Mi-10 Harke (MIL)
The Mil Mi-10 (NATO reporting name Harke) was a Soviet military transport helicopter of flying crane configuration, developed in 1962 from the Mi-6. It entered service in 1963. It was also known as "Product 60" by Rostov-upon-Don helicopter facility. It is powered by two 5500 shp Soloviev D-25 turboshafts. Unlike the MI-6 it had no short wings.
In connection with the needs of the national economy and armed forces for transportation the bulky freights which cannot be placed in the cabin of the Mi-6 helicopter. In February 1958 development was started on the basis of heavy transport helicopter Mi-6 of the new helicopter - flying crane Mi-10. The first experimental helicopter having designation E-10, made the first flight in June, 1960 (pilot - tester G.V.Alfyorov). In May, 1961 the second experimental helicopter was shown on an air holiday in Tushino, and on September, 23, 1961 on helicopter Mi-10 the international record of lifting of loads of 15,000 kg to an altitude of 2326 meters. Serial production of the Mi-10 helicopters was established at the factory in Rostov where some helicopters were built. It was put into serial production under the symbol Mil Mi-10; NATO, it received the title "Harke" [a German noun meaning "rake", a gardening tool with a comb-like end].
It was built as the short-legged ("Mi-10K") version, and the long-legged ("Mi-10R") version. In 1964 the Mi-10K was designed specifically for the transport of goods to external suspension. It differs from the Mi-10 shortened to 2 meters (6 feet 6.75 inches) chassis and a cab for a pilot, co-pilot was located in the gondola under the bow of the fuselage in a chair, initiated earlier, and could manage, and a helicopter and cargo. By the end of production in 1971, production of both variants amounted to 55 vehicles and their production was resumed for a short period in 1977.
To estimate the maximum capabilities of helicopter Mi-10 for transportation of freight the external suspension, it was decided to modify one of the helicopters specially for record flights. A trycycle landing gear from helicopter Mi-6 was substituted for the heavy quadricycle landing gear with long racks. On this modified helicopter in May, 1965 absolute international records of lifting of loads 15, 20 and 25 tons to an altitude of 2840 m made the Mi-10 helicopter the most load-lifting helicopter in the world (all on Mi-10 8 international records have been established) have been established. These records were exceeded in 1969 by the V-12 heavy helicopter dual-rotor cross-sectional scheme, which raised freights in weight 15, 20, 25 and 30 tons to an altitude of 2951 m, and then 35 and 40 tonn on 2250 m - the records which have stayed till now remained unsurpassed.
The principal rotor has five blades and the anti-torque rotor is four-bladed. The blades of the principal rotor, of 0.99 m constant cord, are made of metal tubular members, similar airfoils and a metal coating. Their orientation is carried out hydraulically. Their leading edges are de-iced electro-thermally. The axis of the principal rotor is tilted forwards. It turns at 120 t/mn. The circumferential speed reaches 120 m/s. The rotor of tail is assembled on the right-sided of the upper fuselage. Its blades are de-iced electro-thermally. The fuselage is of steel construction semi-monocoque. Its lower part is perfectly rectilinear. The vertical surface which supports the anti-torque rotor is used as a vertical stabilizer. Two small horizontal surfaces, side, with variable incidence, towards the fuselage tail section, are used as compensation shutters.
The cockpit has spaces for two pilots and a flight engineer [if necessary]; the full capacity could be five places. The visibility backwards is excellent via side openings convex sliding backwards. The visibility to the bottom is by three glazed surfaces on the lower part of the nose. The windshields are de-iced electrically and equipped with windscreen wiper. Small ventilators cool the air of the cabin which, in addition, is heated if necessary. Oxygen equipment is available for the crew.
The principal cabin ten has circular port-holes on the right and eleven on the left, can be used for transport of freight, and to 28 passengers in seats against the side partitions. The passengers and the crew reach the cabins by a staircase on the nose gear leg left and by a side door. Freight is loaded by a right side door, behind the train, by means of an electric hoist external with a force of 200 kg. A circular trap door in the floor, the center of gravity, allows the passage of a sling for the transport of bulky external loads.
A closed circuit television with screen in the cabin and cameras under before and the back of the fuselage allows the monitoring of the loads. The vehicle is equipped with an auxiliary piloting station under the nose of fuselage. If it is occupied by one of the pilots, the hovering can be better controlled while allowing an attentive monitoring of the loading and unloading and other operations to be carried out with the carried loads.
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