Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union
Sergei Georgievich Gorshkov
Called by some the twentieth-century Alfred Thayer Mahan, Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Sergei Georgievich Gorshkov managed to survive Stalin, Khrushchev, and Brezhnev to become one of the dominant figures in the Soviet military. More than a theorist, he was the architect of a new, assertive Soviet navy. Russians historically considered themselves a land power, with the navy's primary role that of supporting the army.
Gorshkov influenced the army-dominated Kremlin to think in terms of sea power. During the 1950s the Soviet Navy was primarily a coastal defense force, with few major surface combatants. Under the leardership of Gorshkov in the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviets undertoook a major ship construction program, and began deploying their ships around the world.
Sergey Georgiyevich Gorshkov, commander-in-chief navy USSR, deputy minister of defense USSR, the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, was born on 26 February 1910, in the city Kameneq-Podolskiy (now Khmel'nitskiy region of the Ukraine) in the family of teacher. Russian. He joined the Navy in 1927. In 1931 he graduated from naval school, in 1937 he graduated from courses of the commanders of torpedo boats, in 1941 he graduated from advance courses of executive body with the Naval Academy.
He joined the vKP(b)/KPSS in 1942. During the defense of Odessa S.G. Gorshkov led the first debarkation of the Black Sea Fleet amphibious force in region Grigor6evki (now Kominternovski1. From October 1941 he commanded Azov military flotilla. From August 1942 he was the deputy commander novorossiyskiy defensive region, from November of the same year - commanding of 47-1 army, from February 1943 newly commanding of Azov flotilla, while from April 1944 he led the Danube military flotilla. On 25 September, 1944, Gorshkov was promoted from rear admiral to the service rank of Vice Admiral.
During November 1944 the ships of Danube military flotilla were moved upward on Danube for the participation in the assault of Budapest. Commanding Vice Admiral S. G. Gorshkov considered flotilla that the key component of this operation must become the landing in Ger'ene, since these are an ideal bridgehead for the offensive to the lake Balaton, whose landing force members locked the ring around the capital of Hungary. The landing was delivered to the touchdown point without the losses, and on 01 December, 1944, after the bitter three-hour battle with the Soviet marines, the enemy left Ger'en. This was the last front operation which was led S. G. Gorshkov. During January 1945 Vice Admiral Gorshkov was assigned as the commander by the squadron of Black Sea fleet. In this post he met the victory above Hitlerite Germany.
In 1948-51 years S. G. Gorshkov was chief of staff of the Black Sea fleet and 1951-55 commander of the Black Sea fleet. From July 1955 Admiral Gorshkov was the first deputy of commander-in-chief. The explosion that sank the Novorossiysk battleship at anchor at Sevastopol was used as an excuse to remove Nikolai Kuznetsov, an opponent of Nikita Khrushchev's idea of a submarine-based navy, from commanding the Red Fleet and replace him with Sergey Gorshkov, who was much more obedient to the premier's wishes.
From January 1956 up to 1985 he the commander-in-chief of the Navy of the USSR, and the deputy minister of defense of the USSR. By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 7 May, 1965, "for skillful management by troops, personal courage, appeared in the fight with the Fascist-German aggressors, and in the commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the victory of Soviet people in the World War II" to the Admiral of the Fleet Sergey Georgiyevich Gorshkov was awarded the Title of Hero of the Soviet Union with the presentation of the Order of Lenin and medal "gold star" (# 10684). On 26 October, 1967, S. G. Gorshkov was awarded the high service rank "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union".
Heading the Soviet navy, he made major contributions to its postwar development and building contemporary ships. It is considered rightfully that the Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union. Sergei Gorshkov devoted the lion's share of the time to building the fleet. In determining the prospects for the development of the fleet, he always relied on science, first of all, on the work of scientists of the Navy and Navy research institutes, getting acquainted with the progress of their research. When examining scientific papers, he always directed scientists to search for unconventional ideas in creating weapons systems and building ships. He was an opponent of copying foreign ships and weapons, believing this to be a backward path, although he attached considerable importance to the study of foreign experience. He strongly recommended that the Fleet Institutions interact more closely with scientists of the USSR Academy of Sciences, emphasizing that the fleet throughout its three-hundred-year history has always been closely associated with the Academy of Sciences. Sergey Georgievich has always been attentive to everything new in fundamental science. He with great respect and attention belonged to outstanding scientists who made a significant contribution to the construction of a modern fleet. Sergei Gorshkov attached great importance in his work to communication with the heads of the defense industry ministries; for many years he had friendly, business relations with prominent leaders of the defense industries: B.E. Butoma and M.V. Egorov (shipbuilding), E.P. Slavsky (atomic), S.A. Afanasyev (space rocket), S.A. Zverev and P.V. Finogenov (defense), V.V. Bakhirev (ammunition and solid fuels), V.D. Kalmykov and P.S. Pleshakov (radio engineering), E.K. Pervyshin (communications). Meetings and meetings in the capital, a joint visit to the research institute and design bureau on shipbuilding and weapons. So, only on missile matters, he and the ministers visited the Urals, Altai, Tajikistan, Kharkov, Tula, Reutov, Lyubertsy, Khimki and Dubna, not to mention Moscow, Leningrad and shipbuilding centers. At the factories, he showed great interest in technological innovations, production organization, and a quality control system. In these visits to enterprises, Sergey Gorshkov showed interest in the development of the enterprise, the mood in the team. He believed that only a successful enterprise can create high-quality equipment. The main thing that distinguished Sergey Georgievich was his speeches, he always had something to say, and he clearly formulated the role of the particular team where he was in the construction of the fleet. S. G. Gorshkov - creator of quite important and powerful fleet during entire history of the fatherland. By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of 21 December, 1982, "for the large contribution to the alert of navy, the equipment with its warships and the skillful management of it" Gorshkov was rewarded with the second medal "gold star" (# 118). Since 1985 S. G. Gorshkov was in the group of the general inspectors of the Defense Ministry of the USSR. Since 1961 he was a member of the CC CPSU (Cand. since 1956). Deputy to the Supreme Soviet OF THE USSR 4-11- GO of convocations. Laureate of Leninist (medal # of 3591 from 21.04.85 g.) and the USSR State Prize (medal # 9250 from 06.08.80 g.).
He died on 13 May 1988, and was buried in Moscow at the Novodevich'em cemetery.
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