Alexander Alexandrovich Morozov
Alexander Alexandrovich Morozov [r. 16 (29) .10.1904, Bezhitsa, now the Bryansk region.], Soviet designer of tanks, major general of the technical service (1943), doctor of technical sciences (1972), Hero of Socialist Labor (1942). Member of the CPSU since 1943.
In 1931 he graduated from the engineering college. In 1931–38, the head of the plant design bureau of the plant, from 1938 the deputy head of the design bureau, from 1940 chief designer. In 1931–39, he participated in the design of light wheeled-tracked tanks (BT-2, BT-5, BT-7, etc.). together with M.I. Koshkin and N.A. Kucherenko, he led the development of the T-34 medium tank, recognized as the best tank of the period of the 2nd World War 1939–45.
Work on the creation of a new tank began even before World War II. The design bureau led by Alexander Alexandrovich Koshkin led this work. Morozov was attracted to this group in the thirties as one of the most talented designers. And in 1940, after the death of M.I.Koshkin, A.A. Morozov was assigned to lead the design bureau. From October 1941 to 1951, A.A. Morozov - Chief Designer of the Ural Tank Plant Design Bureau (now - Uralvagonzavod Production Association). During the war years he led the modernization of the T-34 tank, under his leadership the tanks T-34-85 (1943), T-44 (1945), T-54 (1946) were developed.
KB Kharkov plant number 183, moved to the Urals on the production area of the enterprise Nizhny Tagil Uralvagonzavod, in 1942, the beginning of work on a new medium tank T-43. It differed from the legendary T-34 in a triple spacious turret with a commander's turret and much more powerful armoring, as well as the use of a torsion bar suspension and one and a half times the thicker body armor details. The creation of the machine was personally led by the chief designer of the plant, A.A.Morozov . However, this tank did not go into series, as if it had replaced the “thirty-four” in the total production of Soviet medium tanks, there would have been a significant decline, and the country's leadership could not allow this.
A separate group of designers took up a deep modernization of the T-34, which led to the replacement of its turret with a turret from the T-43, as a result of which a new T-34-85 tank appeared. However, A. Morozov did not refuse the idea of creating a new medium tank, and at the end of 1943 the development of the T-44 began. He inherited from the T-43 a turret without alterations, but the body of the new machine has undergone significant changes.
For outstanding services in the organization of production, design and improvement of tanks and skillful management of factories. By decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Council of January 20, 1943, Alexander Alexandrovich Morozov was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor with the award of the Serp and Molot gold medal and the Order of Lenin.
After the war, a number of tanks and other objects of armored vehicles were created under his leadership. Once the War ended, and it was necessary to rebuild Soviet industry. Many industrial groups returned to their homes. No matter how much factory management tried to convince Kharkov engineers to stay, they were eager to return as well. In the fall of 1951, the chief designer of the bureau, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Morozov, fell ill with a gastric ulcer, and had surgery in November. In December he was appointed as the head of the design bureau at the Kharkov factory, restored after the war.
Other Kharkovites followed their chief designer from the Urals to the Ukraine. Morozov took the core of the design team with him. The remainder of the design bureau in Nizhniy Tagil was tasked with ensuring that T-34, T-44, and T-54 blueprints used in production (recall that the T-54 was built at many factories, including ones in Poland, China, and Czechoslovakia) were identical to the originals. The bureau also had to improve and modernize the T-54 tank. However, the ambitious collective that remained, used to creative work, was not satisfied with this arrangement. Interestingly enough, factory management was also interested in changing tank models.
In the postwar period, the design bureau under the direction of A.A. Morozova created a number of new tanks. Alexander Alexandrovich educated a galaxy of great designers and engineers who successfully improved armored vehicles. From November 1951 - Chief Designer of the Kharkov Machine-Building Plant named after Malyshev and at the same time - Chief Designer of the Kharkov Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau, in 1966-1976 - his chief. Under his leadership, developed tanks T-64 (1963), T-64A (1966), committed a revolution in tank building.
Outstanding Merits A.A. Morozov highly appreciated by the party and the government. He was twice honored with the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, was awarded three Orders of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution, the Orders of Suvorov 11 and Kutuzov of 1 degree, three orders of the Red Banner of Labor, the Order of the Red Star and many medals. Alexander Alexandrovich - the winner of the Lenin and three times the winner of the USSR State Prize.
For his great contribution to improving the country's defense and on the occasion of his 70th birthday, by decree of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet of October 28, 1974, Alexander Morozov was awarded the second Gold Medal "Hammer and Sickle" with the award of the Order of Lenin. From June 1976 - Consultant of the Kharkov Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau and a member of the Scientific and Technical Council of the USSR Ministry of Mechanical Engineering. He lived in the city of Kharkov (Ukraine). He died on June 14, 1979. He was buried at the cemetery number 2 in Kharkov. Major General Engineering Tank Service (1945), Doctor of Technical Sciences (1972), Honored Machine Builder of the Ukrainian SSR (1970). Awarded 4 orders of Lenin (1941, 1942, 1943, 1974), orders of the October Revolution (1977), Kutuzov 1st degree (1945), Suvorov 2nd degree (1945), 3 orders of the Red Banner of Labor (1941, 1944, 1954 ), the Order of the Red Star (1945), medals. Winner of the Lenin Prize (1967) and the three Stalin Prizes (State Prizes of the USSR) (1942, 1946, 1948). Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1958-1962.
Orders of the October Revolution (1977), Kutuzov 1st degree (1945), Suvorov 2nd degree (1945), 3 Orders of the Red Banner of Labor (1941, 1944, 1954), Order of the Red Star (1945), medals. Winner of the Lenin Prize (1967) and the three Stalin Prizes (State Prizes of the USSR) (1942, 1946, 1948). Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1958-1962.
The name of the Hero is the street in Kharkov, it is given the name of the Kharkov Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau. Bronze busts A.A. Morozov installed in Bryansk and Kharkov. In Kharkov, a memorial plaque was opened on the house in which he lived. The name of an outstanding designer named Kharkov Mechanical College, which Alexander graduated from in 1931. Name Morozova bears design office, in which he worked for fifty years. The T-34 tanks mounted on pedestals are peculiar monuments to the feat of the Soviet soldiers and the heroic work of the creators of formidable combat vehicles. In Bryansk, the thirty-four stands on a high pedestal on the bank of the Desna River. The tank was installed in honor of the soldiers of the 11th Guards Army of the Bryansk Front, which liberated the regional center from the Nazi invaders.
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