Bartini - Early Life
Roberto Oros di Bartini was born May 14, 1897 in the Austro-Hungarian city of Fiume (now Rijeka in Croatia). Bartini himself talked about his childhood, the following story. Mama Roberto came from a very distinguished family, but soon left without parents and it was brought up by relatives. At 17, she fell in love with a certain Baron, who married another woman. Unable to withstand the pain, she drowned herself, after leaving the baby wrapped in a blanket at the home of his relatives. Foundling gave local farmer, after some time to migrate to Fiume, where he found work as a gardener in the house above the said Baron. The boy saw the Baroness, she liked it, and the childless wife of Roberto di Bartini adopted. When parents decide to find out who the real father of the child, it became clear that it was the Baron himself.
As a child, to Robert Bartini's service there was an excellent library, a fencing room, two-masted yacht, home observatory and the best model Zeiss telescope, was discharged from the German. In September 1912, Roberto first flew on the aircraft Russian pilot Slavorossova Chariton, who spoke with his attraction in Southern Europe, and on the sixteenth at Bartini got its own airplane, which he presented to his father.
That Roberto was an unusual child, the parents discovered in childhood. Roberto painted perfectly. Both right hand and left. "One day, my mother decided to read the boy "20,000 Leagues Under the Sea" by Jules Verne in German and Roberto for two weeks, learned the German language. However, he could only read upside-down text - this is the book lay in front of him. Another boy has successfully participated in European competitions in swimming. Bartini did not feel hunger, and to be "like everyone else", eaten by the hour, at a fixed time. Bartini had no sense of fear: in five years, a dark autumn evening he left alone in an abandoned park to see the fairy, who lived, according to legend, in the side of an empty castle tower. Before Roberto foudn the fairies he got lost and fell asleep under the fern - so he was a strong nervous system. At the same time, a child began to notice the surrounding of the young baron and telepathic abilities. Later, in the USSR work colleagues noticed that Robert L. answered questions before interviewee time to ask them. This ability colleagues attributed to a good knowledge of people.
However, the researchers life Bartini - Olga and Sergey Buzinovskie wrote: "We have searched: none of the Italian, Hungarian, Austrian, Hungarian, Austrian and German genealogical publications mention the family di Bartini. None of that name, and in numerous reference books "Who is Who", published at the beginning of the XX century. Something explained first interrogation protocol in Butyrskaya: it says that the documents Bartini name and the appropriate "legend" Baron received before being sent to the Soviet Union. Previously Roberto bore the surname of his stepfather - Hungarian Ludwig Orozhdi. His own father - the Austrian Baron Formaha - he had never seen. According to the investigator recorded Bartini and mother's maiden name - Fersel (according to other documents - Fertsel). But these names are not found in the references.
The Embassy of the Republic of Croatia in Moscow and the city archives workers Rijeka Buzinovskim said that in September 1912 Russian pilot Chariton Slavorossov really flew in Fiume. But information about the people of Bartini names, forms and Fersel in the archive were found. However, far from Fiume it was the estate of Baron Philippe Orozhdi (Orozdi) - Italian, a major landowner and member of the upper chamber of the Hungarian Parliament. The Baron figured in the list of honorary members of the Hungarian aviation club. His brother Lajos lived in Budapest. Lajos Italian - Ludovico, German - Ludwig. It turns out that he was the father of the future aircraft designer. Subsequently, during the Soviet period all the legacy bequeathed him by his father, Bartini transferred to the fund of the Italian fighters of the revolution.
In 1916, nineteen-year graduate school Cadet Robert Bartini arrived at the service of the Russian Empire, and a week after his arrival he was sentenced to death because he shot a tyranical Lieutenant, who a few days earlier had beaten rookie. Roberto was saved by the sudden onset of Russian famous "Brusilov breakthrough", during which Bartini was captured by the Russians and on stage was sent to the Far East. During the four years he spent in captivity, Bartini studied Russian language and became acquainted with the ideas of social equality.
Later Bartini talked about his journey from Vladivostok to Europe in 1920: along with other prisoners of war from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he sat on the boat that was supposed to deliver them to the destination. In Shanghai, the Baron and his Hungarian friend Laszlo Kemeny had to disembark after they were both sympathetic to Bolshevism. In 1920 Bartini returned home. He did not use the opportunities Bartini Sr., including financial (after his father's death, he got more than 10 million dollars at the time). On the Milan factory "Isotta-Fraschini" Roberto worked as a laborer, platers, and then the driver. At the same time he was trained in Rome flight school and received his aeronautical engineer, having passed two years the external examinations of aviation branch of the Milan Polytechnic Institute. Once he joined the Italian Communist Party.
As told by his biographer, Bartini in 1922 even participated in the operation to eliminate Savinkov, who wanted to derail the Genoa conference. Bartini did not let the enemies of the Soviet power to implement this plan - the best Savinkova people died. However, in the archives of the KGB and GRU there was no information about the operation of the Genoese. But in the newspaper "Il Mondo" for April 1922 published an article about the disclosure of the White Guard a terrorist plot against the Soviet delegation: "They arrested about 15 people who came with false passports. Among them are well-known Russian terrorist Boris Savinkov. Savinkov tried to get their hands superintendence of the Soviet delegation to the protection of Santa Margarita. It is assumed that an attack was being prepared against Lenin, if he came to Genoa."
In 1922, Mussolini came to power, and was not very fond of the Communists. Bartini was again sentenced to death (in absentia). Then Roberto decided to flee to the Soviet Union for the second time. The route was to run through Switzerland, France, where in Paris to confuse the marks, he even had to fake his own death, and in Berlin, where doctors unsuccessfully removed his appendix. But there are several other versions as to how Bartini got to the USSR. On one of them, he got on the German steamer with documents of his Russian friend Boris Iofana. There is a version, and about submarine surfaced at night at the Romanian coast. According Buzinovskih in the former archives of the CPSU Kominternovskoe kept a "private matter" about Bartini: a thin folder in five or six pages. It made a record of that reception in the Italian Communist Party "documentary is not confirmed."
According to Bartini, he left Soviet Russia at the end of 1920, but returned in 1923. Stories of the "Red Baron" of the work at the factory "Isotta-Fraschini" and on the participation of documentary is not confirmed in the military actions of the Italian Communist Party. Reliable, indisputable information about him we do not have much - Sensitively written, - and perhaps they will be significantly augmented. Especially information about the first years of his life 1920-25. For this would have to find documents that might still kept in Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Germany, China, Syria, in Ceylon.
Later Bartini talked about escaping from an Italian prison. But the official version (which followed from the report of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR), the Italian Communist Party decided that a graduate of the Milan Polytechnic Institute, to help Soviet Russia in the aviation industry. Perhaps Bartini largely invented his revolutionary past. But the stories construct some light on the motives of Bartini. The phrase thrown one former employee of the Technical Management Minaviaproma was "mysterious ... . If you want to know Bartini was just a big kid! Each new idea fascinated him, he tried to do many things at once, but it turned bad - flying plans, timing, awards, customer impatient ... ".
In Moscow Bartini was enlisted to work on the Scientific-Experimental (now Chkalovsky) Khodynka airfield on a laboratory-fotogrammistom, then he became an expert technical bureau. Assessing the training of the Italian aeronautical engineer, the authorities transferred him to the Air Force Office of the Black Sea. In Sevastopol, he began a mechanical engineer squadron, and was promoted to chief inspector manual materiel in 1927, that is, all the combat aircraft, and on his lapels were diamonds Brigade Commander (Major General).
Soon Bartini returned to Moscow and was appointed member of the Scientific and Technical Committee of the Air Force. In this he produced his first designs of seaplanes, in particular, the heavy flying boat - a 40-ton marine bomber MTB-2. Experts immediately noted the originality of their proposed technical solutions. Bartini offered to accommodate four pairs of motors in the wings, propellers mounted forward on long shafts, which would improve the aerodynamics of the aircraft. Thereafter Bartini again transferred, Aviatrest now and then in the Department of Experimental-3 (PBO-3) - a leading organization dedicated to maritime aircraft construction. It was headed by a prominent aircraft designer D.P.Grigorovich and worked in the Department of young engineers SPKorolyov, Lavochkin, I.P.Ostoslavsky, I.A.Berlin and I.V.Chetverikov. Later Korolev told sculptor Faydysh-Krandievsky: "We all owe Bartini very much, since without Bartini would not have satellite. His image, you must capture in the first place."
At the new place Bartini continued his seaplane different purposes. Under his leadership, several successful projects, which were later used in the development of seaplanes MBR-2 (near the Marine reconnaissance), MDR-3 (marine long-range reconnaissance) and MK-1 (sea cruiser) was developed over two years, more commonly known as anthracene 22.
Soon, however, he was closely within the same subject, and he switched on the elaboration of an experimental fighter EI. In addition, he was appointed to lead the PBO-3 instead arrested in 1928 on "Industrial Party case" Grigorovich. But in March 1930, a group of Bartini became part of the CDB, and for a memorandum aimed Bartini in the CPSU (b), in which he explained the pointlessness of "collectivization" in the design of aircraft, the Bartini group was disbanded, and most were dismissed.
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