Before the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army armored cars were to colloquially called armored cars. Based on the experience of fighting World War I and the Civil War armored cars were planning to apply directly in combat like light tanks. The Second World War, which is often called the "war of engines", showed that the armored cars in many ways lose the tanks, but the army is in dire need of a somewhat different type of wheeled or tracked armored vehicles - armored personnel carriers (APCs). This combi machines were designed primarily for the delivery of personnel, weapons and ammunition to the place of combat operations, and the ability to carry the various types of weapons and serve as a prime mover.
Like trucks, armored personnel carriers came in various sizes and capacities. Successful model of light armored personnel carriers after the war GAZ developed on the basis of the engine, transmission and axles 2.5-tonne two-axle truck GAZ-63, it had adopted under the name BTR-40. But the army needed another, heavier, has an increased storage capacity and a load capacity of armored personnel carriers. It is logical that it commissioned the design of the Moscow Automobile plant immeni Stalin [ZIS] on the basis of 4-ton three-axle truck ZIS-151.
Lead designer Boris Fitterman also participated in the work of the designers ZIS VF Rodionov, AP Petrenko, PP Tchernyaev, N.I.Orlov and others. Originally planned to create two unified models - wheel ZIS-152, and ZIS-153 half-track. According to the results of prototype testing has been accepted into service only wheel modification. Number 152 in the index APCs meant just a model ZIS. According to the adopted in the postwar years, the numbering system of the Soviet models of vehicles, The car factory named after Stalin stood out "hundreds" of numbers from 100 to 199.
The first version of the BTR-152 wheeled armored personnel carrier was produced in 1950. Serial production of the BTR-152 ZIS mastered in 1950, and a military parade Nov. 7, 1951 On these machines were first held on Red Square. The creators of armored personnel received the Stalin Prize. However, shortly after its receipt BM Fitterman was arrested as an "enemy of the people" and for several years served time in prison.
The vehicle hull is of all-welded construction, engine and transmission are at the front of the vehicle. The crew consists of a driver, co-driver, and up to 17 infantry who normally board the vehicle through the rear entry hatch. The BTR-152.V1 was the second model to enter service, it had a front mounted winch, and a tire-pressure regulation system, which allowed the crew to adjust the pressure in accordance with local driving conditions. Variants include a Command Vehicle, as well as versions equiped with twin 14.5mm machinegun for antiair and twin 23mm cannon.
Both 4 and 6 wheel drive, the V3 model has IR light, K model has overhead cover. The hulls basic model was open, with a canvas roof, but in the late 50's, after the military operation in Hungary armored vehicle was the roof and the designation BTR-152K. In the production of the BTR-152 started to equip winch, built between the front bumper and the front plate of your engine compartment. On the body envisaged regular brackets for shovels, saws, crank. The armored roof version of the BTR-152 is an important variant which is sure to be deployed in a number of dioramas, and wargame scenarios. The fully enclosed vehicle offers more protection for the crew, and it has roof hatches which may be opened to allow infantry to fight from the vehicle.
Production ended in early 1960s, and in Russia the vehicle was replaced by the BTR-60.P series. While long withdrawn from Russian service, this vehicle remains operational in a number of other countries. The BTR-152 series has seen service with Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China (as the type 56 APC), Congo, Cuba, East Germany, Egypt, Finland, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Romania, Soviet Union, Syria and other countries. Israel used BTR-152 series vehicles, but it is unlikely that these were actually purchased from the Soviet Union. Like other Warsaw Pact equipment in the Israeli arsenal, the BTR-152s were most likely captured during wars with Egypt and Syria.
- BTR-152 without winch
- BTR-152 anti-tank vehicle
- BTR-152.A, anti-aircraft vehicle
- BTR-152.K with full overhead armour for troop protection.
- BTR-152.U, command vehicle. The vehicle had raised sides to provide more internal space, and comfort for the staff working inside; it was not armed. This variant and the BTR-152.K would be suitable for several other uses, as an ambulance, signals, and artillery registration vehicle.
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