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OJSC Aero-engine Scientific and Technical Complex AMNTK «Soyuz»

AO 'Moskovskii Aviamotornyi Nauchno-tekhnicheskii kompleks 
(AMNTK - Airmotor technological complex) "Soyuz". 
Soyuz Aircraft Engine Science and Technology Complex [NTK]
Moscow Soyuz Scientific Production Corporation (Moscow)

Luzhnetskaya nab 2/4, 119270 Moscow
Tel: (+7 095) 242 00 49
Fax: (+7 095) 242 57 02 or 242 66 09
Telex: 207022 Kabina
Open Joint Stock Company Aero-engine Scientific and Technical Complex AMNTK «Soyuz» begins its history from February 18, 1943 as "Pilot factory 300". The founder of the enterprise was A.A. Mikulin.

AMNTK `Soyuz' tried to survive as a separate corporation eager to preserve its tremendous breadth of technical capabilities. But in 1998 Soyuz became part of the MAPO-MiG conglomerate, partnered with the Klimov team in St Petersburg as this group's engine design team. Since October 2005 the head of AESTC «Soyuz» was N.N. Yakovlev, from January 2008 the head of the undertaking is L.N. Shvedov.

Tumanskii was later known as MNPK Soyuz (Alliance) and later as AO 'Moskovskii Aviamotornyi Nauchno-tekhnicheskii kompleks (AMNTK - Airmotor technological complex) "Soyuz". AMNTK 'Soyuz' should not be confused with TMKB 'Soyuz', nor with OAO TMKB 'Soyuz'.

The Tumanskii construction bureau (KB) began as the Mikulin KB which was established in 1943. In late 1940 senior engine designers Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Mikulin, V Ya Klimov and S K Tumanskii lobbied Stalin to have engine OKBs (design bureaux) separated from production factories and established as independent entities. Stalin agreed, but the German invasion was a distraction, and it was not until 1942 that Mikulin gained authorisation to take over the almost empty premises of the former OrgAviaProm works. Here, on 18 February 1943, Mikulin opened GAZ (aviation factory) No 300, charged with the development of completely new engines, which took the suffix -300 in their designation. Later the design bureau was named 'Soyuz', meaning Alliance. Previously famous for high-power piston engines, Mikulin chose as his deputies Tumanskiy and Boris Sergeyevich Stechkin.

Tumanskii worked on superchargers during World War II and became the deputy of the Mikulin KB. The facility acquired resources from Mitteldeutschmotorenwerke 1946. When Mikulin was removed in 1956, Tumanskii was appointed General Constructor of the renamed bureau.

In 1961 the Tumansky engine design bureau was tasked with taking the R27-300 turbojet, then in development for what would become the MiG-23 fighter, and developing a non-afterburning vectored-thrust version, the "R27V-300", with two to be used in a side-by-side configuration in the Yakovlev Yak-36 experimental VTOL aircraft, the USSR's answer to the British Kestrel. The Tumansky R27V-300 was a two-shaft turbojet, with a five-stage LP compressor; a six-stage HP compressor; an annular combustor; single-stage HP and LP turbines; an electric starter-generator; and twin hydraulically-actuated vectored thrust nozzles. Built in 1972, the MiG-21bis 'Fishbed-L' was the initial third- generation development of the MiG-21 series with the MNPK Soyuz (Tumansky / Tumanski) R-25-300 turbojet.

One of the most advanced civil developments by the Tushino Soyuz Machine-Building Design Bureau (TMKB) is the RD-1700 engine for new-generation trainers and lightweight general purpose civil aircraft. The RD-1700 engine has been developed in cooperation with the Central Institute of Aircraft Engine Building and a number of aggregate-building design bureaus. The engine's quantity production is planned to be launched at the Moscow Machine-Building Enterprise named after Chernyshov, the manufacturer of the RD-33 engines for MiG-29 fighters and TV7-117 engines for Il-114 passenger-carriers.

AESTC «Soyuz» developed 18 basic and 44 modified gas turbine engines for aircraft. Among them, AM-3 (for Tu-104, Tu-16, F-4), R11-300 (for MiG-21), R15B-300 (for MiG-25), R79V-300 (for the Yak-141), engine family R95-300 (for cruise missiles X-55., X-59, X-35). Many engines AESTC «Soyuz» was the best in the world at the moment of creation. The company AESTC «Soyuz» is widely known in the world scientific and professional communities, thanks to the unique engineering solutions.

In the field of aeronautical engineering AESTC «Soyuz» is working on two main areas: advanced engines for combat aircraft complexes (in cooperation) and upgrading and refurbishment of R95-300 engines for subsonic cruise missiles. At present, AESTC «Soyuz» is doing preparatory work under way for the implementation of activities in other areas.

In the field of power engineering industries AESTC «Soyuz» develops a wide range of gas turbine in small and medium power range, based engine (or parts of engine) of its own design. Creating a gas turbine plants and power plants based on them, is a relatively new area of activity. In gas turbine installations AESTC «Soyuz» applied advanced design solutions, making installations have excellent technical characteristics and high reliability.

By the order of the Government of Moscow creates gas turbine plant GTP-30-300 nominal capacity of 30.5 MW of electricity efficiency 35%, running on natural gas, based engine R79V-300. Utilization ratio of heat fuel of plant with cogeneration cycle (with use heat passing gas) is 84%. There is a possibility of installation a steam turbine for combined-cycle plant.

Currently, is finished designing and manufacturing the material part of GTP nominal capacity of 0.25 MW (GTP-0.25-300) based engine R95-300. This installation can work in a simple and cogeneration cycle (with heat passing gas). In the installation may be installed water boiler, producing hot water for heating. Without boiler electrical power of plant is 0.25 MW, electricity efficiency - 32%, with a boiler - electric power of plant is 0.24 MW, electricity efficiency - 30%, utilization ratio of heat fuel ?S = 82%.

For the future implementation works of creation power plants and aircraft engines, AESTC «Soyuz» is creating the modern test stand running on natural gas. Also creates the facility for testing combustors, and carried out commissioning of new production facilities with modern equipment. Much attention is paid to development of IT-technologies, create a modern information system that includes comprehensive security CAD, ensuring rapid communications design office, testing areas and other parts of the enterprise, through high-speed networks.

The Aviamotor Scientific and Technical Complex (AMNTK) Soyuz is one of the leading defense enterprises engaged in the development of turbojet aircraft engines. His history dates back to February 18, 1943, when the first pilot aircraft engine plant No. 300 was created in Moscow. The company was tasked with developing and introducing into the industry original aviation piston engines. During the Great Patriotic War, the team, led by an outstanding designer and scientist A. Mikulin, managed to create powerful aircraft engines AM-39, AM-39B, AM-42, AM-435, AM-43TR. They were intended for the most massive at that time ground attack planes Il-2 and Il-10, as well as MiG-3 fighter aircraft.

A great contribution was made by scientists and designers of the plant in the development and industrial development of various types of turbojet engines. In 1948 they created a turbojet engine AMTKRD-01 with a maximum thrust of 3300 kgf. For the first time in the world practice, an eight-stage axial compressor was used, a countercurrent combustion chamber with 22 individual flame tubes in a common casing, a single-stage turbine and an adjustable jet nozzle with an electric drive were introduced. It was intended for installation on an experienced (then still a whole-cell) long-range bomber EF-140. Later, on the basis of the engine, a more powerful AMTRD-2 with a thrust of 4250 kgf was created.

The specialists of the enterprise, having achieved a certain success, continued their active work in this direction. In a short time they constructed the most powerful AM-3 engine for that time, the thrust of which was already 8700, and in subsequent modifications 11 500 kgs. It had a great resource of work, was convenient for carrying out small and medium repairs. It uses a ribbon airflow from the compressor, which ensured a stable operation in all modes. The engines of the AM-3 family were used on the Tu-16 long-range bomber, the M-4 strategic bomber and the Tu-104 jet passenger plane, which set 26 world records. In particular, in 1955, the Tu-104 with RD-3 engines (AM-3 modification) carried out an intercontinental flight on the Moscow-New York route of 18,000 km in 24 hours 3 minutes.

In a short time, the AM-5 turbojet engine, which has a record low specific gravity (0.22 kg / kg x thrust), is being developed, which was half the size of existing domestic and foreign turbojet engines. It was first used electric starter generator, which was another step forward in the practice of domestic aircraft engine building. This engine was intended for the all-weather high-altitude fighter-interceptor Yak-25. "Union" developed a turbojet RD-9B. In it, one more innovation was realized: the afterburner. It had a great traction and was used on a supersonic all-weather MiG-19 fighter plane. The aircraft was mass-produced in large quantities as a front-line fighter MiG-19 (MiG-19S, MiG-19P, MiG-19PM, MiG-19PF) and MiG-19R reconnaissance aircraft.

The first domestic two-shaft turbojet with the afterburner P11 -300 was developed by the plant's designers. He had a thrust of 5000 kgf. in further modifications it was 6250 kgf. These engines were installed on MiG-21 fighter planes. Su-15, Yak-28P, Yak-28R bomber and Yak-25RV reconnaissance aircraft. For the high-altitude fighter-interceptor MiG-25, a new gas turbine engine P15-300 was created. It had an afterburner with an all-adjustable adjustable nozzle and was designed for flights with supersonic speeds. On the MiG-25 with these engines set several world records.

Since the beginning of the 1970s, one of the main trends in the activity of aircraft designers in many countries of the world has been the creation of vertical or short takeoff and landing aircraft. The first domestic car of this type was a deck fighter of vertical take-off and landing Yak-38. It is equipped with a unique lifting and propulsion turbojet P27V-300 engine with a thrust of 6800 kgs, created by experts of the pilot plant Soyuz. Its feature is the presence of curved jet nozzles with swiveling tapered nozzles driven by two hydraulic motors with spring synchronization. The engine is equipped with a hydromechanical control system for operating modes. Has a high gas-dynamic stability, P27B-300 is reliable in extreme conditions in terms of the level of temperature unevenness and air ripple at the inlet.

The company has created the world's first lift-marque turbocharged two-circuit P79 engine with an afterburner. It is installed on a supersonic plane of vertical takeoff and landing Yak-141. The engine is equipped with an automated system that operatively controls its operation and provides communication with the on-board equipment. P79 is designed in a two-dimensional scheme with a displacement of the streams and consists of six modules. Its swivel nozzle deflects the gas flow in all modes, including the afterburner. Structurally it is made of four sections of the wedge-shaped form, two of which with the help of hydraulic motors rotate synchronously around their axis in different directions. The nozzle configuration can be varied by deflecting the thrust vector in the range of up to 95 "for 5 s. The nozzle area is adjusted to the cut by movable flaps, controlled by hydraulic cylinders. To balance the aircraft along the roll and course during take-off and landing in the compressor design, there is an annular gap, through which a significant air intake and its supply to the jet wheels. The thrust of the engine is 15,500 kgf. At P79 installed an environmentally friendly combustion chamber created by the plant's designers, which provides smokelessness of waste gases and a low content of harmful impurities in them.

At the Soyuz enterprise, a turbojet, two-loop short-run engine RDK-300 designed for unmanned aerial vehicles was developed. It is located on the pylon or inside the fuselage. Its thrust is 350 kgf. The engine is simple in design, has proved to be convenient and reliable in operation. RDK-300 is equipped with a modern electronic-hydromechanical automatic control system, which implements various functions (start, adjustment, stop). Structurally, all equipment is housed in a single small-sized enclosure. Start it with a pyrostarter. The engine uses an integrated electric generator. Possessing small dimensions, it provides equipment for both the engine and the aircraft with electric energy up to 4 kV A. At present, the specialists of the enterprise are engaged in the improvement of the RDK-300. In their opinion, these engines will be widely used in light civil aircraft in the modified version in the near future.

One of the activities of AM STC "Soyuz" is the development of various equipment for the national economy. On the basis of RDK-300, a project of an electrothermal unit ETU-75/095 was developed. It is designed to generate electricity (as a primary or autonomous means) for medium and small agricultural enterprises and farms. It can be used as grain and hay dryers, refrigerators, in workshops and on processing sites for agricultural products. In the engineering industry, the small-size portable welding machine TSM "Soyuz" has found wide application. With its help it is possible to carry out contact spot welding of thin-walled parts from high-alloy and structural steels, titanium and nickel alloys. An oxygen-hydrogen generator was created at the enterprise to produce an oxygen-hydrogen mixture.

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