Georgi Maksimilianovich Malenkov - Early Life
Malenkov was born in the family of a civil servant on the railroad, a descendant of immigrants from Macedonia noble Maximilian Malenkov (descendant of a certain kind of Ohrid priests Malenkov) and burghers , the daughter of a blacksmith Anastasia Shemyakin. According to the father, the grandfather was a colonel, his grandfather's brother, a Rear Admiral.
In 1919 he graduated from Classical High School and was drafted into the Red Army , after the entry in April 1920 in the RCP (B) was a political officer of the squadron, regiment, brigade, the Political Administration of the Eastern and Turkestan fronts.
During his stay on the Turkestan front Malenkov marries Valerie Golubtsova, who worked as a librarian in the agitation trains. Senior mother Golubtsova sisters (Olga) were famous "sisters Nevzorova" (Zinaida, Sophia and Augustine) - Lenin's companion on the Marxist circles as early as the 1890s. Zinaida Nevzorova in 1899 married G.M.Krzyzanowski, in the 1920s, headed the commission electrification. This relationship seems to Malenkov and determined commitment and Valerie Golubtsova receivable in the field of energy education.
After moving to Moscow in 1921, Malenkov entered the Moscow Higher Technical School at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. Valeria Golubtsova gets a job in the organizational department of the Central Committee and receives a separate room in the former Loskutnaya hotel on Tverskaya Street - the center of the habitat of the Moscow Communist Bohemia.
Occupying the post of Secretary of the Party organization, he led the purges against the Trotskyist opposition. In Moscow of the 1920s, Malenkov found himself in the role of a fighter for the purity of the ranks of the party, which was shaken by the split between the government and the left opposition. Trotskyists were popular among the students of the Moscow Higher Technical School, however, Malenkov was not carried away with their struggle with the dominance of the bureaucracy.
Whether Malenkov graduated is not known. The son of Malenkov wrote that his father graduated from high school with a gold medal, and that after Bauman invited him to graduate school, but he could not leave the party work and drove another two years in his spare time research under the guidance of academician KA Circle.
In the 1920-1930s he was an employee of the Organization Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU(b), with the 1927 technical secretary of the Politburo. In the years 1930-1934 he was the head of department (according to some sources - mass agitation, on the other - institutional of the Moscow Regional Committee of the CPSU(b), headed by L.M.Kaganovich.
After the defeat of the left, the future leader advanced as an activist of the student trustworthiness commission. Moving from one official job to another, he was noticed by Moscow party leaders and one of them, Lazar Kaganovich, was promoted to the very top. Already in 1929, Malenkova was introduced to the leader of the peoples: a phenomenal take-off at only 27 years old.
After the 17th Congress, Kaganovich became chairman of the Party Control Commission. Malenkov in thr years 1934-1936 was deputy head of the Central Committee of the CPSU leading party bodies, with the March 1935 headed by N.I.Yezhov. In February 1936, Malenkov was replaced by Yezhov, head of the department on duty leading Party bodies. Igor Abrosimov called Malenkov Kaganovich protégé.
In the years 1935-1936, after the nomination of Stalin's slogan "Cadres decide everything", Malenkov campaigned for verification and exchange of party documents, in which were made index cards, files on all members and candidate members of the CPSU(b) - about 2.5 million. On the basis of the collected catalogs, which also included data on non-party managers and specialists, he built the grandiose nomenclatura centralized personnel system, which became the main party specialty of Malenkov.
A trip to Armenia went down in history, which he committed in the fall of 1937, accompanied by the NKVD chief Nikolai Yezhov. As a result, almost all local leaders and hundreds of ordinary party members were arrested. Malenkov surprisingly easily fit into the next turn of the general line. In 1938, when Stalin became disillusioned with the Great Terror, the future pre-minister began to report to him about organ abuses and acted as a personnel officer, proposing to appoint Beria to the leadership of the NKVD. Georgy Malenkov played a big role in the overthrow of N.I.Yezhov, accusing him and his subordinate agency dedicated to the destruction of the Communist Party. Together with Beria took part in the arrest of Yezhov, who was arrested in Malenkov's office. After Beria became the new leader of the NKVD, there was no interruption between him and the chief personnel officer - that was how the not friendly, but at least tactical alliance of the two heavyweights of the late Stalinist USSR was born.
Since 1939 he was a member of the CPSU(b). On March 22, 1939 until the spring of 1946 the chief of staff of the Office of the Central Committee and secretary of the Central Committee. From March 1939 to October 1952 he was a member Orgburo.
Before the war, he was engaged in a wide range of military issues: supervised secret apparatus of the Comintern, military personnel, in charge of aviation and reactive subjects. Since July 1940 he was a member of the Central Military Council of the Red Army.
During the Great Patriotic War he was a member of the State Defense Committee. In August 1941, he was at the Leningrad front; autumn and winter of 1941 he took an active part in the organization of operations for Moscow counter-offensive. In March 1942, he traveled on Volkhov Front, in July and then in August - September 1942 - on the Stalingrad and Don fronts, in March 1943 - on the Central Front. Headed t. N. Malenkovskaya Commission GKO - expert group, consisting of senior generals and leave on the critical sections of the front.
Malenkov, a rising young man who had become prominent only in February 1941, was made a member of the Supreme Defense Coucil, a five-man streamlined Politburo for the conduct of the war. In the Supreme Defense Council Malenkov was Stalin's bmedlate subordinate for party affairs, vith additional responsibility for aircraft production and for the relocation of Soviet industry from western USSR to the east.
During the war years, the tendency to grant Malenkov more and more authority was strengthened: he actively acts as a special Stalinist representative in besieged Leningrad and in Stalingrad, travels to the most vulnerable sectors of the front, and in 1943 becomes chairman of the committee for the restoration of the national economy in liberated areas USSR. As curator of the People's Commissariat of the aviation industry for their outstanding achievements in the field of strengthening the production of aircraft engines and September 30, 1943 Malenkov was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, with the award of the Order of Lenin.
After the tide of the war turned and the Sovlet armies began to retake occupied areas, in 1943 Malenkov was made Chairman of a new State Committee for the Rehabilitation of Devastated Territorles. With Beria, Milroyan, Vosuesensky and Andreev as members, was responsible for Industrial, agricultural and political reconstruction in the Soviet territories recovered from the Germans. German-occupied areas had held a large portion of Soviet industry, agriculture and population, the magnitude of the responsibilities of this committee was great.
This body, called the Special Couuulttee, later became the authority responsible for the policy of industrial dismantling in Soviet occupied areas in Eastern Europe, and possibly in the Far East. Malenkov headed the Committee for the restoration of the liberated areas in 1944 - to dismantle German industry committees dealing obtain reparations from Germany in favor of the USSR.
The Committee was represented in the Soviet Military Administration in Germany by M.Z.Saburov, who had also been one of the Sovlet economic advisors at the Potsdam Conference in July 1945. There seem to have been some sort of policy difference in Moscow. It t seems probable that this was in some way associated with the dismantling program.
The whole dismantling operation was very badly handled and a great deal of valuable propeerty was destroyed or lost. The program also created hostility toward the Soviet Government among the people of East Europe and Germany. In a 10 July 1946 foreign policy speech, Molotov announced that dimantling was to be discontinued and that Soviet policy in the future would support German indusrialization.
The actual dismantling of German industry appears to have dropped off in 1946. In 1946 and early 1947, a new form of economic control was developed, which involved Soviet ownership of controlling shares in industrial and commercial finns in Germany and in other non-Soviet areas. This new program appears first to have been placed under the jurisdiction of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Trade under Mikoyan. In mid-1947 the program was identified under a newly established Chief Administration for Sovfet Properties Abroad (GUSIMZ), which belonged nominally to the Ministry of Foreign Trade.
It is noteworthy that Evgenii Varga, the ranking economic analyst for the Communist Party and Director of the Institute of World Politics and World Economics, had written a series of articles, beginning in 1943, regarding the necessity of rebuilding Sovlet industry and econmy with equipment and plants expropriated from the enemy powers. Varga himself was not on the Special Committee which handled dismantling; yet it seems likely that he had been, if not the moving spirit, at least the man who was providiag theoretical propaganda justifleatlan for this pollcy. This series of articles is one of the indicatians that Varga was in some way closely associated with Malenkov in this period.
On March 18, 1946 he became a Member of the Politburo of the CPSU(b). "In fact, Malenkov was assigned as deputy to Stalin in the party", - points out Dr. ist. Sciences O.B.Khlevnyuk.
In March 1946 he was appointed chairman of the commission for the construction of the Tu-4 bomber, which made the first flight in May 1947 . Because of accusations of systematic mis-management of the aviation industry deliveries of defective aircraft to the front (" aviation business ") in April-May 1946, Malenkov was disgraced.
On May 4, 1946 at a meeting of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee on the report of Stalin, Malenkov was removed from the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) was replaced by N.S.Patolichev. Malenkov as chief of the aviation industry and for the acceptance of aircraft - over the air force, was morally responsible for those outrages which opened in these departments (issue of substandard aircraft) that he knew about these outrages, not signaled them to CC CPSU (b)". Information about the subsequent disgrace and exile is inconsistent. In the magazine's office visits Stalin's record of Malenkov not interrupted. In early June, Malenkov participate in the funeral of Kalinin. However, the protocols of the Organising Bureau and the Secretariat of the meetings it is clear that Malenkov did not participate from May 18 to July 17, 1946. In the Soviet version, Malenkov's participation in the leadership of the Special Committee have been quite officially classified, biographies of the period from 1946 to 1948 was passed, or reported on a business trip to Central Asia.
He was Chairman of the "ad hoc committee number 2" on the development of missile technology since the founding (May 13, 1946) in May 1947. Malenkov was also a member and part of the special committee on the use of atomic energy, and monitored information on the committee, but its specific role in the Soviet nuclear program are still unclear.
Since the autumn of 1947 he participated in the Cominform under the direction of A.Zhdanov. After the split with Yugoslavia and unsuccessful blockade of Berlin in July 1948, Zhdanov moves from the post of CC secretary in charge of foreign policy. Malenkov carried major efforts to help the Chinese Communists in the civil war, which ended their triumphant victory in 1949.
Malenkov played a major role in the "Leningrad case". Arrests began in July 1949. Information about the removal from work, bring to the party and the criminal liability of legal processes in the press was not published. For the sake of "Leningrad", in the course of the investigation of the Leningrad affair, January 12, 1950, in the Soviet Union reintroduced the death penalty "in relation to the traitors, spies and Squad-saboteurs" (before that, in 1947, the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council USSR abolished the death penalty). Despite the fact that in this case, not the rule, "the law is not retroactive," the introduction of the death penalty takes place three days before the decision of the Politburo of the CPSU (b) "On the anti-Party activities ...", and therefore the connection between the two facts can be seen.
In an effort to rehabilitate himself, Malenkov takes on the role of a faithful executor of Stalin's will in the Leningrad affair, culminating in executions of party workers officially accused of undermining the unity of the party and, according to unofficial data, Russian nationalism. However, according to historian Oleg Khlevnyuk, it is not worth exaggerating Malenkov’s personal contribution to repression. “As a functionary, he carried out the decisions made by Stalin. In the midst of the Great Terror he played a role in arranging personnel cleansing - went on business trips, took off some leaders and appointed others, demanded to tighten the fight against enemies. But it does not follow from this that he was the main acting force. Stalin was always the main one, and the rest should not be considered otherwise than the executors of his orders".
According to the Commission of the Politburo in 1988, during the investigation of the so-called case of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, it was found that the direct responsibility for the illegal repression of persons involved in this case was carried by Malenkov, who was directly involved in the investigation and court proceedings.
According to the decision of the Bureau of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee on the work of the Bureau of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee and the Bureau of the Council of Ministers Presidium on November 10, 1952 Malenkov moved away from the work in the Council of Ministers and focused on the work of the Central Committee. Decision of the Bureau of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee on the work of the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee of 17 November 1952, Malenkov, Suslov and Pegova entrusted chairing the meetings of the Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the absence of Stalin.
Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (8 January 1902 – 14 January 1988) was a Soviet politician, Communist Party leader and close collaborator of Joseph Stalin. After Stalin's death, he became Premier of the Soviet Union (1953 – 1955) and was in 1953 briefly considered the most powerful Soviet politician before being overshadowed by Nikita Khrushchev.
Malenkov was born at Orenburg, Russian Empire. His paternal ancestors were of noble Macedonian extraction, some of whom served as officers in the Russian Imperial Army. His mother was the daughter of a blacksmith and the granddaughter of an Orthodox priest. Malenkov graduated from high school during the revolution and was drafted into the Red Army in 1919. He joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1920 and worked as a political commissar on a propaganda train in Turkestan during the Russian civil war.
After the war, Malenkov returned to his studies and received his engineering degree from the prestigious Moscow Highest Technical School in 1925. Post graduation he worked in the staff of the Organizational Bureau (Orgburo) of the Central Committee of the CPSU. During the next ten years Malenkov became closely associated with Stalin and was deeply involved in implementing the purging of the party. In 1938 he was one of the key figures in bringing forth the downfall of Yezhov, the head of the NKVD. In 1939 Malenkov became the head of the party's Cadres Directorate, which gave him control over personnel matters of party bureaucracy. During the same year he also became a member and a secretary of the Central Committee and rose from his previous staff position to become a full member of Orgburo. In February 1941 Malenkov became a candidate member of the Politburo.
After the German invasion of June 1941, Malenkov was promoted to the State Defense Committee (GKO), along with Beria, Voroshilov and Molotov with Stalin as the committee's head. This small group held immense power and Malenkov's membership thus made him one of the most powerful men of the Soviet Union. During 1941 – 1943 Malenkov's primary responsibility in the GKO was aircraft production. In 1943 he became a chairman of a committee that oversaw the economic rehabilitation of liberated areas.
In 1946 Malenkov was named a candidate member of the Politburo. Although Malenkov fell out of favor in place of his rivals Andrei Zhdanov and Lavrentiy Beria, he soon came back into Joseph Stalin's favour, especially after Zhdanov's death. Beria soon joined Malenkov, and both of them saw all of Zhdanov's allies purged from the Party and sent to labour camps. In 1948, Malenkov became a Secretary of the Central Committee. In order to test Malenkov as a potential successor, the ageing Stalin increasingly withdrew from the business of the secretariat, leaving the task of supervising the body to Malenkov. In October 1952, Stalin even had the office of General Secretary formally abolished (though in effect this did not diminish Stalin's authority).
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