kryleviki yesterday ... only one external similarity (and even then, in the opinion of journalists or housewives) switched to the creation of solar panels ... In conjunction with the work on the project "PC" bureau engaged in the design and construction of other devices (remember the five layout drawings to scale 1/5-yu equally signed by chief designer). One of the most promising was a scout for the conduct of strategic operational intelligence on possible theaters of operations and in the deep rear of the probable enemy. Deployed and previously conducted work on creation (Orphaned) winged carrier nuclear bomb were to OKB-256 help those that kept him afloat in an era of decisive missile dominance. Creators of rocket and space technology at that time and did not think about orbital spy satellites and reconnaissance space stations. Therefore, the "atmospheric" spy plane at the end of the 50s could be quite important. The scheme of the aircraft "PCP" - single midwing trapezoidal wing small elongation and like him tselnopovorotnym tail. Profiles bearing and control surfaces were formed by straight lines in symmetrical hexagons, pointed at the front and rear edges. Fuselage dialed from the cones and cylinders have a circular cross-sectional diameter of 1.5 m to the central portion. Over the body was laid invoice gargrot trapezoidal, extending from the cockpit to the front edge of the vertical stabilizer. This add-in was made not once, but in the process of design studies and was intended for the posting of communications along the fuselage from controls in the cockpit to the tail deflection surface, for communication between the fuel tanks, electrical and hydraulic units. The front part of the fuselage - it ogival nose cone with the cook. The tail part is also conical, was completed in the rearmost point of the hemispherical radome notice. The canopy was formed flat transparent surfaces to avoid distortion of visibility for the pilot. The fuselage consisted of eight sections: Coca nose; instrument compartment; sealed compartment cockpit; Front axle fuel tank; middle part occupied by functional equipment; rear bearing capacity, consisting of two sections: the steering compartment and aft fuel tank. Cab compartment has two membranes and insulation. In addition, the fuselage was one supply tank of small capacity, turbine and a tank with supercooled propane used for cooling devices and pieces of equipment in conjunction with insulation. Kerosene tanks were welded from sheet duralumin D-20. Hanging pots had a diameter of 0.65 m, a length of 11.4 m and 4.4 m housed kerosene. To fly with variable speed modes (subsonic-supersonic-subsonic) to avoid sharp longitudinal imbalance was provided automatic pumping fuel from the tanks into the outboard rear fuselage tank and was introduced to a certain order of their generation. It was ensured optimal center of gravity position of the aircraft relative to the MAR wing. The pilot, wearing a suit, was in the pressurized cabin in which the internal pressure was maintained at ground level 780 mm Hg. Art., and at working height - 460 mm Hg. Art. The air temperature in the cockpit did not exceed + 30 "C when the outside temperature +60' C and fell no lower - 5'S overboard with cooling to - 60 C. Pilot used with individual air conditioning, nourished his suit. During the flight suit login to the main system via air vents. When cabin depressurization automatically fire alarm system pressurization of the suit, providing the pressure inside its corresponding altitude 11500 m, ie, acceptable conditions of life for 15 minutes, for which a pilot had to descend into the denser layers of the atmosphere and return to their base. By the way, before there was a final reorientation plant - 23 aircraft with missiles, DB-23 in the name of PV Tsybina business letter came from TsAGI. In the envelope was a recommendation of specialists of the Institute for supersonic aircraft aerodynamics. Chief Designer "PCP" was sent to a general view of his office, recomposed in the form most appropriate to fly subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds. Were clearly marked sections of the wing root with greater sweep on the leading edge, which would allow to overcome the sound barrier with minimal changes to the longitudinal balancing. Apparently, this VM Myasischev found stale document (or purposely not posted in 1958) and sent in good memory Filevskiy former neighbor. Of course, the time of completion, rather, cessation of work on "PCP" sent by telegram was not only useless, but also resembling herring served for tea. As already mentioned, in the work on products "PC", "2PC", HM-1 and "PCP" competitors frequently interfered with the sole purpose - to prevent, probably more out of envy. Important role in the inhibition of affairs OKB-256 played the oldest and most powerful magnates of aircraft three times Hero of Socialist Gruda, Academician, Chief designer Andrei Tupolev. Patriarch of our aircraft did everything to successes of the design team, led by PV Tsybina were multiplied by the zero. According to information received from the Tsybina, Sharov, Golyaeva and other employees OKB Tupolev went to classrooms, halls and shops and shouted: "No shit you will not leave! Nothing will succeed!" And then he took and gave up support for "2RS". Yet at Tsybina and his team still got! Happened without the Tu-95N, and without D-21! And NM-1 well fly off, and Ulan-Ude (also sent to Tmutarakan!) Was launched serial build "PCP" (P-020). Closure promising theme "PCP" and liquidation bureau PV Tsybina were all the more dramatic that these "measures" a hand in another influential person aviation industry - Artem Mikoyan. According to one of the assistants Mikoyan, then first deputy minister of aviation industry AV Minayeva, that there were three reasons. First, "PCP" (P-020) did not receive the promised engines as "R-11F were needed for the MiG-21." Second, it took the plant - 256 for its unmanned subjects, placing his deputy there AY Bereznyak and downloading this release of Enterprise parallel units for MiG. Thirdly, A; Mikoyan government promised trehmahovy scout named the product "155" (line plant). For this topic, at the Special Design Bureau "MiG" were all presuppositions: R-15B engine and photographic equipment, designed for "PCP" installed and worked on it. Mikoyan OKB led his at a very difficult path. Flight speed corresponding to Mach 3, could not be reached. In the second half of the 60s came out just what Tsibin already suggested as early as 1956, ie, the rate that is consistent with Mach 2.85. Range, which was planned for "PCP" Mikoyan aircraft have failed, and MiG-25R was the tactical reconnaissance. LTH: Modification NM-1 Wingspan, m 10.80 Length, m 26.60 Height, m Wing area, m2 64.00 Weight, kg normal takeoff 7850 maximum take-off 9200 Engine Type 2 THD AL-5 Thrust, kgf 2 x 2000 Maximum speed, km / h 500 Range, km Ceiling, m 4000 Crew 1

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