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Helicopter History - Soviet

The entire history of aeronautics and aviation in Tsarist Russia fell shor due in part to the indifferent attitude of government officials to the fate of the invention. Even in those rare cases, when the government gave money to the project, it was almost never brought to conlcusion. It was enough for the first failure, malfunction or failure to design or invention for it to be rejected. Typically, the royal officials, scared the first random failure, refused to finance the continuation of the work. So many wonderful projects built with wonderful patterns were doomed to destruction. So it was with the Mozhaisk airplane, with Kostovich's airship, with the heavy aircraft "Svyatogor" of Slesareva and many other inventions. Mediocrity of government officials, general technical and economic backwardness of the country hindered the development of aviation in Russia.

By Soviet accounts, it was only the Great October Socialist Revolution that opened up tremendous opportunities for the creative activity of Russian scientists, engineers and inventors. Formation and development of Soviet aviation was inextricably linked with the name of Lenin. Even at the dawn of the Soviet state, the leader of the party and the people presciently saw in aviation one of the most progressive sectors of the economy, which was essential for the future of the socialist countries. Even then, in the difficult economic environment, despite the devastation, Lenin and the party called on the working class and all toiling people to proceed immediately with the creation of the Red Air Force. In such matters, the Labor and Defense Council kept many documents on aviation, signed by Lenin.

Soviet soruces cliam that "It was necessary to have the genius of the great Lenin, to predict with amazing accuracy aerofikatsii value, the huge social role was to be played by aviation in our vast country. In carrying out instructions of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Soviet people, led by the Communist Party, in spite of the difficulties, there are funds for the development of aviation. The country opened the first regular air lines, the first research institutions, the first design offices. That was the beginning. Just as Lenin's plan of electrification was the prototype of the upcoming five-year plans, and much of what was done in those years in the field of aeronautical science and technology, training, served as a source of current achievements."

Design bureaus were organized, and academic institutions developed aircraft design theory, the creation of new models of aircraft and helicopters. Designers and inventors helicopters used several ways to balance the reactive torque of the support system: the tail rotor, twin screws rotating in opposite directions (coaxial, transverse and longitudinal scheme). But in all cases the rotors usually had a "rigid" terminations blades in the hub. The blade can only rotate about its longitudinal axis, but remains unchanged with respect to the spatial position of the axis of the rotor head.

Until 1925-1927, helicopters with the "hard" rotors were raised above 6.4 meters, reached a speed of 15-20 km / h. The greatest range was flying in a circle one kilometer. The reason for the slow improvement of flight characteristics were strong vibrations helicopters, poor stability, difficulty balancing, and the impossibility of planning when the engine is stopped. The designers have worked hard to eliminate these shortcomings. It was necessary to create a support system that would ensure the safety of motor and motorless descent, would have better stability and control, and generate less vibration.

To meet these challenges, designers had to move away from the classical schemes for helicopters and search for new ways. And then came the autogyro. On it was mounted and self-rotating propeller blades used articulated suspension. These two solutions and determined the success of the new aircraft: given the possibility to make non-motorized gliding descent, provided a good balance and stability in all flight regimes and reduced vibration.

In the late 1920s the first Soviet gyros were created. In contrast to the aircraft the lift-wing gyroplane his a large rotor. The machine moves forward due to the pull rod screw, as well as aircraft. Therefore, the auto-gyro could not take off vertically, or hang in the air. Its advantage over aircraft consisted in the fact that he had a small length of the takeoff and the engine failure permit safe decline. At the end of 1928 NI Kamov and NK Skrzhinskiy completed the first Soviet autogyro KASKR-1 ("Red Engineer"). During the creation of this model they perfected articulated screw blades which are suspended to the sleeve on the horizontal and vertical joints. This made it possible to make each blade swinging motion in a vertical plane and rotation in the plane of oscillation. In addition, it has been mastered autorotation mode, thus ensuring the reliability and safety of the flight. Later on gyroplanes it was tested cyclic control system and collective pitch of the main rotor.

In Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) the department of special constructions was created in the end of 1926, which was led by BN Yuriev. A group of young engineers engaged in theoretical and experimental research, built several models of helicopters. The basis of the first experimental light helicopter was put single-rotor design, as the most simple. The special aerodynamic scales used during the preliminary investigation. They established a single-rotor helicopter with a machine-skew and pitch control. Here, in the 1928-1929 biennium. They conducted extensive research that allowed in a fairly short period of time to design and build a helicopter TsAGI 1-EA .

A new page in the history of Soviet helicopter industry was opened August 14, 1932. On this day, a helicopter TsAGI 1-EA, piloted by Professor AM Cheremukhin, rose to a height of 605 m, which was the greatest technical achievement of those years. The helicopter rose and fell easily vertically, makes a turn on the spot, to move freely in all directions. It was built on the single-rotor scheme, I had a four-blade propeller with a diameter of 11 m, driven in rotation by two rotary engine with a capacity of 120 liters. from. Engines placed on both sides of the fuselage. The reactive torque is balanced by the four tail rotor, mounted in pairs on the fuselage tail.

In the autumn of 1933 the 5-EA helicopter designed by IP Bratukhin was prepared for testing. This machine had a good stability. It was set shestilopastny rotor original design. Three long blades were mounted on hinges, and three short - hard, that is, could not rotate around their own axes. In 1940-1941. Moscow Aviation Institute Helicopter Bureau under the guidance of P.Bratukhina designed and constructed the twin-screw helicopter "Omega" with two engines with a total capacity of 440 liters. Its maximum speed was 115 km / h, flight range - 250 km. Even in the pre-war years, Soviet designers had a great experimental work with the first samples of rotary-wing aircraft, which largely contributed to the successful solution of the major problems in the field. Some gyros were transferred into production and manufactured in small batches. Squadron gyroplanes A-7 participated in combat operations in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. They worked day and night in the enemy's rear and front zone. It was the first experience of rotary-wing aircraft in the military.

After the war, "thanks to the care of the Communist Party and the Soviet government, designers created the modern helicopters, and won wide recognition in our country and abroad."

In the process of development of Soviet helicopters there emerged and strengthened scientific schools, the largest of which are representatives of ML Mil, Kamov NI, Yakovlev and others. N.I. Kamov began his rotary-wing career in the autogiro field during the 19209. In 1930, he was one of the two engineers who produced Russia's first autogiro, the KASKR-l. During the 1930s, Kamov was one of the more active autogiro designers. The A-7 series by Kamov saw military service from 1938 through the start of World War II. M.L.Mil started his rotary -wing career in the autogiro MIL MI-I field during the mid- 1920s. As a member of ZAGl, he delivered one of his first papers at the Third All-Union Conference on Aerodynamics. The paper was on the take-off run of the autogiro. Initially his name was associated with research and development rather than design and construction. At the end of 1947 there was created the design office headed by Doctor of Technical Sciences ML Mil, under whose leadership was created helicopters which received wide application in many areas of the economy and military aviation. The first helicopter mounted the AI-26B engine with 575 liters capacity. from. Its cruising speed - 130 km / h, flight range - 370-600 km, height - 3000 m The helicopter was built in series in the transport, agriculture and sanitary versions.. On the Mi-1 17 world records have been set for helicopters with Flight weight from 1750 to 3000 kg.

In 1952 serial production of the Mi-4 was launched, which received a gold medal at the World Exhibition in Brussels. Chief Designer and his closest associates were awarded the Lenin Prize for the creation of this helicopter. While Mi-4 was superior on-duty large American serial helicopters and, admittedly specialists, was one of the most reliable helicopters. On it a few world records payload and flight speed were made. In June 1957 the Mi-6 made its first flight, with two turboprop engine were installed. The Mi-6 was one of the fastest helicopters of the time. For overcoming the turn speed of 320 km / hour, for a long time remained the limit for helicopters, Mil team was awarded an international prize. Giant flying crane was set up on the basis of the Mi-6, Mi-10 , which raised 25 tons of cargo to a height of 2800 m.

Application of new gas turbine engines has created the second generation of helicopters "Mi", with more lifting capacity, reliable and much more efficient. In place of the Mi-1 came to Mi-2 and Mi-4 was replaced by a helicopter Mi-8 . This cost-effective, reliable and relatively easy to operate machine. Keeping the size of its predecessor, the Mi-4, the new rotorcraft more than twice surpasses it in payload and has a significantly higher airspeed.

Very good for its time, a high-altitude engine Mi-4 with a capacity of 1700 liters. It weighed 1040 kg. Two engine design of SP Izotov installed on Mi-8 and weighs 660 kg, and develop capacity of 3,000 liters. from. This largely determined the increase in the performance of the new helicopter as a vehicle. Capacity has increased, and with 1200-1600 kg Mi-4 up to 3000 kg on the Mi-8, and on the short-range (100 km) up to 4000 kg, cruising speed, respectively, increased from 155 km / h to 220 km / h.

Thus, the helicopter hour productivity rose more than 3.5 times, and the weight of the empty cars increased by only 30%. The ratio of hourly productivity to one ton weight of the empty aircraft at the Mi-8, 3 times more than its prototype, that largely characterizes the efficiency of the helicopter as a vehicle. Hourly productivity determines the useful feedback, and the weight of an empty aircraft - cost of the device. Accordingly, the increased carrying capacity has been increased container cargo compartment. It is wider and longer than on the Mi-4. The passenger version it housed 28 people. The helicopter was capable of for a long time to continue the flight on one engine, which significantly increases the safety of the flight. Significantly compared with the Mi-4, later helicopters simplified the piloting and the machine speed, which ensures not only their consistency, but both motors synchronization. At the same time in the event of failure of one engine power automatically increases employee.

Soviet helicopters Mi-6, Mi-10, Mi-8, presented at Aviation and Space Salon in Paris in 1965, caused a sensation. The British newspaper "Fayneshnl Times" wrote in those days: "In Le Bourget collected an impressive armada of Soviet vehicles. In Western aviation observers impressed by their excellent technical condition. Let's see whether the Russian will cope with the commercial jungle that is now trading airplanes in the West, with its often brutal, and at nothing stopping competition. However, if they choose this path in their phones delivered to Western businessmen a lot of headaches."

Good handling qualities and almost complete lack of vibration differ Soviet twin-screw co-axial helicopters Ka-10 , Ka-15 , Ka-18 , Ka-26 and the other by a team of designers led by NI Kamov. On coaxial twin-screw reactive torque helicopter main rotors are mutually balanced, so that the screws rotate at the same speed and in opposite directions and consume the same power. In this scheme there is no helicopter tail rotor. Coaxial helicopters have minimal dimensions, good maneuverability. For example, rotation of 360 in place of such a chopper circuit performs 3-5 seconds. The vibration level at the minimum coaxial helicopters. Engine power they consumed only on the rotation of the rotor and is not spent on the tail rotor. With lower weight design coaxial helicopters have greater weight returns.

The Ka-26 is figuratively called "flying chassis". Depending on the purpose of changing the look of the car. The passenger version is equipped with a helicopter cabin for 6 people. The loads can be transported in the cabin. The helicopter kit includes an open service platform, which is suspended from the center-cab instead. The load can be hung directly on the hook. Then the helicopter turns into a flying crane. The main purpose of the Ka-26 - the implementation of agricultural activities. When the suspension of the hopper with the appropriate equipment is provided by uniform spray, spillage or splashing chemicals. The Ka-26 - the result of years of joint work and the design office of Aeroflot, a thorough economic analysis of the use of helicopters in the national economy. It would be possible to create a machine specifically for aviation-chemical works in the fields of collective and state farms. It would have a hopper with the appropriate equipment, manual drive and electric equipment (compressor, alternator to drive the sprayer pumps and so on.

But calculations showed that a helicopter would not be cost-effective, since the processing fields - it is seasonal, and it would be idle for several months a year without work. Therefore, the designers decided to create a multi-purpose helicopter and successfully coped with this task.

One of the directions of rotary-wing aircraft - a machine with a combined bearing system: rotors and wing. For forward flight unit is pulling the screws. In normal rotorcraft flight takes off vertically like a helicopter. All lift (thrust) is created rotors. When reaching a speed of 60-80 km / h, step increases pulling screws, and then there is a further intensive dispersal. Soviet rotorcraft Ka-22 with two turboprop engines with a capacity of 5700 liters. from. . 366 km / h - raised a record commercial cargo 16 485 kg to a height of 2560 m at the same speed it up straight was shown.

Flight-technical characteristics of modern helicopters continuously improved. Grow speed, range, payload, altitude, efficiency and reliability. Improved aerodynamic shape devices, improving the aerodynamics of the rotor, the reliability of all its systems and components. There is no doubt that many Soviet helicopters were sold to many countries, and used in a wide variety of climatic conditions.

The climax in the creation of helicopter design bureau, worked under the direction of Mil, was supergiant V-12 that took the load more than forty tons to a height of more than two kilometers. During this phenomenal achievement Design Bureau was awarded the highest award of the international helicopter. Rotorcraft giant V-12 began its life in the sky with a sensation: on him just eight world records were established. First V-12 lifted to different heights of 30 tons and then loaded with more than 40 tons, and was able to climb to an altitude of 2250 meters.

In the rest of the world there was no helicopter, which according to its data may be any closer to the Soviet machine. Its cruising speed was 240 kilometers per hour, the maximum takeoff weight was 105 tons. Loads of 20-25 tons of V-12 can carry without landing at a distance of 300-500 km. If you climb to the top of its interior, the impression is created as if you went to the roof of the four-home: the height of the helicopter - twelve and a half meters. Cabin Length 30 m, width up to 4 m, height 4.4 m. It can easily accommodate diggers and cranes, bulldozers and heavy trucks, bridges, farms and drilling equipment.

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Page last modified: 21-10-2016 18:40:26 ZULU