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Il-22 bomber [1947]

The first Il-22 was the first Soviet jet bomber, a conventional design that was abandoned in favor of the simpler IL-28. The Il-22 had a rather fat fuselage of circular cross-section, and an unswept wing with four jet engines underneath.

Il-22 Coot B

Il-22 Zebra is an airborne control version of the Il-18D-36. Since the 1970s Il-22M and Il-22M11 aircraft - "airborne command points" have been developed and put into serial production. Several Il-22 ('Coot-B') airborne command post aircraft were converted from surplus Il-18 airliners, and again feature a variety of antennas and external protuberances. Originally, about 70 Il-22 were produced from 1977. The type was developed from the Il-18D of which 565 were built, the last in 1979.

In the mid-1960s the USSR focused attention to command posts located on board aircraft and helicopters. The reason for this was the significant vulnerability classic ground command posts of ground troops against new attack means, such as tactical and operational-tactical ballistic missile with nuclear warheads, which were being introduced into the arms of NATO. While land-based command staffs can be destroyed relatively quickly, command staffs stationed aboard airplanes and helicopters are very difficult to destroy, thanks to their rapid movement. There was an urgent demand for airborne command post by the adaptation of the already mass-produced aircraft and helicopters. This solution brought considerable savings in time and resources for the development.

The airplane needed long range (4 000-5 000km) with great endurance, the ability to operate from airports with relatively short runways, high operational reliability, low operating costs and large interior spaces. Therefore just three types of aircraft were in consideration: the IL-18 (Coot) four-engine turboprop transport aircraft from SV Ilyushin, four-engine turboprop transport aircraft AN-10 (Cat) from the workshop OK Antonov, and four-engine turboprop transport aircraft AN-12 (Cub) from the workshop of OK Antonov. The choice fell on the first-mentioned aircraft in the latest mass-produced version, known as Il-18D (Coot).

Against type An-10 (Cat) it had longer range, and it had been already produced. In addition, the operation of this machine was plagued by problems that stemmed from a fundamental structural deficiencies. Thanks to all aircraft type An-10 (Cat) lines of Aeroflot in 1973 definitively withdrawn. Transport An-12 (Cub) lacked a pressurized cabin. It was after 1965 still in production and it could theoretically be with a pressurized cabin . But factory No.84 of Tashkent was very busy with the introduction of the giant transport aircraft AN-22 (Cock). All this led to the development of the airborne command post type An-10kPa and An-12VKP Zebra which eventually entered the prototype stage.

The "command" Il-18D (Coot) became known as Il-22 Bison(Coot B), for which SV Ilyushin OKB received orders on 14 September 1965. Taking into account the considerable workload of the design office development anti-submarine aircraft type Il -38 (May), the transport aircraft Il-62 (Classic) and the type of transport aircraft Il-76 (Candid), the processing and production of project documentation for the special type Il-22 Bison(Coot B) was finally commissioned by a decree dated August 7 1968, to the experimental plant EMZ VM Mjasišceva. It had only dealt with work on the project of the strategic bomber M-18, and therefore had the said capacity to fullfill the task.

The prototypes of the special type Il-22 Bison (Coot B) became known as Il-18D-36 was a conversions of the serial Il-18D (Coot). The flight tests of the first of them ran a while in 1970. The second Il-18D-36 was involved in the test program from December of the same year. The special state exams were successfully passed from 1972 to 1974. After that, the type of aircraft Il-22 Bison (Coot B) became part of the production program of the Moscow factory No.30. The aircraft Il-22 Bison (Coot B) left the assembly line without the special radio communication equipment. This installations was fitted on the factory premises of Mjasišcevova EMZ.

Více zde: Up to 30 new-built Il-22 'Coot-B' airborne command post adaptations of the Il-18 transport were delivered in Aeroflot markings (SSSR-75898 to 75928, not necessarily consecutive) to RFAS (CIS) air forces as replacements for the An-12VKP. Avionics integration was reportedly by Myasishchev. Ukraine has at least one; another, in Kazakhstan, was converted to a VIP transport with internal mission fittings removed. Former Belarusian Il-22M SSSR-75916 sold to Concors of Latvia in 1998 and converted to Il-18D airliner.

Some 25 Coot-Bs were built as new airframes based on the long-range Il-18D airliner, with systems integration carried out by the Myasishchev Design Bureau. The aircraft retained the designation Il-18 on the fuselage side in traditional llyushin style, as well as the original Aeroflot colour scheme and late-series civilian registration blocks for this type. The Il-22M Bizon [Bison] Airborne Command Post operated in Aeroflot colors but was operated by the Russian Air Force.

Then a factory program produced the derived model Il-22M Zebra (Coot B), which was characterized by installing new communication equipment. While the model Il-22 Bison (Coot B) was the armament VVS officially included on 10 August 1977, the model Il-22M Zebra (Coot B) became operational in 1981. The activities of commanders on the special type Il-22 Bison (Coot B) was subject, as with reconnaissance special type Il-20 (Coot A), directly under the command of each military district. Unlike reconnaissance Il-20 (Coot A), which flew in a gray military coat of arms color and VVS, these machines were equipped with the colors of Aeroflot and civil registration. Its public debut a special type Il-22 Bison (Coot B) came in May 1994 at the Open Day, which took place at the airport Kubinka.

It would be logical to expect variety of external fairings and antennae, differing from one aircraft to another, depending on its specific duties, but all examples photographed recently have common configuration. These are identified by bullet fairing at fin-tip, long and shallow container under front fuselage, and many small blade antennae above and below fuselage. SSSR-75913, operated by 16th Air Army in early 1990s, designated as Il-22M 'Bison'; SSSR-75915 was Il-18M-15; Il-22 designation and 'Zebra' nickname may apply to all other in-service 'Coot-Bs'.

Production of special Il-22M Zebra ( Coot B ) stopped on the 25 copies. The last of them came from the line at plant No.30 in 1983. Other examples of this special conversion arose several specials type Il-22 Bison ( Coot B ) and at least six types of transport aircraft Il-18D ( Coot ) from the state of Aeroflot.

IL-22M11-Surt Sokol

Since the late 1990s part of a fleet of these specials was upgraded to IL-22M11-Surt Sokol. The Il-22M11-Surt Sokol is an advanced modification of aircraft type Il-22M Zebra ( Coot B ) installing retransmission complex type of Sokol. This model lacks the Ventral antenna cover. In it spalce is a pair of tandemly arranged smallish cutting antennas followed triad elongated juxtaposed plate antennas. While the plate antennae are lined with two small cutting antennas and one huge antenna with the shape of an inverted "L" (which is located directly in front of the leading edge of the wing, the left one huge antenna with the shape of an inverted "L" (which is located at the third round blackouts). Other differences are the installation of dorsal antennae. There are six different sized tandemly arranged straight cutting antennas followed by a pair of large tandemly arranged antenna with an inverted "L". installation of the latter two antennas is thereby located at a level emergency outputs. The model Il-22M11-Surt Sokol was under the modernization program regulated part of the fleet of aircraft of type IL-22 Bison ( Coot B ) and Il-22M Zebra ( Coot B ) of the Russian VVS. The first one (RA-75909) passed state tests between 25 March and 1 August 1998.


The Il-22K was a modification of the airplane type IL-22M Zebra ( Coot B ) installing complex of the Sokol-K telecommunications system Caucasus-7M10, which serves for relaying commands to launch ballistic missiles. Only one specimen of this model was converting serial Il-22 and Il-22M.

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Page last modified: 13-11-2016 18:56:40 ZULU