Under normal circumstances, the necessary PAK FA engine should have been designed before starting work on the aircraft airframe. But after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian defense industry was in a state of chaos and there was no possibility of starting work on creating the appropriate engine for the new aircraft in advance, that is, in the 1990s. In many ways, this was a lost decade for the Russian defense industry.
The engine on the T-50 is fundamentally better than its predecessor. It has the elements of the fifth generation. A new turbine has been used, thanks to which the flow characteristics have been improved. They may not be entirely optimal, but nevertheless will implement all the specified requirements with a margin, with significantly increased engine thrust. It has a fundamentally different management system - it is digital. The engine of the second stage for the Su-57 fighter (“product 30”) was developed at the Lyulki Design Bureau under the direction of Evgeny Marchukov and in collaboration with other large Russian engine-building companies. Salyut developed a high-pressure compressor, a combustion chamber, and an “product 30” engine nozzle with thrust vector control. The engine will be produced at PJSC ODK-UMPO (now the AL-41F1S engine or “product 117C” is produced there for the Su-35C fighter). According to the manufacturer, the gas generator "products 30" has a compression ratio of 6.7, air consumption is 21-23 kg / s. The gas temperature before the turbine reaches 1950-2100 degrees Kelvin. The maximum thrust is 17-18 tons, which is more than 15 tons for the engine of the "first stage" AL-41F1.
The experimental design bureau named after Lyulka produced the first launch of the “product 30” - the engine of the second stage for the promising Russian T-50 fighter (PAK FA). The tests took place on November 11, 2016, but it became known only later. The first launch was considered successful. Other details about the tests are not yet known. Currently, T-50 prototypes were flying with modified high-temperature turbojet bypass engines with an afterburner AL-41F1 (“product 171”). These installations were created on the basis of the AL-41F1S ("product 117C") for the Su-35S fighter. Otherwise, the AL-41F1 is called the engine of the first stage, since such installations will be mounted on the first production T-50 fighter jets.
The engine of the “second stage” in terms of fuel efficiency and specific gravity will significantly exceed the “product 117”, and in terms of design and technological performance and the level of parameters achieved, it will fully correspond to the world level of the fifth generation engine. The engine of the second stage, presumably, will be able to develop thrust of 107 kilonewtons in cruise mode and 176 kilonewtons in boost mode.
The development of the engine of the second stage - “product 30” - includes a number of research works (R & D):
- R & D "129" - low pressure compressor (LPC), 3 stages.
- R & D "133" - gas generator - 5th high pressure compressor + combustion chamber + 1 high pressure turbine.
- Low pressure turbine, one stage, without a specific number.
- Research "135"
- R & D "137"
VIAM, CIAM, NIAT participated in the development and organization of mass production of the new engine. Each of the institutions had the necessary funding, scientific and technical base, trained personnel and plans, thought out to the smallest detail. Some created materials, others developed technological processes for mass production. A huge contribution was made by VVIA imeni Zhukovsky. It was at one of the departments of the Academy that research was carried out related to the special coating of engine blades.
The concept envisages the development of an engine for ultrahigh (according to current ideas) parameters while concentrating efforts on design, design, materials science solutions. This approach in today's conditions is difficult to implement because of the huge financial costs of creating such an engine in the required timeframe (over a billion dollars). This concept has the following counterarguments: if Russia does not reach this high level in the next 10 years, it will forever lag behind the world's leading manufacturers.
These concepts will be implemented in the design of the engine of the 5th generation. In the direction of the development of design solutions and the appearance of a new 5th generation aircraft engineSalyut works together with CIAM, TsAGI, VIAM, VILS and other leading organizations of the aviation industry. For the engine of a new generation, a number of new nodes for the Russian equipment is offered, as well as solutions applied in modernized and modified versions. For example, it is expected to obtain close to the stoichiometric parameters of the engine operating cycle through the use of the development of an efficiently cooled turbine working blade, jointly with CIAM. Electrician, conducting these works with the participation of the firm "Allison". This domestic development will allow to reach the level of gas temperatures before the turbine 2000 - 2100K. Two original technologies developed by VIAM are used to create cooling channels in the two-layer walls of the pen and the shelf of the blade.
On July 14, 2015, the UEC reported that under the program for creating the second stage engine for the PAK FA, the technical design of the engine was formed, and the production of engine components for the demonstrator engine and the gas generator was started. According to the developers, the number of parts in the high-pressure compressor (HPC) of the “product 30” was almost halved compared to the compressor of the engine of the previous stage, while providing a significant increase in work by one step. The cost of manufacturing such a compressor will not exceed the cost of manufacturing the ARC engine of the AL-41F1, subject to the use of new materials and technologies. In the new engine for the T-50 used composite materials, which are built not only on the polymer matrix for the cold part, but also parts created from high-temperature compositions.
The engine of the second stage will receive a compressor with increased air flow, a new combustion chamber, all-view thrust vector control, nozzles with reverse thrust and a digital control system, which will increase the engine power.
The prospective power plant will differ from the AL-41F1 by increased fuel efficiency and lower life cycle cost. The AL-41F1 engines are capable of thrusting at 86.3 kilonewtons and up to 147 kilonewtons in boost mode. The power plant is equipped with a plasma ignition system and all-direction vector thrust control. In 2017 tests of demonstrators of the “product 30” technologies will begin on an airplane - a flying laboratory. It is also expected that in 2018, developers will begin to test the prototype of the new power plant, and from 2023-2025 they will begin to install "products 30" on the T-50.
Russia is still testing the Su-57's new Izdelie-30 [Article 30] engine, which means it is still flying on the Su-35's AL-41F1 engine, and cannot be considered a fifth-generation aircraft yet. The engine will not be ready until 2025, and the Su-57 will not be ready for serial production until 2027. One of major obstacles widely reported to have held the T-50 back from production in the past was the absence of a true fifth-generation engine for the aircraft, with prototypes of the aircraft using a derivative of the AL-41F1 engine, similar to the one used in the Sukhoi Su-35S 4++ generation multirole fighter.
But by 2017, Russian designers were on the brink of reaching a breakthrough on a totally new, truly fifth-gen engine, known as Izdeliye 30 (Product 30), a design which Russian experts claimed had no equivalents in the world of engine construction. United Engine Corporation (UEC), Russias sole aero-engine manufacturer, has confirmed that the proposed "second stage" engine for the Su-57 stealth fighter jet will have a super-cruise feature which will form a part of the aircraft's stealth functionality. Super-cruise is a key requirement for a stealth aircraft. Delay in its development is being cited as one of the main reasons for India reportedly halting its participation in the Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) project.
Super-cruise means an ability to cruise at supersonic speed without after-burners which translates into a lower heat signature besides enormous fuel savings. The second stage engine, internally known as Izdelie-30, marked its first test flight in December 2017 on board a Su-57 fighter jet and further developments are going on. The Russian Air Force plans to purchase a dozen Su-57s fitted with the AL-41F1 engines in 2019, and over the next eight years will continue to purchase small numbers of these planes for testing.
The engine of the “first stage” for fighter generation 4 ++ Su-35BM, adopted by the Russian Air Force (now VKS) under the designation Su-35S, with a thrust of 14,000 kgf at full boost (14,500 in emergency mode)   . Created on the basis of the AL-31F, AL-31FP and AL-41F engines. Despite the scheme similar to the AL-31F, the engine consists of 80% of new parts  . It is distinguished from its predecessors by increased thrust (14,000  kgf versus 12,500 for the AL-31F), a fully digital control system, a plasma ignition system, a new compressor of a larger diameter, a significantly increased resource (4,000 hours against 1,000 for the AL-31F) and improved consumables characteristics . The box of units is located on top of the engine. The cost of development amounted to 3 billion rubles.
Developed from scratch over the course of almost a decade at the Saturn Tool-Making Plant in Rybinsk, central Russia, Izdeliye 30 features improved thrust characteristics (19,000 kgf vs. 15,000 kgf in the AL-41F1), better fuel efficiency, fewer moving parts, and subsequently improved reliability and lower maintenance costs.
The plane's three dimensional thrust vector jets, a design which the US does not have. The F-22 Raptor, for example, uses two-dimensional vector thrust jets, affecting only its pitch, for maneuverability. The F-35 Lightning II lacks the capability altogether, except for its vertical take-off and landing functions. No information is available regarding China's J-20 stealth fighter.
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