Ka-8 Irkutyanin / Ka-10 Hat
Nikolai I. Kamov began the study of rotating-wing design in the late 1920s, and in conjunction with N. K. Skrzihinskii was responsible for two of the earliest successful Soviet rotorcraft, the KaSkr-I and KaSkr-II. Kamov's first helicopter design was the ultralight Kamov Ka-8 of 1945, comprising a very basic steel tube uncovered structure mounted on two pontoons and having an exposed seat for the pilot. Powered by a 20-kW (27-hp) engine, it introduced the co-axial contrarotating rotors that have since been a 'trademark' of Kamov design, enabling the aircraft to dispense with the complication of an anti-torque tail rotor. Only 3 Ka-8 were ever built. The first flight was on November 12, 1947, and the first public appearance was at the Tushino airshow on July 25, 1948.
The slightly larger Ka-10 (NATO reporting name 'Hat') followed in 1948, introducing a 41-kW (55-hp) lvchenko Al-4V engine. The first prototype flight was on August 30, 1949, and it entered production in 1950. Built in small numbers for test and evaluation, it was followed by an improved Ka-10M which introduced twin tail fins and rudders.
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