ANT-12 [Polikarpov I-5]
One of the tasks that were set during the development and implementation of the first five-year plan for the development of the national economy of the USSR was to ensure the maximum possible self-sufficiency of the country's economy. Fighter aircraft at that time were mainly purchased abroad, and the Air Force command sought to replace foreign cars with domestic ones as soon as possible.
In 1927, the Technical Council of Aviatress found it necessary to develop a highly maneuverable fighter with a powerful air-cooled engine. A.N. Tupolev proposed to transfer the task of creating a machine to TsAGI, justifying this with the success of P.O.Sukhoi in work on the all-metal fighter ANT-5 (I-4).
The five-year plan of the aviation industry, adopted by the UHVS, provided for the creation by the teams of A.N. Tupolev and N.N.Polikarpov of single-seat fighters with common technical characteristics. At TsAGI, the development of the ANT-12 (I-5) aircraft of a mixed design, equipped with the Jupiter VI engine with a capacity of 480 hp, began. The execution of the task was delayed due to the fact that the engineers were busy building heavy bombers, which were supposed to ensure the army domination in the sky and on the ground. The burden of creating bomber aircraft made it look for another design organization: the program was transferred to the Central Design Bureau under the direction of Nikolai Polikarpov.
In December 1929, the OGPU organized a Special Design Bureau under the direction of DP Grigorovich from among the arrested aviation specialists. The bureau workers in the shortest possible time created the I-5 fighter of mixed design, which, by its flight characteristics, was considered one of the best in its class. On April 29, 1930, test flight pilot B.L. Buchholz performed the first fighter flight.
In the same year, the ANT-12 began to be delivered to the Red Army, where it was in service for about nine years. The I-5 fighter created by Polikarpov was in service with the Air Force combat units until 1941, in total about 800 of these vehicles were built. The work on the fighter allowed the designers of Polikarpov to gain a lot of experience and seriously strengthened the reputation of his TsKB. In the future, Nikolai Polikarpov created several more remarkable biplane fighters.
By 1934, signs of obsolescence of the I-5 became noticeable. One of them was an incident with the French Minister of Aviation Pierre Cot, who paid a visit to Moscow in the summer of 1934. The cat flew on a Codron C.635 Simun plane. This small four-seater monoplane with a non-retractable landing gear developed a speed of up to 300 km / h. So, the minister on this machine arrived in Kiev. For further transfer to Moscow, an honorary escort was assigned to him - three I-5s from the 109th air squadron. But as soon as the fighters joined the Simun, he gave gas and went ahead. I-5 hopelessly fell behind and returned back in disgrace.
Soon after this episode, the production of I-5 was stopped - in the factory workshops it was replaced by the I-16 . For three years, the industry has produced a total of more than 800 I-5 fighters. Usually, the number 803 is indicated, but it includes only aircraft manufactured by plants No. 1 and No. 21, and experimental machines and a small series of plant No. 39 are not included in this number. However, until the massive introduction of I-15 and I-16 fighters, the I-5 remained an essential part of the fighter aircraft fleet. Therefore, the modernization of the I-5 that was in service continued, in particular, in 1935, they replaced the old wooden propellers with metal ones.
|Wing area, m2||21.00|
|Mass, kg -|
|Engine type||1 x PD M-22|
|-power, hp||1 x 480|
|Maximum speed, km / h||252|
|Cruising speed, km / h||225|
|Practical range, km||660|
|Max. rate of climb, m / min||535|
|Practical ceiling, m||7500|
|Armament||4 x 7.62-mm machine gun PV-1|
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