Find a Security Clearance Job!

Military


Project 661 Anchar / Papa / Golden Fish

The predecessor to the famous ALFA-class attack submarine, the Project 661 Anchar was designed as an extremely fast anti-shipping cruise missile submarine. In the West, the boat of Project 661 was named Papa. The Papa included 10 SS-N-9 missiles in individual tubes forward of the sail, between the inner (pressure) hull and the outer hull. The K-162, later renamed the K-222, is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the fastest submarine in the world. Its speed was 44.7 knots (82.8 km / h). This achievement has not been surpassed so far anywhere in the world. The submarine, which was supposed to be the ancestor of a whole class of submarines, remained in one copy: the state did not find money to build unique copies.

The ship was built at Sevmash for 6 years, and only in 1969 a trial launch was made. When, after speed tests, the boat surfaced, members of the state commission thanked and congratulated the personnel, designers and each other on successful completion, and sent Brezhnev a cipher: "We report. Blue speed ribbon in the hands of Soviet submariners." The submarine was intended to deliver missile and torpedo attacks on enemy aircraft carriers. Initially, N. N. Isanin was appointed chief designer, and later NF Shulzhenko replaced him. Thousands of specialists worked on the creation of this unique ship, and everyone had to keep a secret. When designing the boat, the management decision was forbidden to use already mastered instruments, automation and equipment. Because of this, the project development time has greatly increased, it took more money, but the ship turned out to be unique in the end. For the high cost of construction submarine received among sailors name "Golden Fish". During the years of sailing, the fish did not shoot a single shot: after all, the war that was fought between the USA and the USSR was cold.

The US Navy was surprised in 1970 by the deployment of this submarine, whose 45 knot speed and 2000-2500 foot operating depth greatly surpased previous Soviet or American submarines. It featured a titanium pressure hull which reduced the hull weight needed for extreme operating depths.

The Papa SSGN K-162 remains the world's fastest submarine, reportedly reaching a record speed of 44.7 knots on trials [causing signficant damage to topside equipment in the process]. The high speed of the design came at the price of excessive noisy and high construction costs. Only a single PAPA was ever deployed. Instead, the Soviets focused on building more traditional submarines.

In the autumn of 1971, an unexpected and unpleasant maritime incident was discussed at the Pentagon in an atmosphere of heightened nervousness. A message came from the strike carrier of the 6th US fleet Saratoga, which at first specialists simply refused to believe. The aircraft carrier was returning from the Mediterranean to a base in Miami when American sailors found a submarine on their tail. Repeated attempts to break away from the mysterious submarine did not lead to success. The submarine easily overtook an aircraft carrier, which is the pride of the US Navy, at full speed (30 knots). The situation seemed simply incredible, since none of the submarines of all the known fleets at that time had such technical capabilities. The US military command was seriously puzzled by this unusual situation. Their undivided dominance in the world's oceans was in doubt. The Americans did not even know that the Soviet submarine had bypassed an aircraft carrier on only one from their turbines.

In 1989, the Golden Fish was expelled from the Navy. The captain of the "Golden Fish" Yuri Golubkov later shared sea secrets with the correspondent of the publication "Change". "The "K-162" was experimental", said the captain. "Firstly, it is still the only submarine in the world, whose hull is made entirely of titanium. This daring decision allowed the boat to dive to a depth of 400 meters! In those days, the Americans felt at ease in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, because our submarines could not keep up with their aircraft carriers. High-speed "K-162", equipped with cruise missiles, launched from under the water, caused the American military fear and respect. In the American secret documents she was respectfully called "Dad". On the submarine "K-162" for the first time digital telemechanics and automation systems were used. Those technologies that today we habitually call computer, were then an absolute innovation. The secrecy around the project was the strictest." Even the captains wife and son did not know what boat does it go to sea on. Only 40 years later, the sailors were able to tell about where they worked.

Russia said goodbye to the "Golden Fish" in July 2008. The nuclear submarine K-222 was transferred from the Sevmash Production Association to the berth of the Zvezdochka Ship Repair Center for disposal. The experience gained in the development of the project 661, was used in the design of SSGN of the 2nd and 3rd generations. In the future, work was carried out in the direction of reducing the cost and noise of the boat due to ride quality. Direct development of this concept was the project 670 "Scat". In addition, work continued on the creation of pilot and serial boats with titanium hulls. The boat was a kind of laboratory, where in natural conditions the development of new types of weapons and weapons was carried out. Much of what was created for this experienced submarine was later used on new ships of other projects. The experienced high-speed submarine of Project 661 is a unique submarine, which still has no analogs in the world shipbuilding.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list