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ASU-85 airborne self-propelled mount

The ASU-85 - Aviadesantnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka airborne self-propelled mount - was intended to accompany motorized rifle and tank units, as well as manning units and units of the airborne forces to provide anti-tank defense. In 1951, at the Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant (MMZ), OKB-40 designers, headed by N.A. Astrov, began to create an artillery tracked self-propelled airborne installation with a front location of a half-open fighting compartment. The machine was created in the mid-50s on an original base and before being adopted in July 1958, under the ASU-85 index, it had the designation "Object 573". Serial production of self-propelled guns began in 1959.

Rational angles of inclination of the frontal and side armor plates provided protection for the crew from armor-piercing shells of small and medium caliber. The corrugated bottom gave additional strength to the hull. To the right in the bow of the machine was the control compartment with the workplace of the driver. In the middle part there was a fighting compartment, where, to the right of the gun, the loader and commander of the machine were located one after the other, and a gunner was placed to the left of the gun. There was a hatch for emergency evacuation from the machine at the bottom of the hull. A 85-mm D-70 gun was installed in the fighting compartment (designation GRAU - 2A15, mass production was carried out at plant No. 75 in the city of Yurga) with a monoblock barrel equipped with an effective muzzle brake and an ejector to purge the barrel from residual powder gases. The shutter, like the ASU-57, was vertical, wedge-shaped,

The gun was installed in the embrasure of the frontal sheet in the frame and slightly shifted to the left relative to the longitudinal axis of the machine. The cradle-type cradle served to guide the movement of the barrel during a rollback, the rods of a recoil device a cylindrical brake that reduced rollback to 520 mm, and a hydropneumatic recuperator equipped with a valve for additional braking of the ramp were attached to it.

The ammunition carried included unitary shots weighing 21.8 kg with several types of shells. These included high-explosive fragmentation grenades UO-365K weighing 9.54 kg, possessing an initial velocity of 909 m / s and intended to destroy manpower and destroy enemy fortifications. When firing at moving, armored targets - tanks and self-propelled guns - Br-365K armor-piercing tracing pointed-headed shells weighing 9.2 kg with an initial speed of 1,150 m / s were used. With these shells it was possible to conduct targeted fire at a distance of up to 1,200 m. Armor-piercing tracer blunt-headed projectiles Br-365 with a ballistic tip could hit enemy equipment at a distance of up to 1,250 m. In addition, For firing at enemy tanks and armored personnel carriers from a distance of 1,600 - 2,500 m, the Br-367P and Br-367PK armor-piercing and tracer shells weighing 4.99 kg each with an initial speed of 1,150 m / s also served. An armor-piercing projectile at a distance of 2,000 m pierced an armor plate 53 mm thick, located at an angle of 60 , and a cumulative projectile - 150 mm. The maximum firing range of a high-explosive fragmentation projectile was 13,400 m.

In addition to the ammunition of the self-propelled guns there were smoke shells UD-367 with steel hulls. With their help, the enemys observation and command posts, his batteries, individual guns and firing points were blinded. They were also used for target designation to their gunners.

The telescopic articulated sight TShK-2-79-11 was used when firing direct fire in the afternoon. For firing from closed fire positions - S-71-79 sight with a gun panorama. In addition, the machine was equipped with a TPN-1-79-11 night tank sight and a night-vision device for monitoring the situation.

V.A. Malyshev, then Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, demanded that automobile units be used as on the ACS-57 and ACU-76, although N.A. Astrov wanted to install a horizontal version of the V-6 engine on the ACS-85, representing one block of a well-developed V-shaped tank diesel. To provide the required specific power of the 210-horsepower two-stroke YaMZ-206V diesel engine, it was necessary to introduce a cumbersome, but not requiring extra energy, ejection cooling system. MTO made more compact by installing the engine across the body. There was also a mechanical transmission, consisting of the main clutch, gear (guitar), driveshaft, gearbox, two planetary rotation mechanisms and final drives. The single-plate clutch was unreliable, and already in the process of operating self-propelled guns in parts it was replaced with a specially designed multi-plate clutch. The insufficient stiffness of the shafts of the five-speed automobile gearbox required a thorough rework, after which only some of the original details survived.

The caterpillar mover consisted of metal caterpillar chains with OMS, two rear-wheel drive wheels, two guide wheels with mechanical chain tension, and twelve single-row, rubber-coated track rollers of medium diameter. The machine suspension is individual, torsion bar with piston-type hydraulic shock absorbers on the front and rear nodes.

The ASU-85 self-propelled artillery mount was equipped with TPU R-120, radio station R-113, a filter ventilation unit, infrared headlights for driving a machine in conditions of limited visibility and two infrared spotlights (one mounted above the guns barrel, the other controlled from inside the machine in front of the commanders hatch) . For the installation of smoke curtains, two BDSH-5 smoke bombs were used, which were installed on the aft sheet of the hull. To increase the power reserve, two additional fuel tanks were installed at the rear of the self-propelled gun.

The landing of relatively heavy self-propelled guns was carried out only by landing a transport aircraft on the runway, which limited the main tactical advantage of the landing - surprise. Therefore, in 1964, the ASU-85 was discontinued "due to low efficiency and limited use."

Then in the USSR began the design of a fundamentally new combat vehicle BMD-1 landing troops. Self-propelled guns twice upgraded. First, a ventilated roof of 10 mm thick rolled steel with four hatches was installed over the fighting compartment. In 1967, ASU-85 participated in the Arab-Israeli conflict, known as the "six-day war", and the experience of their combat use revealed the need to install a 12.7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun DSHKM on the wheelhouse.

caliber, mm 85
crew, person 4
maximum firing range, m 13 400
rate of fire, rounds per minute 6-7
initial projectile speed, m / s 1,150
elevation / declination angles, degrees -4.5 ... + 15
horizontal angles guidance, degrees -30 ... + 30
weight, t 15.5
full length, m 8.435
full width, m 2.97
height, m 1.935
chassis base tracked
Armor bulletproof (6-45 mm)
engine V-shaped 6-cylinder diesel engine YaMZ-206V, 210hp
maximum speed, km / h 45 (on the highway)
cruising range, km 360 (on the highway)

ASU-85 airborne self-propelled mount ASU-85 airborne self-propelled mount ASU-85 airborne self-propelled mount ASU-85 airborne self-propelled mount ASU-85 airborne self-propelled mount ASU-85 airborne self-propelled mount

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Page last modified: 21-08-2019 18:27:32 ZULU