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Project 651 / Juliett

The submarines of this project were designed to attack combat ships and vessels of probable enemy by self-guided winged missiles while operations on sea and ocean communications, as well as naval bases, ports and other units ashore and inland. Diving limit increased by 100 m in comparison with diesel-electric submarines being in service at that time.

In the 1960s, the buildup of domestic submarine forces designed to combat surface ships and enemy ships was carried out not only by creating nuclear submarines armed with anti-ship missiles - SSGN project 675, but also with diesel-electric missile submarines of Project 651 armed with anti-ship missiles -6 "(designer - CDB-18). Large submarines of Project 651 were the only type of domestic special-purpose submarines built by the Kyrgyz Republic. They were built with the use of high strength steel, power equipment of new development (diesel engines, HED, AB, etc.) as case materials. Project 651 submarines differed from Project 644 and 665 DPLKR, previously created by retrofitting project 613 medium-sized torpedo submarines, increased speed and range, increased autonomy, improved living conditions of the crew and more advanced acoustic and magnetic protection means by lining the outer shell with acoustic coating the use of low-magnetic steel for the manufacture of the outer shell of submarines. Project 651 PLRKs were intended for striking anti-ship missiles at warships and enemy ships during operations on oceanic communications.

Project 651 (NATO designation - Juliett) was ordered by the Soviet Navy in the late 1950s to provide a nuclear strike capability against the US homeland, particularly East Coast cities. The boats of the project 651 were the first diesel submarines designed specifically for cruise missiles were. Their design began in accordance with the decisions of the Council of Ministers on August 17 and 25, 1956. Technical project 651 was approved in January 1959. The development of the 651st project was carried out by TsKB-18 (chief designer - AS Kassatser, the main observer from the Navy - IA Kotsyubin). The technical project of the diesel-electric submarine was approved in 1959, and in 1963-1968. The navy included 16 ships of this type (their construction was carried out in Leningrad and in Gorky).

The Juliett had four nuclear armed cruise missiles on board, and ten torpedo tubes with up to 22 torpedoes. The time required for the first missile launch was about 4.5 minutes, with the second after 10 seconds. The missiles were launched from the surface, while the submarine was moving at a speed of up to 4 knots. Initially armed with the P-5 [SS-N-3c Shaddock] inertially-guided missile, it was subsequently equipped with more accurate cruise missiles [the P-6 SS-N-3a Shaddock, and the later P-500 4K-80 Bazalt SS-N-12 SANDBOX] which were deployed on these submarines for targeting American aircraft carriers.

The submarine of Project 651 was armed with cruise missiles for firing P-5 against shore targets and anti-ship missiles P-6. The diesel-electric submarines carried powerful strike weapons (for the first time in world practice as applied to submarines) - anti-ship tactical cruise missiles of the P-6 complex, located in four sealed transport and launch containers outside the robust hull, behind and in front of the conning tower. Initially, the submarine was designed to use two types of cruise missiles: anti-ship missiles of the P-6 complex for firing at mobile targets (ships) and P-5 at coastal targets. Accordingly, the submarine installed two missile firing control systems and two types of board connectors for the P-6 and P-5 missiles. But, as always, the problem was created by small things. P-5 and P-6 had different connectors [bortrazem]. Change of connectors during the transition from P-6 to P-5 or vice versa took from 2 to 3 days on the boat. In 1966, the P-5 cruise missiles were removed from the armament of the Project 651 submarines and only P-6 missiles were left. In connection with this, the equipment relating to the missiles of the P-5 complex was removed from the boats. The need for such a replacement had disappeared.

The missile containers were interlocked in pairs and one block in the nose and the other in the stern. To start the containers were raised at an angle of 15. Lifting and locking of containers, opening, closing and locking of container covers were made by hydraulic drives. The launching scheme provided for the emergency discharge of defective cruise missiles overboard using rocket launch engines. The submarine was able to dive at any stage of the preparation of the missiles after closing the lids of all the containers or with the lids of one container open. The missiles could be fired only in the above-water position, with containers lifted and locked, and open covers, at a boat speed of up to 8 knots and the sea state up to 4 points. In the same conditions, the emergency rocket could be reset.

The determination of bearing on the target and range to the target for P-6 missiles was carried out by the shipboard equipment of the "Argument" system according to the data received from the reconnaissance means and from the navigational means of the submarine. The antenna of the "Argument" system was a practically flat construction with an area of about 10 square meters. m, with a protruding about 1.5-2 m sphere carrying radiators. This antenna was located in the bow part of the felling enclosure on the mast. In the non-working position, the antenna was automatically put into the conning tower by several successive operations, and the fairing installed on the same mast from the rear of the antenna was in this case the frontal part of the sail. The design of the antenna swivel device worked reliably and was subsequently adopted for subsequent submarine designs.

The anti-ship missiles of the P-6 were tested on submarines of the project 651. Single missile launches gave good results, but the same problems arose with salvo rocket firing as on the SSGN project 659 (outgoing gas jets of the propulsion and launch engines of the launching rocket KR, preparing for the start, caused disruption of the flow and temperature rise in the main engine, which led to a drop in its speed and even stop the engine). At the same time, the form of the gas vent designed by the submarine did not have a significant effect on the march Vg rocket engine tests was a result of the procedure set missile launch and the time interval between starts providing volley firing all missiles PL.

The anti-ship missiles of the P-6 complex had a long range, and therefore, for the Project 651 DPLKR, as well as for the SSGN of Project 675, the problem was to ensure the targeting of missiles. For this purpose, the Submersible-U instrument system was installed on the submarine. It was designed to receive target designation from airplanes patrolling in the area.

The torpedo armament of the ship included six bow torpedo tubes with a caliber of 533 mm (ammunition - six torpedoes), shooting from which was provided at depths from periscope to 100 m. In addition, there were four 400 mm TAs (ammunition - 12 torpedoes) in the stern of the ship (maximum shooting depth - 250 m).

A special 10m2 target guidance radar was built into the forward edge of the sail structure, which opens by rotating. The boats were eventually fitted with the Kasatka satellite downlink for targeting information.

The boat had a two-shaft power plant consisting of two 1D43 overhead power diesel engines (2 x 4000 hp), two MG-141 main propulsion electric motors (2 x 6000 hp), and a 1000 kW diesel generator 1D42) and two propeller motors of the economic course PG-140 (2 x 2000 hp). For the first time in the practice of domestic submarine building on boats of the 651st project, it was decided to use the 30/3 silver-zinc rechargeable batteries, which had a significantly larger capacity compared to traditional lead-acid batteries. The silver zinc batteries allow travel submerged with a maximum speed of 17,5 kn. for 1.5 hours, with a maximum underwater range of 810 miles.

The Juliett is about 4 times larger than WWII submarines. The Project 651 is of double-hull construction with an exceptionally large reserve buoyancy. The hull itself contained eight compartments: I. forward torpedo room, II. living accommodations and forward batteries, III. Missile control room and batteries, IV. submarine control room, V. living accommodations and two banks of batteries, VI. Diesels and generators, VII. electric motors and VIII. after torpedo room.

The submarine had a double-hull architecture. The robust housing, as well as all transverse watertight bulkheads were made of steel with a yield strength of 60 kgf / mm2. This made it possible to increase the maximum depth of immersion compared to the previously built domestic diesel-electric submarines by 100 m. Another advancement was a low magnetic signature austenitic steel hull. The first five submarines had a light body made of low-magnetic steel. However, later, due to corrosion cracking, they returned to the use of ordinary steel. Beginning with the sixth serial ship, a special rubber anti-roll coating was applied to the light hull. The submarine's hull is covered by two inch thick black tiles made of specially profiled sonar/ sound absorbing hard rubber.

According to tactical and technical data, the power of weapons, radio equipment, ship systems, mechanisms and devices, the submarines of the 651st project surpassed all domestic and foreign diesel-electric submarines existing in the 1960s. The use of anti-hydrolocation coatings, means of sound absorption, measures for soundproofing mechanisms from the ship hull, a new propulsion system with low-noise propellers in the guides, nozzles ensured the submarine of the 651 project noise level lower than that of other projects, at a record high speed for domestic diesel engines. underwater course - more than 18 knots. The cruising range at an economical underwater speed of 2.8 knots was 810 miles.

It was originally planned to build 35 of these submarines to augment nuclear-powered Project 675 (ECHO II) class submarines which with 8 missile launchers were an enlarged nuclear version of the Juliett. In fact only 16 submarines were actually built from 1962 to 1968, most of them by Krasnoye Sormovo shipyard in Gorky. According to the project 651, 16 boats were built. The head K-24 was laid down on October 15, 1961 and handed over to the fleet on October 31, 1965, and the last K-318, respectively, on March 29, 1967 and September 29, 1968. The Juliett's were in active service through the 1980s with the last one decommissioned in 1994.



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