Alekseyev Central Hydrofoil Design Bureau
Alekseyev Design Bureau, NPO imeni R.E. Alekseyeva, Tsentralnoye konstruktorskoye byuro sudov na podvodnykh krylyakh (TsKB SPK) 603602 Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia Telephone: N/A, Telex: N/A; Fax: N/A
The Alekseyev Design Bureau has designed hydrofoils, air cushion craft, and air cavity vessels. It marketed several designs for wing-in-ground effect (WIG) vehicles including the 400 ton "Lun," 140 ton "Orlenok," and 20 ton "Utka." This design bureau collocated with the Krasnoye Sormovo Shipyard, although it is organizationally distinct.
Rostislav Alexeyev was born in 1916 in the family agronomist and teacher. In 1933, Alexeyev family moved to Gorky, where Rostislav went to study at the Gorky evening technical school while working part-time as a draftsman and painter. In those same years he started sailing.
Alekseev became interested in the idea of increasing the speed on the water even during his training at the transport-engineering faculty of the Gorky industrial (Polytechnic) Zhdanov Institute. Rostislav E. came to the factory "Red Sormovo" with his graduation project. During World War II, he began work at the factory in the TCI on acceptance of T-34 tanks. During off-hours, he experiences a first model of the hydrofoil. In 1943, he held launch of the first hydrofoil.
Subsequently, for the creation of the first Soviet torpedo boats hydrofoils Alexeyev and his group of supporters, directly involved in the work, was awarded the Stalin Prize in 1951. Since 1952 Research towing hydrodynamic laboratory, which later grew into the Central Design Bureau for ships hydrofoil was formed on the basis of hydrodynamic laboratory and pilot plant tank.
The plant dates back to 1955, when the "Krasnoye Sormovo" plant allotted Rostislav Alekseev one of its shops, to implement his design ideas. By that time Rostislav Alekseev had been designing and building various hydrofoil boats for 14 years and had almost finished his famous first riverine hydrofoil passenger ship "Raketa". In 1957 this ship was launched on its maiden voyage, and the creation of "Raketa" and subsequent hydrofoil vessels and ekranoplan craft followed.
Since 1960, the CDB was developing WIG projects. A total of 40 projects designed these ships, built more than 30 units of various purposes. The transition from underwater to the air wing allowed to lift the restrictions to vessel traffic speed and bring it closer to the aircraft.
'Volga' Shipbuilding plant appeared from the pilot-scale production of the central hydrofoil design bureau, which was occupied in 1950s-1960s with the building and tests of hydrofoil vessels. The first passenger hydrofoil vessels in the country were built, such as "Raketa", "Meteor", "Kometa", and the first in the world all-welded hydrofoil motor vessel "Sputnik". The pilot-scale production was reorganized into the "Pilot plant Volga" in December 1970 by an order of the Shipbuilding Ministry. This enterprise was set up on 31 December 1970 by the Minister of the Shipbuilding Ministry of the USSR, on the premises of the experimental production area of the Central Hydrofoil Design Bureau. Unique vessels-ekranoplans were built on the plant in 1970s-1980s such as "Orlyonok", "Lun" and "Strizh".
In 1966, the first full-scale experimental sea-winged ship "Ship-layout" was established (CM), with ten aircraft turbofan engines. To build the factory "Volga" experienced marine troop-winged "Eaglet" (C-21, founded in 1970) in 1973 made the first trial access to the technology configuration on the Volga River.
The WIG is a device that uses the so-called ground effect, which is the property of the wing, moving near the surface of the sea level or land, to increase lift and reduce drag. The effect is greater, the smaller the distance from the surface of the wing.
WIG have air velocity, but does not require airports, have a high load-carrying capacity, can be used over any relatively smooth surface. By seaworthy WIG restrictions exist only during takeoff and landing. WIG wing (as distinct from plane) has a special profile and shape adapted to maximize efficient use of the incoming flow of compressed between the wing and the surface ( "screen").
Large airfoil, equipped with blowing jets of engines under the wing have seaworthiness during takeoff and landing to 5 points, and the flight of their seaworthiness is practically unlimited. This ensures high regularity WIG movement.
WIG Sea has a much greater safety in flight than airplanes, since the airport is always on him, and even the simultaneous failure of all engines allows it to perform a safe landing on the water. WIG craft can fly over the shoal that is inaccessible to high-speed vessels. Speed and handling WIG, as well as the possibility of a rapid increase in altitude allow security costs with the courts and other obstacles.
The WIG unlike an airplane does not change the pressure associated with the change of height as well as "air pockets" and "buffeting". Construction WIG tech aircraft, which gives a somewhat lower costs. The infrastructure for the maintenance and safety of WIG costs less. WIG can take off from the water at a considerable distance from the shore, and therefore make less noise in the city than planes, and move from the port mode to "idle". exhaust motor parameters correspond to international standards and in comparison with the aircraft more quickly neutralized by the sea surface.
Operation WIG available in all climatic zones. Most advantageous to use them in the south. WIG have a special performance, ranging from 600-800 tons capacity. Depending on the task WIG craft may have a minimum number of crew. Landing WIG craft can carry up to 50% of the take-off weight.
Flight range WIG commensurate with performance aircraft. For WIG, based on the water, you need a pontoon dock, other equipment required is the same as for the aircraft. To prepare pilots accumulated the necessary base. WIG trained management will be easier with the pilots seaplanes management experience.
In 1982, a group of two maritime transport and amphibious WIG "Eaglet" in the course of the exercises in the Caspian Sea has demonstrated an unprecedented speed and stealth, bringing Marine Corps troops from Baku to Krasnovodsk and returning back to just three hours. Divisions of the WIG was a member of the Red Banner Caspian Flotilla.
In 1989, after the firing was commissioned with appreciation experienced stroke-winged missile "Lun" the first in the history of world art. In 1992, it was created and approved a draft of an experienced search and rescue WIG "Rescuer" on the basis of the material of the second sample being built WIG "Lun". Winged "Lun" had a weight up to 400 tons, speed of flight - up to 550 km / h, capacity - 150-500 people, hospital-medical complex in scale - unprecedented for aircraft. Analogues previously created ekranoplans with similar characteristics takeoff weight, speed performance and seaworthiness does not exist.
In 1992 the 'Volga' Shipbuilding was reformed into the joint stock company 'Volga Shipbuilding Plant'. "The Joint Stock Company "Volga Shipbuilding plant" was set up in December 1992 following the privatization of the experimental plant "Volga" of the R.E. Alekseev Central Hydrofoil Design Bureau. Series of cargo air cavity boats "Serna" and passenger hydrofoil crafts "Katran" were built on the plant for export during the last years. Gas turbine power station was built for gas industry and for the Ministry of extraordinary situations - air cushion vessels SVP-500. Comfortable pleasure vessels are also built and refitted on the plant including hydrofoil boats of "Dolphin" type and cruise hydro-jet boats.
Today, the CDB by Hydrofoil imeni RE Alekseyev is developing a number of projects for WIG different application areas with different take-off weight range and speed characteristics. WIG projects can be used for the carriage of passengers, cargo express delivery, but also to solve the problems of MOE.
At the moment, experts are working on the creation of high-speed boats of new generation projects "Sagaris", "Tourmaline", "Goldfinger". The exterior of these vessels is different futuristic design, say in the CDB. CDB for SPC in its own research and production complex is building a prototype hydrofoil (SEC) "Valdai 45R". Prototypes of the vessel are SEC "Belarus" and "Polesie".
Russia has developed a project of creation and use of WIG until 2050. The plant "Vympel" under construction head hydrofoil "Comet 120M". Gained extensive experience in the creation of ships and boats with air cavity on the bottom with a displacement of 100 to 400 tons and speed of 30 to 60 knots: a speedboat, "Serna" landing craft "dugong", patrol boats, "Mercury" and "Sokzhoy" passenger ship "Linda".
One of the new developments - fleet expedition vessel "ICC 1200". The ship is able to solve a range of problems: the implementation of scientific research, exploration, environmental monitoring; Energy transportation services; performance of freight transport; participate in rescue operations. On the basis of the platform "ICC 1200" introduces the concept of "smart ship", which provides a high level of management efficiency. Team Complex is concentrated in one place and allows for continuous monitoring of all the ship's life-support systems, and crew status.
Design ideas Rostislav Alexeyev were ahead of his time for decades. With the light hand of the genius designer went off and the word "winged", which is accepted all over the world to say in Russian. It was under the leadership Alekseeva ships for transportation of goods and passengers along the rivers and seas were able to reach speeds of 200, 300 and even 500 km / h. High-speed vessels according to SEC CDB recognized classification societies USA, Italy, France and other shipbuilding nations. Vessels designed with Alekseev, operated not only in the USSR, but also exported to Italy, Greece, Cuba, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary and other countries.
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