Mi-24 Hind Variants
The development of the helicopter commenced in mid-1960s based on the dynamics, power units and other components of the Mi-8. Other components of the airframe came from the Mi-14 Haze, a shore-based, navalized version of the Mi-8 'Hip' with a float bottom and ASW equipment. The Hind went from drawing board in 1968 to first test-flights in less than eighteen months. The first prototype, still with TV2-117 engines, flew in September 1969. First models were delivered to the armed forces for evaluation in 1970. The Mi-24A (Hind-B) did have a number of problems - lateral roll, weapon sighting problems, and limited field of view for the pilot. A heavy redesign of the aircraft front section solved most of these problems. Mi-24A (Hind-A) is the first version, in serial production since 1972. The Mil Mi-24 is a large combat helicopter gunship and low-capacity troop transport operated from 1976 by the Soviet Air Force, its successors, and over thirty other nations.
Mikhail Leontyevich Mil died in 1970. His concept of a battlefield helicopter, realized under him only in the initial stage, was continued and developed by his comrads in arms and students led by chief designer Marat Nikolayevich Tishchenko.
In the time that passed since the first flight of the Mi-24 prototype, several modifications were developed based on the basic model. In the modifications, the designers used new achievements of aviation science and technology to make the helicopter conform to the increasing requirements of the times.
According to the experience of development and daily operation of the Mi-24, virtually every modification surpassed the initial prototype in some way. Although they differ considerably from the first helicopter, both outwardly and, more importantly, in combat effectiveness, they retain the first designation. The first model ofthe Mi-24 helicopter held a special place in the history ofhelicopter building, namely that of the "father" of a family of specialized combat helicopters.
Its NATO reporting name is Hind and variants are identified with an additional letter. The export versions, Mi-25 and Mi-35, are denoted as Hind D and Hind E respectively. Versions D and above include a characteristic tandem cockpit with a "double bubble" canopy. Nearly all of the older HIND A, B and C variants have been upgraded or modified to the HIND D or E standard.
- V-24 (Hind) - The first version of this helicopter, were twelve prototypes and development aircraft. One such prototype was modified in 1975 as A-10 for successful speed record attempts (having reached 368km/h) with wings removed and faired over and with inertia-type dampers on the main rotor head.
- Mi-24 (Hind-A) - Other early versions were the armed assault helicopter, which could carry eight combat troops and three crew members. It could also carry four 57-mm rocket pods on four underwing pylons, four 9M17 Falanga (AT-2 Swatter) anti-tank missiles on two underwing rails, free-fall bombs, plus one 12.7-mm machine-gun in the nose. The Mi-24 (Hind-A) was the first production model.
- Mi-24A Hind BMi-24A (Hind-B) - The Hind-A was followed up by the second production model the. Both the Mi-24 and Mi-24A entered Soviet Air Force service in 1973 or 1974. Lacks the four-barrel 12.7mm machine gun under the nose.
- Mi-24U (Hind-C) - Training version without any armament.
- Mi-24D (Hind-D) - The most common variant, a purer gunship than the earlier variants, the first to include the electronics for Anti-tank guided missiles 9M17 Falanga (AT-2 Swatter). The Hind D fuselage features nose modification with tandem bubble canopies, and a chin-mounted turret. One of the variants of the Mi-24 has a considerably changed cabin configuration. In particular, its rear portion is raised above the front portion. This improved considerably theview for the crew commander. A four-barrel machinegun in a special nose turret has been installed in place of the single-barrel machinegun. The gunsight system has changed. The tail rotor is positioned on the opposite side of the tail fin. The engine air intakes are equipped with dust protectors. To reduce IR-emission, the nozzles are closed by so-called exhaust baffles. Other changes have also been made to the helicopter. Altogether they have made it possible to increase its combat effectiveness considerably. Mi24D (Hind-D), a significantly re-designed version of the Mi-24A, entered service in 1976. The Mi-24D has a redesigned forward fuselage, with two separate cockpits for the pilot and gunner. The re-modelled two-seated cockpit has a tandem seating with the gunner/pilot sitting in front, the pilot/commander in the rear seat which is raised. The cockpit has characteristic bulging canopies. An undernose turret contains a four-barrel 12.7 mm 9A624 machine gun with up to 1470 rounds. Optional weaponry is mounted on four underwing pylons. It can consist of 4 UB-32 pods (with 32 57 mm S-5 rockets each), 4 x 100 or 250 kg bombs, or 2 x 500 kg bombs, or the same number of napalm dispensers. An air-to-surface launching system for four 122 mm rockets can also be used. On wingtips there are tube-launchers for two pairs of 9M17P anti-tank missiles (Falanga system). Older Mi24 HIND-D combat helicopters were being replaced with the new AT-6 SPIRAL-equipped HIND-E, which has greater standoff range and the freedom to maneuver after launching its missile.
- Mi-24DU - Small numbers of Mi-24Ds were built as training helicopters with doubled controls. Mi-24DU training version of Mi-24D is without the undernose gun turret.
- Mi-24E - Environmental research version.
- Mi-24K (Hind-G2) : Army reconnaissance, photo-recon, and artillery observation helicopter. Has a camera in cabin, gun, rocket pods, but no targeting system.
- Mi-24N - In February 2000 it was stated that modified Mi-24N (Hind) attack helicopters with radar had been ordered by the Russian Defense Ministry. At that time the Russian military hoped that several Mi-24Ns would be fully operational in several months. Nevertheless as of February 2003 there were still no night-capable attack helicopters deployed in Chechnya. As of 2005 the Army had received only several Mi-24N helicopters, equipped with thermal imaging devices.
- Mi-24N - proposed pilot's cockpit upgrade, proposed by Russkaya Avionika, features two MFI-68 displays. The lower on replaces a mechanical map plotter and the upped one replaces the standard S-17V gunsight.
- Mi-24P (Hind-F) - The gunship version, which replaced the 12.7mm machine-gun with a fixed 30-mm cannon. The fixed twin gun cut the turret profile, and empty weight to 8,200 kg, while boosting maximum gross weight to 12,000 kg.
- Mi-24PM - upgraded Mi-24P using same technologies as in Mi-24VM.
- Mi-24PN - The Russian military has selected this upgraded Mi-24 to be their primary assault helicopter. The PN version has a TV and a FLIR camera located in a dome on the front of the aircraft. Other modifications include using the rotor blades and wings from the Mi-28 and fixed rather than retractable landing gear. Modernization of Mi-24 helicopters is underway, and as of early 2004 eight modernized Mi-24 had been adopted in the army aviation and plan on eventually upgrading all of their Mi-24s.
- Mi-24PS - Civil police or para-military version.
- Mi-24RKR (Hind-G1) - NBC reconnaissance model, which is designed to collect radiation, biological and chemical samples. It was first seen during the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Also known as the Mi-24R, Mi-24RR and Mi-24RKh (Rch).
- Mi-24V (Hind-E) - Later development led to the Mi-24V which was first seen in the early 1980s. Mi-24V (Hind-E) is another improved version, a development of Mi-24D. The major change consists in the upgraded and more efficient SHTURM - V missile system with 9M114 (AT-6 Spiral) radio-guided anti-tank missiles launched from two pairs of cylindrical pods mounted on wingtips. Twelve of those missile are mounted on six wing pylons. Also added were B-8V rocket pods for 20 80 mm S-8 rockets, UPK-23-250 pods with two-barrel Gsh-23L and 250 rounds, GUV9A universal pods which can carry a 30 mm 9-A-800 automatic grenade launcher, or one 12.7 mm 9-A-624 four-barrel machine gun and two four-barrel 7.62 mm 9-A-622 machine guns. It was equipped with TV3-117V engines with improved height characteristics and optional exhaust mixer boxes to cool exhaust gasses, and auxiliary fuel tanks with a capacity of 450 litres.
- Mi-24VM - upgraded Mi-24V with updated avionics to improve night-time operation, new communications gear, shorter and lighter wings, and updated weapon systems to include support for the Ataka, Shturm and Igla-V missiles and a 23 mm main gun. Some sources suggest Mi-24VM designation will apply to Mi-24V or Mi-24VP after upgrade, and Mi-24PM to upgraded Mi-24Ps. Others maintain that the PM suffix applies only to aircraft which retain fixed 30 mm cannon associated with Mi-24P. Other internal changes have been made to increase the aircraft life-cycle and ease maintenance. A full-size mock-up Mi-24VM (Mi-35M for export) had frequently been presented at air shows since 1994. It was, however, only in February 1999 that flight tests of the Mi-24VM prototype began at the Mil Design Bureau airfield at Panki on the outskirts of Moscow. During nearly thirty years of incremental development of the Mi-24 it had grown heavier and heavier, and its flying qualities and performance worsened progressively. The modernized Mi-24VM is nearly 1,300lb (600kg) lighter than Mi-24V with an empty weight of 17,720lb [8,040kg], compared with the latter's 18,998lb [8,620kg]). It has shortened stub wings, a fixed undercarriage and the main and tail rotors have been replaced with lighter units 'borrowed' from the Mi-28N helicopter. The new main rotor increases the thrust by some 660lb (3kN). The Mi-24VM was expected to operate until 2015, but development was halted in favor of th less ambitious and less expensive Mi-24PN.
- Mi-24VN - proposed all-weather day/night capability, has proved to be rather difficult and its achievement is still some way off. The first option and probably the most obvious, consisted of transferring some of the systems used on the new Mi-28N to the Mi-24VN.
- Mi-24W - Polish designation for the Mi-24V.
- Mi-25 - The export version of the Mi-24D HIND D.
- Mi-35- the export version name.
- Mi-35P - The export version of the Mi-24P. Mi-35P helicopter is a modification of the Mi-35 helicopter. It differs in armament composition. Instead of the built-in flexible machine-gun unit, caliber 12.7, mm a two-barrel gun unit, caliber 30 mm, is installed.
- Mi-35PN - Upgraded helicopter created on the basis of the serial Mi-35P helicopter in order to provide round-the-clock accomplishment of combat missions, to enhance firepower and improve its tactical-technical characteristics. The helicopter is fitted with a 9S475N observation-sight subsystem with a laser range meter and a missile direction finder and an up-to-date airborne radio electronic equipment complex.
- Mi-35PM - Upgraded helicopter is created on the basis of the serial Mi-35P helicopter in order to provide round-the-clock accomplishment of combat missions, to enhance firepower and improve its tactical-technical characteristics. The helicopter is fitted with a 9K113K round-the-clock guided weapons complex, which includes an OPS-24N observation-sight system, and an up-to-date airborne radio electronic equipment complex.
- Mi-35U - Unarmed training verion of the Mi-35.
- Mi-35M - A profoundly modernized version of the Mi-24 (Hind) attack helicopter with new avionics and onboard equipment, a different tail rotor and a more powerful engine. The upgraded helicopter created on the basis of the serial Mi-35 helicopter in order to provide round-the-clock accomplishment of combat missions, to enhance firepower and improve its tactical-technical characteristics. Much more up-to-date Mi-35M model was adopted in the Armed Forces in 2006. The helicopter is fitted with a 9K113K round-the-clock guided weapons complex, which includes an OPS-24N observation-sight system, and an up-to-date airborne radio electronic equipment complex. In 2005 within the scope of interstate relations with Latin-American countries a contract on supplying to Venezuela a batch of helicopters consisting of eight Mi-35M and one Mi-26T was signed. This agreement was a result of negotiations on a project of purchasing Russian helicopters by Venezuela for forming a fast response helicopter battalion which will include 33 helicopters: twenty Mi-17V-5, ten Mi-35M and three Mi-26T. Rostvertol officials say the Mi-35M's new rotor system, which is taken from the prototypes of the next generation Mi-28 assault helicopter (also is built at the Rostov-based company), increases the flight altitude up to 5,000 meters. Similar to Mi-24PN, the upgraded Mi-35 has new engines and enhanced armor. Although Mil designers have initially equipped the aircraft with the Russian navigation and fire control systems, foreign avionics can also be installed upon customer request. [Previously, the Mi-35M designation was applied to an export counterpart of Mi-24M / Mi-24VM / Mi-24PM `Hind-E' - Upgraded night-capable version of Mi-24/35 designed to meet the latest air mobility requirements of the Russian Army. Modernization of Mi-24(35) type helicopters, the Mi-35M is an upgraded Mi-24 featuring the Mi-28's rotors and transmission, a twin barrel 23mm cannon and 91K114-9 Ataka advanced anti armor missiles, Sextant Avionique of France avionics and displays and Thomson-TTD Chlio FLIR ball.]
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|