MiG-27 FLOGGER - Design
The MiG-27 (product 32-25, according to NATO codification: Flogger-D) is a Soviet supersonic fighter-bomber of the third generation with variable sweep wing. Designed to attack mobile and fixed ground and air targets. The aircraft is available in two main versions: a long-range, all weather interceptor, or a dedicated ground attack aircraft.
The wings are high-mounted, variable, swept-back, and tapered with blunt tips. There is one engine inside the body and rectangular box-like air intakes forward of the wing roots. There is a single exhaust. The fuselage is long and tubular, except where air intakes give a box-like appearance. The aircraft has a long, downward-sloping, sharply pointed nose and a stepped canopy. There is a large, swept-back, and tapered belly fin under the rear section. The tail is swept-back and tapered tail fin with curved dorsal in leading edge and angular tip. The swept-back and tapered flats high-mounted on the fuselage with angular tips.
The MiG-27 is made by the normal aerodynamic scheme with a high variable sweep wing, all-moving horizontal tail and tricycle landing gear. The fuselage structurally is divided into the following main parts: the nose of the fuselage; head of the fuselage, including zakabinnogo compartments of special equipment, fuel tanks, a fixed part of the wing and side air intakes; canopy; movable wing console with interceptors controlled toes, flaps, fuel tanks, compartments; the rear fuselage fuel tank, keel, rudder and stabilizer.
The aircraft fuselage is semi-monocoque, with riveted and welded parts. The parts use riveted sheet aluminum alloy material, and for the power elements forging of steel and aluminum alloy. Technologically riveted fuselage is made of a large number of panels connected by rivets and spot welding. The welded part is composed of individual panels on the contact and TIG welding. For the convenience of the service most frequently being uncovered manhole covers made reclining on shompolnye-loop fastenings with legkorazemnymi locks that come off when you turn the pin with a screwdriver clockwise by 90 degrees.
The wing consists of two fixed parts attached to the fuselage, and two trapezoidal rotary consoles. Changing the sweep angle consoles made within 16-72 degrees. The central section - the main load-bearing element of the fixed wing. It is welded to the upper portions of the frames 18 and 20. The number in the compartment located nodes turning consoles (they are the same - console attachment points) and sections of the wing fuel tanks. wing rotating assembly is a welded box-like structure, which passes into a powerful plug, which is inserted into the movable swivel console. Console technologically divided into nose, center, and tail parts. Fang has a vortex generating radio-covering. Turn consoles made special drive SPC-1 system, which has a ball screw converters that transform the rotary motion into linear (relaying management consoles - with a lever mounted in the cab on the left side, next to the throttle).
The sock tiltable rotary wing parts is in four-section. Sections are interconnected control rods. Deviation and cleaning are made from a common hydraulic system. To prevent the formation of gaps between the toe and the upper surface, the wing visor is made of steel, on which the toe slides profile. Spars of the wing are made by hot stamping of aluminum alloy. Sealing wing compartments carried sealant pumped through the holes for the bolts that connect the trim panel to the frame, the grooves are located around the perimeter of the chamber. The second sealing barrier - rubber band (roll) laid around the perimeter between the frame and the panels. On the upper surface of the wing spoiler has two sections.
The flap is in three-piece, the nose portion is made of a titanium alloy (1st Section) and aluminum alloy (2nd and 3rd section). The tail part of the flap is a honeycomb block formed from an aluminum alloy cladding and a filler of aluminum foil 0.03 mm thick. On the outer surface of the flap of the steel strip is laid, which slides along the lug on the pressure plate covering the recess in the fuselage slot (it includes wing when rotating). flaps controlled by a hydraulic cylinder of the total hydraulic system. All three sections are interconnected flaps collets, but each section is controlled by its cylinder. Shields are between the surface consoles and fuselage, as well as the gaps between the consoles released and closed the fuselage top and bottom of the fixed and movable panels, which simultaneously serve as aerodynamic fairings. Dashboards provide the required seal at any angle of attack and wing deformation.
The fixed center-guard panels are of riveted construction, mounted on the wing assembly rotation. These panels are mounted on the upper and lower fixed plates of center. The front upper and lower wing plates are pressed against the surface by means of pneumatic cylinders mounted on the fuselage. To reduce friction sealing profiles to fixed and movable guards attached PTFE lining. Vertical blinds lower flaps are closed fairing. Between the curtains and fairings on the one hand and the fuselage - on the other hand also has PTFE lining.
The all-moving horizontal tail consists of a front stringer, spar, a set of ribs and skin. The central part has a milled bar, the nose and tail part - riveted. Inside the tail section - honeycomb filling. Each half of the stabilizer rotates on two bearings. Root Fixed-combination bearing (needle and spherical), installed in the side rib, end - roller, located inside the stabilizer. The cross-mode is one half of the stabilizer is deflected up and another down at the same angle not exceeding 10 degrees. at an angle of 16-55 degrees wing installation. and 6.5 degrees, at an angle of wing installation of more than 55 degrees. Vertical tail fin and includes the rudder. The keel frame consists of a front stringer of two spars, ribs stamped sheet set, milled ribs and side number 9 ribs. The whole middle part of the keel is made of milled panels. At the top there is a radio-ending with antennas. Rudder is attached to the keel on three pillars. Sock wheel - steel, stamped, it is located dampers CD-16-5000-0 A. Casing is made of aluminum alloy.
The canopy consists of a visor and flip of the rising and descending with the help of the air cylinder. Operational Control System provides the opening and closing of the lamp, its fixation on the fuselage and sealing. To prevent windshield icing electrical system has heating. In order to prevent misting, inside the perimeter of the bottom of lamp tubes set bitter blowing air taken from the compressor Turbojet. For cockpit ventilation when taxiing on the ground or duty flashlight can be raised to 100 mm (in this position the lamp can steer the plane at speeds up to 30 km / h). Overview back is ensured by the inspection device CU-27AMSH mounted on a folding of the canopy. The front arc part are hinged, and two mirrors, providing an overview of the wing surfaces.
The ejection seat KM-1M provides a bailout of the aircraft at all altitudes in the range of speeds from 130 km / h up to the limit for the MiG-27 at all altitudes (from 0 m) and includes a deep headrest, limiting the spread of the pilot hands, locking system of the pilot in the chair , a set of ECC-5 that protects the pilot from the stream. Seat fitted with an automatic beacon - radio connected Komar-2M, begin to act immediately after activation of the parachute system.
To duplicate undermine radio system 'friend or foe' has a special mechanism circuit is triggered simultaneously with the catapult. bailout process is as follows: when you pull the handle dual bailout at the initial moment pulled out a check, there is pinned capsule and the attracting operation piromechanism shoulder. Under the pressure of powder gases occurs the attracting shoulder straps, release stops spread of arms and extension of the pusher rod in the seat, thus there is a rocking twist, one arm of which leads to the activation microswitch ES-5A automatic lowering filter helmet, the other arm through the cable pulls the pin gasifier lamp reset.
The landing gear is a tricycle. The Front has two wheels with tubeless tires 520h140, the main pillar - one wheel with tubeless tires 840h360. Basic rack consists of a welded beams, Swivel, console, additional turning mechanism and a remote damper. Shock absorber is mounted on swivel mounted on the beam and fixed against rotation with the landing gear thrust bolt and kinematic lock formed by rocking and traction. When clearing the chassis plate cylinder, putting things, it produces a beam rotation about the axis of its fastening, at the same time there is an additional turn poluvilki wheel Bow Front wheel equipped with a mechanism of return to the neutral position on the fly placed inside the rack.
On the axes of the main landing wheels and axle bow rack mounted bumpers, allowing the plane to taxi and take off from unpaved airfields soggy. The nose landing gear is equipped with a mechanism for turning the MRK-LP, designed to turn the wheels to the corners, proportional to the deviation of the control pedals. MiG-27 has a pneumatic braking system.
The air inlets are spaced from the side surface of the fuselage 80 mm to form a slit for discharging the boundary layer. Turbojet R-29B-300, manufactured Ufa Engine Industrial Association, has a 11-stage compressor, two-stage turbine annular combustion chamber and afterburner. There is a system automatically maintain a constant temperature of gases behind the turbine at a given time. To run the Turbojet system an automatic turbine starter TC-21, which is a small turbojet engine with free turbine and a central compressor, is designed to work for a maximum of 60 seconds (Using the main engine fuel). The air turbine starter goes through the controlled flaps in the rear fuselage (it tearing and closing interlocked with the cleaning and the landing gear system).
- 1 automatic six-barreled gun GS-6-30A 30 mm caliber with ammunition 260-300 shells. Due to the immense power of the gun there were limits on its application gun (shooting could lead to electronic equipment failures, falling of dashboards, exploding lights). Before flying to the shooting were taken Embarkation rul?zhnye-lamp headlight GRP-4 holes jammed plywood plugs.
- The combat load: up to 4000 kg of various weapons hardpoints on 7 weapons: a central ventral (usually used for suspension PTB), 2 under the engine air intakes, 2 under the aft fuselage and 2 under the fixed part of the wing. Two more units can be mounted under the rotary wing panels, but they are not turning, and when used it is impossible to change the sweep. Typically, these units are used for ferry flights and carry additional tanks. Rear pylons are rarely used, as in this case, due to problems with the centering is necessary to reduce the amount of fuel on board the aircraft.
- MiG-23B and MiG-23BN (articles 32-24 and 32-24B), the direct ancestors of MiG-27 series with virtually identical "twenty-seventh" design. MiG-23B / BN - one of the attempts of the Soviet designers by modification of the MiG-23 to create a replacement were then armed with a fighter-bomber Su-7B, which is characterized by low capacity airborne sighting and navigation equipment. In general, he lived up to expectations, but was soon replaced by more advanced MiG-27. Total built 624 MiG-23BN, most of which are destined for export.
- MiG-23BM (23BM product, in February 1975 with the MiG-27) - the result of modernization (another use of the engine, change the air intake structures, suspension components and chassis, replacement of built-in cannon GS-23L on GSH-6-30A, changes to the on-board equipment) MiG-23B and MiG-23BN, taking into account experience of their operation. Total produced 360 aircraft.
- MiG-27K "Kaira" (product 23BK to adopting in 1976 was called the MiG-23BK) it was equipped with a sighting and navigation PrNK-23K complex, which was part of the digital electronic computer "Orbita-20-23 K" and laser "Kira-23" -televizionnaya sighting system. At the time of creation, in the aggregate characteristics of the MiG-27K he was one of the strongest fighter-bombers in the world. Total produced 197 aircraft.
- MiG-27M (article 32-29) - an attempt to create a fighter-bomber approaching the characteristics of the onboard equipment to the MiG-27K, but standing is cheaper and requires less skilled pilots and technicians. In combat characteristics are generally weaker than the MiG-27K, but much safer and cheaper to operate. Total produced 162 aircraft.
- MiG-27ML "Bahadur" (32-29L product, sometimes referred to as the MiG-27l) - export version of the MiG-27M. Total delivered from the Soviet Union and India released 210 aircraft.
- MiG-27D (article 32-27) - the result of the modernization of MiG-27 early series (except MiG-27K) to the level of the MiG-27M. In total 304 aircraft converted.
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