Nevskoye Planning and Design Bureau - History
PJSC "Nevskoye Design and Design Bureau" is the oldest bureau of surface shipbuilding in Russia. Currently, the bureau specializes in several areas of shipbuilding: aircraft carrying ships, large landing ships, and shipborne aviation technical equipment. The history of PJSC Nevskoye PKB begins on January 18, 1931, when by order of the Central Board of the All-Union Shipbuilding Industry Association Soyuzverf, an independent self-supporting Special Shipbuilding Bureau - TsKBS was created to “centralize the design of naval shipbuilding to accelerate the revival and further development of the Naval Forces The Red Army.
The first head of the bureau was appointed Ya.A. Sauk, Deputy Head - Chief Engineer V.A. Nikitin. The first projects of the bureau were the leaders of the Leningrad-class destroyers of a displacement of 2,700 tons. In 1932 the bureau was renamed the TsKBS - 1, and in 1937 - the TsKB - 17. In 1938, the fleet receives the lead ship of the project 26 cruiser "Kirov", and in the next 6 years five more ships of the type "Kirov" and "Maxim Gorky" of project 26 bis. In the pre-war period, 46 destroyers of the type "Wrathful" and "Watchdog" were also built on the bureau's projects. Ships were built at the USSR shipyards in Leningrad, Nikolaev, Sevastopol, Vladivostok, Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in 1941, the bureau was evacuated to Kazan. But even there, work continued on the creation of warships. In 1942, the specialists of TsKB-17 V.A. Nikitin, A.I. Maslov, F.E. Bespov, N.N. Isanin, B.S. Frumkin, G.A. Hasanov was awarded the title of "Stalin Prize Laureate" for the development of projects of surface war ships. During the war years, 6 ships built according to the designs of TsKB - 17 were awarded the Guards rank, and 12 ships became the Red Banner.
The fighting at sea during the War showed the significant role of aviation and its carriers - aircraft carriers. Pearl Harbor, the battle of Midway, the tragedy of allied convoys, which became easy prey for German aircraft and submarines, determined the priority direction for the development of shipbuilding in countries with powerful fleets - the construction of aircraft carriers. In 1943, TsKB-17 was commissioned to begin work on the first Soviet aircraft carrier (project 72). V.V. Ashik headed the work - the former chief designer of battleships, winner of the Stalin Prize.
On May 9, 1945, TsKB-17 returned to Leningrad and in the same year developed a technical design for the large-scale construction of the first destroyer with an all-welded hull of the project 30 bis. In 1946, on the basis of the TsKB-17 branch at the plant. A.A. Zhdanov created a new bureau, TsKB-53 (now JSC “Northern PKB”) to design light ships, which provided for the construction of 70 destroyers on the project 30 bis.
The first attempt to create an aircraft carrier was suspended and TsKB-17 was entrusted with designing light cruisers pr.68K like Chapaev and pr.68bis like Sverdlov. In the period from 1950 to 1955, the navy received 5 cruisers pr.68K and 14 cruisers pr.68 bis. The lead cruiser of the pr. 68bis Sverdlov in 1953 was fortunate enough to represent the Soviet Navy at a naval parade on Portsmouth's Speedhead raid on the occasion of the coronation of Queen of Great Britain Elizabeth II. Project 68bis ships were recognized as the most beautiful ships of their time.
In 1959, TsKB-17 again set about creating a draft aircraft carrier, which became for many years the main activity of the bureau. It should be noted that the decision to start the design and construction of aircraft carriers in the Soviet Union, and in today's Russia, depends on various factors - political, economic, military-strategic, personal, etc., since these are complex, costly ships with a long cycle of creation and a large range of component equipment.
In the 1960s, the appearance in the Navy of the leading maritime powers of missile submarines required the creation of anti-submarine defense ships capable of detecting and destroying enemy submarines at a considerable distance. At TsKB-17 (renamed in Nevskoye Design Bureau (Nevskoye PKB) in 1967 under the leadership of AS Savicheva (later AV Marinich), the design of the first Soviet anti-submarine long-range ship with group-based anti-submarine helicopters began. It was a daunting task, but the bureau staff dealt with it with honor.
The lead ship of the project 1123 "Moscow" was built at the Black Sea shipbuilding plant in the city of Nikolaev and handed over to the fleet in 1967. In 1969, the second single-type anti-submarine cruiser-helicopter carrier "Leningrad" was put into operation. In 1968, the bureau began designing the aircraft-carrying cruiser Kiev (project 1143, chief designer AV Marinich) with vertical take-off and landing aircraft and a nuclear aircraft carrier with a displacement of about 80,000 tons, Chief Designer A. B. Maureen). However, at that time the country was not yet ready to build such ships and preference was given to the cheaper project 1143.
In order to ensure the bookmark of the ship in 1970, the technical design was completed in a very short time - less than one year. On April 30, 1970, it was approved by the Navy and the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry of the USSR and on July 21 of the same year, the lead ship of the project 1143 "Kiev" was laid on the stocks of the Black Sea Shipbuilding Plant. In addition to the aircraft fleet, this ship also had the Basalt impact weapons complex, powerful missile and artillery weapons, submarine detection means and anti-submarine weapons. On December 26, 1972, just two and a half years later, the Kiev was launched, and in its place on the stocks, the next ship of the series, the Minsk, was laid. TAVKr "Kiev" became part of the Northern Fleet in December 1975 and served in combat until the end of 1991.
Subsequently, the advanced heavy aircraft carrier cruisers Novorossiysk (project 11433, chief designer AV Marinich, later VF Anikiev) and Baku, later renamed Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshkov ( project 11434, chief constructor V.F.Anikiev). When designing the TAVKr "Admiral Gorshkov" in 1979-1980. the bureau introduced a fundamentally new system for the automated development of electrical documentation, then applied to other organizations in the industry.
In 1980, the bureau by order of the 2 GU Minsudproma was designated as the head organization for the development of CAD for surface combatants. The equipping of an EC computer bureau enabled the creation of systems that, by the mid-1980s, provide almost fully automated development of specifications for working drawings, cable journals and other textual documentation of approx. 70% of the total volume of working documentation. The level of development of CAD in the bureau has made it possible to create an integration of the CAD system of the bureau with an automated system for design and technological preparation of the production of the Black Sea Shipbuilding Plant (AC KTPP).
By a joint decision of the Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Communications, a dedicated communication channel was created: Nevskoye PKB - the Black Sea Shipbuilding Plant, and in 1987. CAD system bureau - AS KTPP plant was put into operation. The created system, the only one in the industry, in 1988. It was awarded a silver medal at the Exhibition of Economic Achievements of the USSR.
Simultaneously with the work on projects 1143 - 11434 in 1974, the design of the atomic aircraft carrier of the project 1153 was started in Nevsky PKB. However, this time the plans did not come true. In 1978, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the termination of work on the project 1153 and the beginning of the development of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser of the project 11435 with a boiler-turbine power plant. It was the first ship to provide aircraft basing on it with a springboard taking off and landing on the aerofinisers. The wing was supposed to use the Su-27K and MiG-29K, helicopters RLD, PLO and PSO.
To test the elements of the future ship, special devices, as well as deck aircraft first created in the USSR, the Construction of the Naval Aviation Training Complex (NIUTK) was started by the USSR Council of Ministers Decree in 1976 at the Navy aerodrome in Saki, Ukraine. The work was carried out in close contact between the Black Sea Shipbuilding Plant and the Proletarian Plant and the Nevsky PKB. Supervised the work of Nevsky PKB Yu.D. Sergeev. The result of this work was the implementation in August 1982 of the first take-offs from the experimental springboard of the Su-27 and MiG-29 aircraft, which confirmed the possibility of a springboard take-off from the ship’s deck. In 1982, the decision of the SME, MAP, Navy and Air Force to approve the technical design of the heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser, etc. 11435, was issued. In the same year, the lead ship, called Riga, was laid down at ChSZ. Later, the ship was renamed several times (“Leonid Brezhnev”, “Tbilisi”, “Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov”).
On December 6, 1985, the ship was launched, and in the summer of 1989, the Tbilisi Tbilisi was unfinished and did not pass all types of tests (the rarest case!) Went into the Black Sea to test takeoffs and landings of prototypes of Su-27K, MiG-29K and Su -25UTG As a result of almost three months of work at sea, on November 1, 1989, for the first time in the USSR, the Su-27K fighter jet, piloted by test-pilot VG Pugachev, landed an “airplane-like” fighter! Behind him - the MiG-29K, operated by test pilot T.O. Aubakirov. In December 1991, the TAVKr "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov" became part of the Red Banner Northern Fleet, where it serves to this day.
TAVKR "Riga" project 11436 (in 1990 renamed to "Varyag") was laid 20 minutes after launching TAVKr "Tbilisi" on December 6, 1985. Launched November 25, 1988. In 1992, with readiness of approx. 67% of the construction was suspended and the ship was mothballed. His further fate was determined by the events that occurred on the territory of the USSR in the early 90s. In 1998, he was sold by Ukraine to China.
In the period of 1970-1980s, the specialists of Nevsky PKB and the shipbuilders of the Black Sea Shipyard acquired a great experience in the design and construction of aircraft carrying ships. From project to project, the displacement grew, the aviation fleet based on the ship’s board increased and changed, weapons and electronic weapons were improved. The pinnacle of this direction was the nuclear aircraft carrier of the project 11437 Ulyanovsk. Its design began in 1984 under the leadership of the chief designer L.V. Belova. The ship was laid on the stock of ChSZ on November 25, 1988 and it was planned to be commissioned in December 1995. The implementation of this project led our aircraft carrier to the pace of construction and tonnage on the same level as the American shipyard Newport News.
The second important activity of the bureau is the design of large amphibious ships. In the period from 1963 to 1989, 14 ships of the Voronezhsky Komsomolets type (project 1171) and three ships of the type Ivan Rogov (project 1174, chief designer PP Milovanov, later - BM Pikalkin). The design of all these ships, despite their size, made it possible for them to approach the unequipped shore and land landing forces, including medium tanks of the T-80 type.
In 1980, a project of a universal large landing ship (project 11780) was developed with basing on it up to 24 helicopters. However, at that time at the USSR shipyards there was no free berth and the project was postponed.
In addition to the ships mentioned above, other, less well-known, but no less complex, ships and vessels were built according to the projects of the Nevsky PKB. Among them are a series of ships - floating measuring complexes and oceanographic ships. Especially it is necessary to note the research vessel "Cosmonaut Vladimir Komarov", designed to ensure the operational management of spacecraft, which was re-equipped from the Geniches bulk carrier at the Baltic Shipyard in just 6 months. Over 22 years of service, the ship has passed 700,000 nautical miles (about 13 years of “clean” navigation).
Over the years of the Soviet Union’s existence, more than 300 ships and vessels of various classes and purposes were built at 11 shipyards in the country.
After the collapse of the USSR, in the difficult 90s, Nevskoye PKB managed to keep the team, to find new directions for the application of its intellectual and technical potential. In 1996, the bureau was incorporated and became known as OAO Nevskoye PKB. A.O. Viglin was elected the General Director at the shareholders meeting.
At the same time, the bureau began an intensive re-equipment, the transition to computer-aided design, and training for the design staff. As a result, today the design in Nevsky PKB is fully computerized, based on IT services covering all aspects of production activities - design work, interaction with the Customer, with construction plants, work planning and control over their implementation, quality management and personnel management.
A hardware infrastructure has been created on the basis of SCS and unified bureaucratic jobs (AWS), incl. with communication channels to the construction plants, ensuring the functioning of all technological chains, including work in the remote (from the automated workplaces at the construction plants) and mobile modes. Created structured information databases, catalogs and directories, integrated into the corporate integrated system (CIS). All developed project documentation in the form of documents, electronic documents, models, letters, protocols, etc. placed in a database and electronic archives.
The Bureau completed the project for the conversion of the Admiral Gorshkov TAVKR into an aircraft carrier for FSUE Rosvooruzhenie. As a result, FSUE Rosvooruzhenie signed a contract with the Republic of India for the re-equipment of the ship. The construction plant was determined by JSC “ON“ Sevmashpredpriyatie ”(Severodvinsk). So began the participation of PJSC "Nevskoye PKB" in the international military-technical cooperation.
In 2009, a contract was signed for the development of documentation for the creation in Goa (India) of a ground-based test and training complex equipped with take-off and landing equipment for shipboard aircraft. Completion of construction, testing and commissioning of the complex is planned for the end of 2013.
For success in building the Russian Navy, the bureau was awarded the Orders of Lenin and the October Revolution. Two people were awarded the title "Hero of Socialist Labor", two - the title "Laureate of the Lenin Prize", 31 - the title "Laureate of the State Prize of the USSR." Many employees were awarded orders and medals of the USSR and Russia.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|