Maritime Patrol Aircraft
By the early 1960s, the Soviet Union came to the reasonable conclusion that the strategic nuclear bombers, trying to drop bombs of free fall in the US, was a pure extravagance in view of increase of efficiency of air defense systems and the relatively low cost of ballistic missiles that can not be stopped. Naval Avistion was tasked with monitoring the US aircraft carrier battle groups. Even with the most modern and sophisticated detection equipment to find and keep track of the ship in the vast expanses of the ocean it was extremely difficult. But in the case of determining the location of a US aircraft carrier strike group it could be bombed by an armada of land-based bombers.
Aircraft development is a capital-intensive and usually lengthy process. Further, because the viability of aircraft depend largely on their weight, conservatism in design can have powerful consequences on the viability of an aircraft. As a result of these two factors and other considerations, any given aircraft tends to be specialized for one role or mission during the design process. At the same time, aircraft are used on and needed for a variety of missions and roles. Aircraft carry different payloads, including for example, passengers, cargo, sensors, and munitions. Beyond payload, other requirements can shape an aircraft design; for example, some missions require flight in a certain speed regime, while other missions require high fuel efficiency.
The range of the ship's radar is limited by the horizon. Therefore, a plane flying at low altitude above the sea surface, is virtually invisible until the moment when he is near the goal. As a result, the design of ground-attack aircraft, the focus is directed to the achievement of good tactical flight characteristics when flying at low altitudes. Fighters. If you receive a successful arrangement of fighter aircraft, it is usually based on it are developed, various modifications are designed to perform specific tasks. It can be interceptors, reconnaissance aircraft, fighter-bombers and attack aircraft at night.
The advent of nuclear submarines armed with nuclear missiles, gave impetus to the development of anti-submarine aircraft. It includes seaplanes, aircraft operating from aircraft carriers and land bases, as well as helicopters. The modern anti-aircraft shipborne equipped with a powerful computer to process the information from the onboard radar, infrared receiver and by sonar buoys dropped from an aircraft by parachute. The sonar buoy is equipped with a radio transmitter and microphone, which are immersed in water. These microphones pick up sounds from the engine of the submarine, which are transmitted on board aircraft. By defining these signals the location of the submarine, the aircraft clears her depth charges. Torpedo, combat aircraft designed to destroy aircraft torpedoes warships and transports, as well as for setting minefields.
Cases of application of torpedoes from aircraft against naval targets were known as early as the First World War. Thus, in 1915 the English seaplane in the Sea of Marmara sunk by a torpedo Turkish ship with a displacement of 500 tonnes. However, specialized torpedo appeared in the fleets of a number of countries since the early 30s. In the USSR, the first detachment of torpedo aviation airplanes TB-1 was formed in 1931 to Black Sea fleet. In 1939-40 torpedo aircraft was formed as a kind of aviation of the Soviet Navy. Torpedo became widespread during the Second World War. Compared with the bombers they could hit the ships (vessels) in the most vulnerable part of their underwater. Usually torpedo carrying two torpedoes, which is located, depending on the aircraft type under the fuselage, wings or bomb bays. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War by the Navy of the USSR consisted torpedo aircraft torpedo-bombers DB-3 and IL-4. During the war, he entered into service torpedo, developed on the basis of Tu-2. Enemy losses in the Baltic Sea from the actions of the Soviet torpedo in 1943 only amounted to 56 ships. During the war, the Soviet torpedo dropped about 1,400 torpedoes and put over 2,400 m.
In the postwar period, the Navy of the USSR aviation consisted jet torpedo bomber Il-28, Tu-14 and Tu-16. In connection with the strengthening of the middle of the 1950s, air defense of the sea and the creation of missiles capable of hitting targets at large distances from the aircraft carrier, aircraft torpedoes lost its importance for the fight against surface ships, and torpedo bombers were replaced by submarines. Aviation antisubmarine torpedoes are armed with anti-aircraft and helicopters.
Over time, the Soviet Union developed the specialized anti-submarine reconnaissance Tu-142 on the basis of the Tu-95 aircraft. The reason for its creation was the fear of a new ballistic missile submarine-launched Polaris, the first pilot tests which were held from a submerged position in 1960. A distinctive feature of the Tu-142 is its anti-complex "Berkut" with a radar survey of the sea surface and targeting. The tail section is placed magnetic anomaly detector, which helps in the search for submarines. Tu-142 slightly longer than the base version, which allows you to put in it all the necessary equipment.
The modernized Il-38N has advanced combat capabilities. In addition to addressing anti-tasks, it is able to perform tasks as maritime patrol aircraft electronic intelligence. Il-38N is equipped with a new set of on-board "Novella", capable of detecting targets at ranges of up to 320 kilometers and designed to conduct radar submarine, surface and air reconnaissance. The first test aircraft is registered in the Northern Fleet at the end of 2011, and the official handover took place in March of 2012.
Soviet ASW and reconnaissance aircraft routinely deployed to a number of facilities around the world, including Cuba, Vietnam, Libya, , and Syria. Facilities at the entrance to the Red Sea, at Aden, allowed Soviet reconnaissance aircraft to operate as far south as the US Naval Facility on Diego Garcia, but despite their increasing support to the newly-united North and South Yemen in 1990-91, the Soviets appeared to have ceased maritime reconnaissance patrols from Aden.
The Soviet Naval Air Force operated in the Indian Ocean from 1975 until 1990. when reconnaissance flights from foreign bases in the area ceased. Initially deployed to Somalia, Soviet maritime patrol aircraft periodically made short deployments to the region until the Soviet Union was ousted in 1977. The air presence was resumed in late 1979 when 11-38 MAY operations shifted north to airfields in Ethiopia and Aden. The surveillance aircraft were continuously deployed to both locations until two were destroyed on the ground in Ethiopia during a rebel attack in 1984. None deployed to Ethiopia since then, and flights from Aden ceased in 1990.
In recent years, the economic importance of the maritime regions of the modern world, stretching from the North Sea oil fields to the countless islands of the Philippines and Indonesia, is increasing. Vast areas should be protected, and the most effective and promising way is to air patrols. As is well known, two-thirds of the surface of the Earth covered by water. The further fact worthy of mention - the fact that many people are interested in what is happening on the water and under the water. Warships, poachers, smugglers and other sources of pollution should be identified in the territorial waters, and the unwise is a government that is interested in these problems only when they see the shore. The airplane is a highly effective means of detection, identification of pollution sources and on occasion helps to deal with them far out to sea. Mostly such aircraft based on land. Most of them have a large range and is designed for reconnaissance and patrol sea areas.
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