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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kotlin-class_destroyer http://russianships.info/eng/warships/project_56.htm

Project 56 "Spokojnyi" Kotlin class
Project 56-A Kotlin SAM class
Project 56-PLO Kotlin Mod class
Destroyer

The project 56 destroyers were a series of 31 Soviet destroyers from the 1950s. They were identified as the type Spokoynoye [Peaceful], while they received the NATO nomenclature designation Kotlin. Kotlin is a pragmatic programming language for JVM and Android that combines OO and functional features and is focused on interoperability. Kotlin is a conservative increment to Java that smooths off a lot of Java's rough edges. Even though Kotlin is better than Java in many points it still has significant drawbacks. But this is probably not what NATAO had in mind half a century ago. Designations starting with the letter "K" were given according to the nomenclature adopted by NATO for Soviet destroyers. The Kronshtadt Naval Shipyard is located on Kotlin Island, at the mouth of Neva Bay in St Petersburg.

After the Great Patriotic War the USSR began the mass construction of a series of Project 30bis destroyers, based on the projects before the War, but at the same time responding to perceived needs for more modern and larger units of this class. Originally designed and built in a single copy of the large great destroyer Project 41 Neustrashimy, but this did not meet expectations, and was considered to be too large. So in 1951 it was decided to build a design, based on the Project 41 design, somewhat smaller units with similar architecture. The new unit also had to develop more speed. On 02 June 1951 the Soviet government described the design assumptions. The result was a large destroyer Project 56.

After drafting the office CKB-53 under the direction of chief designer O. Fiszera, already in 1952 preparations began for the construction of a series of new ships. The keel for the construction of the first unit was laid in February 1953, the first hull launching in October 1953. In total, this year started the construction of 10 units. The first to be completed was "Spokoyny" becoming the main ship of the type (from the name of this type is referred to as the Russian literature as a Spokoyny type). "Spokoyny" underwent from 1954 to 1956 testing at sea, entering the service officially 27 June 1956.

Even earlier, however, three other ships entered service in 1955, the first "Svetly" 26 September 1955. In 1956 there entered service 13 ships, and in 1957 the last 11 units of the underlying project. In addition, in 1958 there entered service four destroyers, missile completed as modified by the projects 56EM/M. Soem sources claim that a production run of as many as 100 ships was planned, but this plan was curtailed with the advent of guided missiles. A total of 32 were ordered, but four ships were completed as the Kildin class (Project 56E/EM), the last vessel was canceled. A total of 31 Project 56 destroyers were built. The ships were built at three shipyards: 190 im. A.Zhdanov in Leningrad, No. 199 im. Lenin Komsomol in Komsomolsk-on-Amur and No. 445 to them. 61 Communards in Nikolayev. In the code, NATO ships underlying the project was designated as the type of Kotlin from the Baltic Sea island of Kotlin.

Project 56 destroyer, following Project 41 the Neustrashimy-class, was made as planned, complete with a displacement of 3230 tons. The first ship was laid down in March 1953, and just 27 units were built. These were the last "classic" destroyers of the domestic fleet. Their appearance was late by about 10 years. On artillery and anti-submarine armament they were significantly inferior to American destroyers at the time. The last of the Kotlin, SAM Kotlin and MOD Kildin destroyers were retired in the late 1980s.

The last Soviet "conventional" destroyers, armed only with guns and torpedoes, the layout of the Project 56 [Kotlin class] was similar to that of the earlier Skory class though with improved armament. According to Western sources, a total of 36 units of this class were initially planned, though in fact only 27 were completed between 1954 and 1961. Four of the hulls initially laid down to the Kotlin design were completed at Kildin missile destroyers, with an additional eight Krupnyy/Kanin missile destroyers built to a similar design.

Bravy was completed as Project 56-K [Kotlin SAM] to serve as an experimental prototype to test the SA-N-1 before 7 or 8 other ships were modernized under Project 56-A [Kotlin SAM]. The SA-N-1 mount aft, in place of their original guns, made them the first Soviet Anti-Air Warfare oriented destroyers. Subsequently 11 or 12 units were modernized under Project 56-PLO [Kotlin Mod]. One Kotlin SAM ship, the Spavedlivy, was transfered to Poland and renamed the ORP Warszawa.

Project 56 (code NATO Kotlin) - Design

The basic design of the Project 56 (code NATO Kotlin) were classic destroyers, whose main armament consisted of 4 working universal caliber 130 mm in two closed turrets, with characteristic large sizes, fore and aft. In the late 1950s bursting shells were developed for the fleet. They turret mounted, versatile, and automatic. The 23-, 57-, and 76-mm AU were applied in subsequent projects. The gorgeous 100-cm-52 was for patrol ships and a versatile caliber for cruisers, and 130 mm SM-62 for destroyers, but they were not in demand. SM-62 were put on the Project 56, but the series ended early.

Arms were complemented by 4 quad-linked 45 mm anti-aircraft guns (position on the bow, stern and one on each side). The ships had 10 torpedo launchers in two launchers on board, in the axis of symmetry of the hull. ASW armament was weak - corresponding to the standards of World War II, and it formed two chute and six depth charges projectors.

The ships were were made ??of steel, and only some elements of alloy. The hull was divided into 16 main transverse watertight compartments. The ships designed crossover - two boilers and one turbine in two joint compartments separated by two others, in order to increase survivability. The consequence was the silhouette of the ship was two spaced, short, wide and tilted stacks. In combination with high sheer bow (reaching to a height of 8.35 m above the waterline) and strongly inclined, straight stem, it gave ships an elegant look. The main truss mast was located just behind the superstructure bow, followed by the first chimney. Behind the complex superstructure of the forward torpedo was a low superstructure amidships with a second, lower mast, two positions antiaircraft guns on the sides, artillery radar platform and the second chimney. On the aft superstructure was the second torpedo battery, followed by a small superstructure aft position.

In testing the ships showed not the best properties at sea in poor condition of the sea, especially in confined waters as the Baltic or the Black Sea. Despite the high sheer bow, at higher speeds the forepeak was flooded by waves. In addition, at higher heel and a large waves, radar and optical systems had difficulty in maintaining bearings. The crew on the outdoor decks were also exposed to the weather (and possibly the use of weapons of mass destruction). Fire control systems were only moderately effective in combating air targets. Despite this, the production of the series was continued unchanged. The Chinese destroyer type Luda was modeled to some extent on ships of the Project 56.

Modifications

Project 56PLO (Kotlin Mod)

The first version was a derivative version with increasing capacity to combat submarines , designated project 56PLO ( protiwolodocznyj ). For this version in the years 1960 - 1977 was modernized 11 ships [1] . On the sides of the forward positions of plots 45 mm mounted two 16-Gun launchers rocket bombs deepwater RBU-2500 Smiercz . At the stern, instead of the usual chute and bomb throwers glebiowych, installed in addition szesciolufowe two rocket launchers depth charges system Burun. Dismantled stern torpedo camera and in its place set superstructure, which mounted two or four double-linked plot plot 25 mm 2M-3M . Bow torpedo apparatus adapted to fire torpedoes against submarines. Only slightly modified station hydrolokacyjna (Pegasus-2M), adapting it to cooperate with the new weapons.

Projects 56K, A, AE ( SAM Kotlin )

The Destroyer "Wozbuzdionnyj" Project 56A. The apparent rocket launcher on the poop. Despite the delay to Western countries in the development of marine guided missiles, since 1956 was conducted in the USSR work on anti-aircraft system, M-1 Wolna , which was large enough to use as weapons destroyers. In order to test the new system in marine complex M-1 dwupociskowa launcher ZIF-101 it has been installed on experimentally rebuilt in the years 1959-1960 destroyer "Brawyj", renumbered project 56K . On the ship, the system M-1 passed in 1962 sea trials, after which he was admitted to arming the Navy of the USSR [2] . Starting from 1966 to 1972 , the system of M-1 mounted on the 7 other destroyers that have received designation project 56A , and one destroyer "Sprawiedliwyj" designated as a project 56AE and intended for export to the Polish ( ORP "Warszawa" ) [2] . Destroyers projects 56K and 56A equipped with anti-aircraft guided missiles are defined in the nomenclature of the NATO type Kotlin SAM from ang. Surface-to-air missile (SAM) , meaning rocket-class ground-to-air.

Rebuilding ships projects 56K, 56A and 56AE consisted mainly of removing the whole weapons from the stern and midships and replace it by a continuous low superstructure, with a rocket ZIF-101. Left fore tower guns 130 mm and position of the plots of 45 mm and the first torpedo launcher adapted for torpedoes against submarines. Added addition on the bow of two new rocket launchers, depth charges RBU-6000. On the "Brawym" they left two positions in addition plots 45 mm amidships. In all ships fitted new second pole of the full pyramid structure (different shapes), on which are mounted missile fire control station Jatagan. Also a new radar surveillance of general MR-310 Angara and the covered bridge battle and a new sonar GS-572. In the 70s, all (or according to other sources, only 3 [c] ) ships proj. 56A received four double plot antiaircraft 30 mm AK-230 guided radar, the two sides of the chimney of the second [2] . The ship export proj. 56AE (ORP "Warszawa", E of eksportnyj ) differed somewhat simplified set of electronics (which was characteristic of many types of Soviet ships export).

Destroyer project 56EM - 1970

In 1955 it developed the first Soviet headed przeciwokretowy jet missile winged KSSzcz (Szczuka) with a range of approx. 40 km away. It was decided experimentally mounted missile system on which is under construction destroyer "Biedowyj", which was then completed in 1956 by a modernized design 56EM . In this way, "Biedowyj" became the first Soviet destroyer missile. On the ship, the system KSSzcz passed from February 1957 until 1958 sea trials. Target ships armed with two missile launchers were to be KSSzcz missile destroyers project 57bis , which extended a development project 56. As a temporary solution and the type of transition it was decided to build a series of three further ships of the project 56 armed with a launcher KSSzcz [3] . These units ( "Prozorliwyj", "Nieulowimyj" and "Nieudierzymyj") designated as the project 56M , they differed from the experimental ship in detail and entered service December 30, 1958 (included in the Black Sea Fleet until March 8, 1960). The NATO code received all 4 different designation: Kildin (derived from the name of the island, in this case located on the Barents Sea ). With the construction of the fourth ship 56M "Nieukrotimyj" abandoned before laying the keel. The Soviet Union initially were classified as destroyers ( esminec ), from 1966, as a large rocket ships ( bolszyj rakietnyj korabl - BRK).

Changes in the construction of ships of the project 56EM and M were quite far-reaching and consisted mainly of removing the whole armament of the stern , where he was installed on the site of the tower a large rotary launcher rail hangar with SM-59-1 KSSzcz missiles and a new large superstructure, with the magazine on 7 8 rounds [3] . Arming the main has also been removed from the bow, and in its place installed czterolufowe fourth position plots 45 mm, transferred from the stern. Existing cameras torpedo was replaced by two double on the sides amidships, adapted for torpedoes against submarines. Added addition on the bow (front positions guns), two rocket launchers, depth charges RBU-2500 Smiercz. They changed a set of electronic devices and radars. On ships 56M project 16 plots of 45 mm was replaced by quad also discovered the position of division plot 57 mm [3] . Three of the ships later rebuilt according to the project 56u.

Project 56u (Kildin Mod) - 1982

Since the missiles were not modern already at the time of entry into service, in 1972 they were finally withdrawn. Three destroyers projects 56EM / M ( "Biedowyj", "Prozorliwyj", "Nieulowimyj") have been rebuilt in the years 1972 - 1977 according to another project 56u . Rebuilding raised their fighting qualities and increased versatility. Were removed from the stern launchers and system components KSSzcz installing there 4 working universal caliber 76 mm AK-726 , in two towers. On the sides at the height of the second chimney installed 4 fixed launchers newer anti-ship missiles P-15M Tiermit directed towards the stern [d] . Left 16 anti-aircraft guns 57 mm (45 mm for "Biedowym"), twin torpedo launchers and rocket launchers, depth charges RBU-2500, which ships had as many as 20 guns. Modernized set of electronic devices and radars. There were also covered bridge battle. In the USSR, they were classified initially as large ships przeciwpodwodne (BPK), and since 1977 as a large rocket ships (BRK).

Service

Destroyers proj. 56 have been distributed among all four Soviet fleets: Baltic , Black Sea , the Pacific Ocean and the North , many of them changed allocations. Initially, most (9) swam in the Baltic Fleet , and the least (3) in the North. At the end of the service, in the second half of the 80s most units (9) swam in the Pacific Ocean Fleet. Ships proj. 56 did not participate in combat operations, although some were sent into areas of local wars with the help of the friendly Arab countries and Angola . They took part in many international flights. November 9 1970 "Biedowyj" (proj. 56EM) had a harmless collision in the Mediterranean Sea with the British aircraft carrier "Ark Royal".

The first ship "Wozmuszczonnyj" was withdrawn to the reserve in 1968, which has not returned to service, some were withdrawn in the 70s, but most were withdrawn only in the late 80s and early 90s, when they were completely outdated. The last "Dalniewostocznyj Komsomolets" were withdrawn in 1993. The Destroyer "svetly" (and perhaps, according to western sources "Wieskij") was in the course of service equipped with stern landing helicopter Ka-15 , on a raised platform behind the stern tower 130 mm.

One destroyer project 56 exported outside the Soviet Union was "Sprawiedliwyj", brought to the standard design 56AE and sold to Poland in 1970 where he served from 25 June 1970 until 31 January 1986 under the name of ORP "Warszawa".

Designed initially for artillery battle in the squadron of cruisers, the Project 56 design was obsolete even at the time of design. A nuclear missile era was presenting entirely different requirements for destroyers, and the presence of countless enemy carrier-based aircraft made an artillery battle between the big ships anachronism. All the same, it was impossible to convince Stalin of this and a new Russian destroyer was created in accordance with his views on the strategy of the sea battle.

As befitted a torpedo and artillery destroyer, Project 56 had tremendous speed some sources claim these ships reached 39-40 knots, which is a world record for the post-war destroyers. The pursuit of speed has cost dearly, the autonomy of the destroyers dropped to 45 days for provisions and up to 10 days for the supplies of fresh water. The range at 18 knots speed did not exceed 3,000 nautical miles.

As the main guns the new destroyer were chosen 2 twin 130 mm artillery systems CM-2-1. The fire control system "Sphere-56", included a stabilized sighting post SVP-42/50 pickup with built-in rangefinders LCA-3 and radar, "Anchor-M". The largest range of fire was approaching 28 km. Rate of fire in automatic mode 14 rounds per minute. Gun could give 54 volley with a full rate of fire, then it took her 4-5-minute cool down. Projec 56 was a project for a decade earlier it would have had no equal among destroyers in firepower. Another fascinating artillery system were 4-Barrel flak machines SM-20-ZIF caliber of 45 mm, with an ammunition load of 17,200 shells.

The development of the project 56 destroyers applied a huge amount of innovative solutions that often served as a platform for testing experimental systems.:

  • The ships (destroyers from "Brave) for the first time in the Russian Navy were established active stabilizing, that most positively affected the seaworthiness.
  • In the far 1958, on the destroyer "light", for the first time in the Russian Navy has been mounted helipad for testing the ship's helicopter Ka-15.
  • For the first time in the history of the Russian fleet, the superstructure are made of duralumin alloy (then, as a result of vibrations have seemed, had three times to reinforce their design, which, in the end, will bring its weight to the weight of a similar metal body).
  • Project 56 ships were equipped with a full range of electronic equipment, including the combat information management system "Link" with an electric tablet on which the broadcast data from the radar generic detection "Foot-B". Russian shipbuilders here for the first time faced with a major challenge: the large number of different antenna devices that create mutual interference during operation, requiring significant works for their rational distribution.

In early May 1954 foreign tourists in Kronstadt photographed a Russian military ship new type, code of NATO Kotlin-class destroyer (possibly in honor of the location where it was first seen). With the start of combat service it rapidly became clear that the Project 56 destroyers were not suitable for required tasks in fact, sailors knew it, but upper management adhered to a very limited view of the look of the new destroyer. This fact caused mockery among the modern "democratic" historians, but the life of Project 56 had just begun.

In the US Navy in the 1950s there was a similar project destroyer the "Forrest Sherman" class, with a somewhat different purpose a defense destroyer escort with 3 highly automated 127 mm guns (rate of fire 40 rds. / Min). This project was recognized as unsatisfactory, though the Navy laid down a total of 18 "Forest Shermans", ie by the standards of the American fleet, not even starting to build. In the end, the Americans faced the same problem of that of Soviet our sailors. Of the 400 American destroyers of the mid-1950s, none met the requirements of the rocket-nuclear era. There began a search for solutions to increase combat capabilities of destroyers. Across the ocean, the US adopted the FRAM (Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization) program, aimed at extending the life time of the destroyers of the Second World War, as destroyers of the first post-war projects, the method of transformation into anti-submarine ships.

Russian engineers began to draft the 56-PLO, which had similar tasks. Since 1958, 14 destroyers of the project 56 were modernized. The ships dismantled the second torpedo tubes and all 6 regular BMB-2 lauching devices for dropping depth charges. Instead of the superstructure on the bow, the destroyers mounted a pair of 16-barrel rocket bomb installations RBU-2500 "Smerch", and in the stern of the ship there were installed two 6-Barrel installation RBU-1000 "Burun". Unlike other ships on the destroyer "Moskovsky Komsomolets", the RBU-2500 instead of in 1961, established a perfect installation RBU-6000. The remaining five-tube torpedo tube was the latest torpedo fire control system "Sound-56" and antisubmarine torpedoes. Also the ships sonar "Pegasus-2M" was upgraded. At the theoretical level, the Russian destroyers new fighting properties, but by that time, the "potential enemy" had already appeared armed with strategic submarine missile, and the "hunter submarines" of NATO nations were equipped with anti-submarine missile system RUR-5 ASROC (Anti -Submarine Rocket). The first versions of these missile systems provided for hitting targets at a distance of 9 km, but as a self-guided torpedo warheads were used by Mark-44 Mark-46 or a special warhead W-44 power of 10 kilotons of TNT. Similar systems had been developed in the Russian Soviet Union, but setting them on a destroyer D.56-PLO then did not seem likely.

It was decided to modernize the Project 56 in annther direction to reincarnate the destroyers as air defense ships. The result of this work was a radical conversion of the destroyer Bravvy ["Brave"] as the Project 56-K. Over a total of 4 months in 1960, the ship was stripped of all weapons, cleared aft of the forward torpedo tube and, for the first time in the Russian Navy, the ship was mounted SAM M-1 "Wave", representing a double-girder launcher and missile cell of 16 anti-aircraft missiles. The destroyer was the latest radar generic detection "Angara". On the aft wall of the second stack Navara iron sheets were plaecd to reflect the flame of the rocket launch, and on the starboard a crane set up for loading the rocket ammo. Of the principal, but the rank-and-eye configurations, the "Bravo" was active stabilizing, expanded the ability of the introduction of missile weapons in stormy weather.

A similar upgrade was considered a success and the next 8 ships of project 56 was rebuilt on an optimized Project 56-A, in general, repeating the modernization of the "Bravvy". In addition to the SAM "Wave", the armament of destroyers added RBU-6000, and the three ships instead of 45-mm automatic ZIF-20 got a 30-mm anti-aircraft guns AK-230.

Meanwhile, the frantic arms race lasted. You'll probably laugh, but at 56 destroyers, etc., it was decided to shove languishing anti-ship missiles. In accordance with the experimental "rocket" project EM-56, from the destroyer "full of mischief" was taken off all (!) Weapons, instead of turning the ship received a launcher for the launch of the first Russian anti-ship missiles with a terrible title KSSCH ("Ship projectile" Pike ") so unusual, for the British language, a combination of sounds probably should have been forced into a stupor of analysts from the Pentagon. On a small ship are 7 great big 3.5-ton missiles and armored hangar for their prelaunch. "Mischievous" the world's first ship, armed with anti-ship missiles. The upgrade was considered successful, despite the fact that the massive liquid fuel KSSCH could hit targets at a distance of only 40 km and achieved a long-term (and fatally unsafe!) Prelaunch. All deficiencies were compensated by the possibility of installing a nuclear warhead.

Trouble-free series of ships of the Soviet Navy In addition to "mischievous" for a similar project 56-M were completed three other destroyers. In the forthcoming, this step of modernization in general resulted in the creation of another type of ship missile destroyers, etc. 57, 56, etc. in the body, already armed with 2 launchers KSSCH.

The final touch was the creation in 1969 of the project 56-U: 3 destroyers were armed with new anti-ship missiles P-15 "Termite" and 76-mm anti-aircraft artillery.

In this story modernization project was completed 56 new system of marine instruments are not placed in an aging body destroyer. But the fact of similar metamorphosis evidence of the tremendous potential of the modernization project 56, which is not even aware of its creators. In the history of the world shipbuilding industry is the rare case when the creation of such modifications ships 1st project with different combat abilities so happened without fundamental configurations for the shipbuilding and mechanical parts of the base of the project.

By the end of the 1960s the main task for the Soviet Navy was tracking ships from NATO. Here it is truly needed destroyers, etc. 56 all ships of the series were characterized by very highest speed, with some of them said to reach 40 knots. No ship NATO could not tear myself away from being "sat down on the tail" by the Russian destroyers. The small ships did not just spoil the "potential adversary" naval exercises. From time to time, such "maneuvers" led to a resounding incidents.

In July 1966, 56 destroyers, etc. Pacific Fleet disrupted international exercises the U.S. Navy, the Land of the Rising Sun, and S. Korea. A year later, the Americans decided to get even with Russian sailors a tool of vengeance was elected squadron destroyer DD-517 Walker (ready to write off a veteran of the "Fletcher", on account of which had sunk a Japanese submarine). In May 1967, the Sea of Japan appeared aircraft carrier group led by the aircraft carrier "Hornet". On the support of U.S. Navy ships at sea took Russian destroyers and scout ships. May 10, when our observers approached the AUG of its order at one point tumbled DD-517 Walker. It is unsafe maneuvering, Yankees twice faced destroyer "without a trace", and then at a speed of 28 knots made a pile on the destroyer "weighty". At that Walker did not rest one day he struck aboard Russian reconnaissance ship "Proud." As you would expect in such cases, the Americans tried to create a scandal and accused the Soviet side. How annoying would it sounds, Pacific Fleet were prudent film, shot operator reconnaissance Pacific Fleet headquarters, did not leave the oscillations of the guilt of the U.S. Navy. The commander of the 7th Fleet in the Pacific, the United States said that swimming with the Russian ships were "welcome development."

Another ferocious case occurred Nov. 9, 1970, when the area is not safe maneuvering in the teachings of the English fleet, squadron destroyer Black Sea Fleet "Bravo" was hit by an aircraft carrier "Ark Royal" (Royal Ark). Fortunately, all ended well languid damage no one received.

Quite paranormal history occurred off the coast of Kamchatka in 1990 an attempt was made flooding decommissioned destroyer "Excited" (Project 56-A) as a target ship. Three MRC pr.1234 discharged on it its anti-missile systems S-120 "Malachite". From Cape Shipunsky they helped shore missile battery, which covered a volley doomed ship. But "excited", refused to sink. I had to take it in tow and carry back to Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. A month later, he was taken to re-"shot". At this time in the two practiced shooting guard ships pr.1135.

"Zealous" and "sharp" released on the "hard target" over hundreds of 100-mm shells. Without result. In the end, "sharp" approached "excited" and shot him at point blank range. Resistant destroyer slowly disappeared under the water. It creates the impression that if it was a real sea battle with the new destroyer pr.56, the deal for these harsh and overzealous guys would be somewhat different.

Owning such valuable qualities as simplicity and low cost, the destroyers of the project 56 served in the hottest and unsafe parts of the world. Fearlessly acted in the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Philippine Sea sailed restless, constantly carried the watch off the coast of the Dark continent and Asian countries. Absolutely worth noting that in 30 years of hard service on all 32 ships of the series has not been a harsh one tragedy with human victims. Rare PE were limited to navigational errors and tragicomic multiple-choice (for example because of the obvious negligence destroyer "Light" is temporarily sank off the quay wall shipyard).

Project 56 left so catchy mark in the history of the Russian Navy, in memory of him the project of modern destroyers, the Russian Navy has an index of 956.



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