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Project 651 / Juliett

The submarines of this project were designed to attack combat ships and vessels of probable enemy by self-guided winged missiles while operations on sea and ocean communications, as well as naval bases, ports and other units ashore and inland. Diving limit increased by 100 m in comparison with diesel-electric submarines being in service at that time.

Project 651 (NATO designation - Juliett) was ordered by the Soviet Navy in the late 1950s to provide a nuclear strike capability against the US homeland, particularly East Coast cities. The Juliett had four nuclear armed cruise missiles on board, and ten torpedo tubes with up to 22 torpedoes. The time required for the first missile launch was about 4.5 minutes, with the second after 10 seconds. The missiles were launched from the surface, while the submarine was moving at a speed of up to 4 knots. Initially armed with the P-5 [SS-N-3c Shaddock] inertially-guided missile, it was subsequently equipped with more accurate cruise missiles [the P-6 SS-N-3a Shaddock, and the later P-500 4K-80 Bazalt SS-N-12 SANDBOX] which were deployed on these submarines for targeting American aircraft carriers.

The boats of the project 651 were the first diesel submarines designed specifically for cruise missiles were . Their design began in accordance with the decisions of the Council of Ministers on August 17 and 25, 1956. Technical project 651 was approved in January 1959. The submarine of Project 651 was armed with cruise missiles for firing at P-5 squares and anti-ship missiles P-6.

The missile containers were interlocked in pairs and one block in the nose and the other in the stern of the felling of the felling are located. To start the containers were raised at an angle of 15. Lifting and locking of containers, opening, closing and locking of container covers were made by hydraulic drives. The launching scheme provided for the emergency discharge of defective cruise missiles overboard using rocket launch engines. The submarine was able to dive at any stage of the preparation of the missiles after closing the lids of all the containers or with the lids of one container open. The missiles could be fired only in the above-water position, with containers lifted and locked, and open covers, at a boat speed of up to 8 knots and the sea state up to 4 points. In the same conditions, the emergency rocket could be reset.

The determination of bearing on the target and range to the target for P-6 missiles was carried out by the shipboard equipment of the "Argument" system according to the data received from the reconnaissance means and from the navigational means of the submarine. The antenna of the "Argument" system was a practically flat construction with an area of ??about 10 square meters. m, with a protruding about 1.5-2 m sphere carrying radiators. This antenna was located in the bow part of the felling enclosure on the mast. In the non-working position, the antenna was automatically put into the fencing enclosure by several successive operations, and the fairing installed on the same mast from the rear of the antenna was in this case the frontal part of the felling enclosure. The design of the antenna swivel device worked reliably and was subsequently adopted for subsequent submarine designs.

The container could accommodate both P-5 missiles and P-6 missiles. But, as always, the problem was created by small things. P-5 and P-6 had different connectors [bortrazem]. Change of connectors during the transition from P-6 to P-5 or vice versa took from 2 to 3 days on the boat. In 1966, the P-5 cruise missiles were removed from the armament of the Project 651 submarines and only P-6 missiles were left. In connection with this, the equipment relating to the missiles of the P-5 complex was removed from the boats.

The Juliett is about 4 times larger than WWII submarines. The Project 651 is of double-hull construction with an exceptionally large reserve buoyancy. The hull itself contained eight compartments: I. forward torpedo room, II. living accommodations and forward batteries, III. Missile control room and batteries, IV. submarine control room, V. living accommodations and two banks of batteries, VI. Diesels and generators, VII. electric motors and VIII. after torpedo room.

The submarine's hull is covered by two inch thick black tiles made of specially profiled sonar/ sound absorbing hard rubber. The silver zinc batteries allow travel submerged with a maximum speed of 17,5 kn. for 1.5 hours, with a maximum underwater range of 810 miles. Another advancement was a low magnetic signature austenitic steel hull. A special 10m2 target guidance radar was built into the forward edge of the sail structure, which opens by rotating. The boats were eventually fitted with the Kasatka satellite downlink for targeting information.

It was originally planned to build 35 of these submarines to augment nuclear-powered Project 675 (ECHO II) class submarines which with 8 missile launchers were an enlarged nuclear version of the Juliett. In fact only 16 submarines were actually built from 1962 to 1968, most of them by Krasnoye Sormovo shipyard in Gorky. According to the project 651, 16 boats were built. The head K-24 was laid down on October 15, 1961 and handed over to the fleet on October 31, 1965, and the last K-318, respectively, on March 29, 1967 and September 29, 1968. The Juliett's were in active service through the 80's with the last one decommissioned in 1994.

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