Mytishchi Machine Building Factory MMZ
Metrowagonmash is an engineering company based in Mytishchi, near Moscow. Until 1992 it was known as Mytishchinsky Maschinostroitelnyi Zavod (MMZ, Mytishchi Machine-building Factory).
Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant was founded in 1897 in the town of Mytishchi, Moscow Region. It was founded by a “hereditary honorary citizen S. I. Mamontov, a nobleman KD Artsybushev and a citizen of the North American states, the temporary Moscow 1st guild merchant, engineer A.W. Barry, who at the end of 1895 submitted to the Ministry of Finance of Russia a project called the Moscow Joint-Stock Company of the Carriage Works. In January 1896, the Committee of Ministers authorized the “establishment of the designated Company,” and its Charter, as was then adopted, was approved by Nicholas II. According to its technical equipment, it was intended for the construction of rolling stock and the manufacture of spare parts. The first products of the plant were cars for the Northern Railway of Russia.
Even before the beginning of the Great War, the plant took orders from the military department and began to manufacture field cars and platforms for the transport of military equipment. The construction and operation of the Carriage Works at the beginning of the century had a significant impact on the economic, social and demographic situation in the vicinity of Mytishchi.
From July 1, 1920, the Mytishchi plant was included in the "strike group" of the largest enterprises in Moscow and the Moscow region, which were supposed to perform the most important work to restore the national economy and, above all, transport. The plant management tried to overcome the consequences of the civil war, solve supply problems, get the necessary tools and equipment.
In the autumn of 1930, work began on the reconstruction and restructuring of the plant. The plant created a workshop for repairing equipment, transferred the assembly of tram and suburban cars to an in-line system, set up an electric welding workshop, and introduced stamping. By 1940, Mytishchi plant confidently gained momentum and became one of the largest enterprises in the car-building industry in the country.
After the start of the Great Patriotic war, the Mytishchi Carriage Works received a government assignment for the production of military products and was transferred to the Armed Forces Commissariat. The production of corps for aerial bombs, shells, platforms for anti-aircraft artillery systems began. Despite the daily air raids, the plant did not interrupt the production mode for one hour, worked in two shifts.
On October 10, 1941, it was decided to evacuate the Mytishchi plant to the Urals. On October 17, from the station Mytishchi went to the Urals, the first echelon with factory equipment and freight wagons, and the workers in them. Meanwhile, the Moscow Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) made a decision: to use the free production facilities left after the evacuation to produce armored caps, anti-hedgehogs, and to organize the production of grenades, shells and the repair of military equipment. At the same time, the plant was left without equipment, materials, fuel and labor. But thanks to the dedicated work of the plant's deputy director D. F. Pankratov, the chief of the machine shop S. N. Markov and others, in early November one shop was ready for work.
At the same time there was a preparation of other workshops. People worked days and nights in cold buildings, machine tools worked continuously. During the first month, the plant cast 18 armored caps of 4.5 tons each, prepared over 110,000 hulls for anti-tank grenades. At the end of November, the plant started stamping mortar baseplates and assembling anti-aircraft armored trains. The workers fulfilled the labor order, despite all the difficulties, not having any drawings or blanks.
In March 1942, the plant began production of shells and individual parts for rockets. On April 21, 1942, the State Defense Committee of the USSR decided to return the evacuated equipment. In the same year, a design office was created at the enterprise (now OKB-40) and serial production of self-propelled artillery units SAU-76 was established, and the plant itself was renamed to plant number 40.
In 1945, the plant mastered the production of new self-propelled units with four anti-aircraft machine-guns, and then powerful tracked tractor. For exemplary performance of tasks for the front, the plant was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War of the first degree.
After the victorious conclusion of the Great Patriotic War, there was a serious need for consumer goods. A factory of consumer goods was organized at the plant, the first products of which were hammers, wall shelves, first-aid kits, children's sledges, door hinges, tables, bedside tables and much more. In early 1946, it was decided to resume the production of railcars for the metro at the Mytishchi plant. And at the end of the same year, the production of dump trucks was organized. We also received new development orders from the Ministry of Defense.
Thus, in the first post-war year, the profile of the plant was formed, which survived until the last years. Essentially, “under the same roof”, three different manufactures were created: mass automobile, serial railcars and mass production of defense equipment.
In 1948, under the direction of designer N. A. Astrov, the first model of self-propelled artillery for airborne forces, ASU-57, was launched. Military experts, this machine was recognized as the best in the world in its class of combat vehicles. This work was awarded the State Prize of the USSR. On September 26, 1948, Plant No. 40 was renamed the Mytishchi Order of the Patriotic War, 1st Class Machine-Building Plant. In 1949 a new artillery tractor was launched, the ATP model. In the same year, the first stage of the test and transfer shop was commissioned, the cold-die shop was reconstructed, and three powerful presses were put into operation.
Work continued on OKB-40 in the design of military equipment. In the mid-50s, designers created an SU-85 self-propelled tracked artillery mounts. An anti-aircraft self-propelled unit ZSU-23-4 (“Shilka”) was developed, which had no analogues at the time among the air defense systems of other countries.
In the mid-70s, the efforts of designers from the Design Bureau created a multipurpose basic chassis for various types of military equipment. The family of the Buk missile system and a multi-purpose tractor were developed. Tactical and technical characteristics of the created machines in many respects surpass the world level and occupy a leading position in this class of weapons.
Transformations in the country in 1985-1990. also affected the fate of the Mytishchi plant: by resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers in 1987, the plant was transferred from the jurisdiction of the USSR Ministry of Interior to the jurisdiction of the USSR Ministry of Interior and Trade.
In 2005, Metrovagonmash CJSC became part of Transmashholding CJSC - the largest association of transport engineering companies in Russia producing mainline electric locomotives, industrial electric locomotives and shunting diesel locomotives, freight and passenger cars, marine and diesel diesel engines, car casting, electric train cars. Such a partnership guarantees an increase in the financial stability of the enterprise, the receipt of additional orders, access to the international arena, access to advanced technologies, and the creation of equal conditions in market activities.
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|