Project 1166.1 Gepard class
Project 1166.1 is the Russian entry in the international market for ships with 1,500-2,000 tons of displacement. Intended for export, the design is the successor to the smaller Koni, Parchim and Grisha corvettes. The Project 1166.1 escort ship is available in various modifications (Gepard-3.2, Gepard-3.9, Gepard-5.1, Gepard-5.3, etc.). The "Gepard-3.9" patrol ships are designed to seek, track, and knock out surface, submarine and air targets both independently or in squadron formation, for escort purposes, patrol missions, and defence of naval sea borders and economic zones. By 2008, the Zelenodolsk Design Office has developed a still more efficient version of this patrol ship for several foreign countries. It has a special aft hangar for a deck helicopter. A "Klab" complex and a Shtil-M type anti-aircraft missile complex can be installed on it instead of the "Uran" missile system
Design work on the missile ship (frigate class, codename Gepard) was conducted in 1983-1988. The construction of the series began in 1988. Two other units also subsequently started construction.
The first unit was launched in July 1993 and essentially complete by 1995, but was not commissioned due to a lack of funding. Renamed the Tatarstan, the ship was expected to be commissioned in the Baltic Fleet in June 2001. In July 2002 the Gorky Shipyard in Zelenodolsk (Tatarstan) launched the escort ship Tatarstan. The frigate Tatarstan joined the navy after twelve years of construction. Despite initial speculation that it would enter service with the Border Guard fleet in the Baltic, by August 2002 the frigate [literally "escort ship"] Tatarstan was serving as the new flagship of the Caspian Flotilla.
The Republic of Tatarstan is situated in the middle of the Volga basin at the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers. In the north, it borders upon Udmurtia, in the west - Mari and Chuvashia, in the east - Bashkkortostan, and in the south - Samara Region. The population of Tatarstan is 3,7 million, of which 48% are Tatars and 43% are Russians. Only 23% of Tatars live in Tatarstan. The Tatars descends from nomadic tribes that migrated westward from southern Siberia between the 10th and the 13th centuries. The term "Tatar" refers to a nation which is rooted in three main ethnic groups of Turkic origin. 1552 Ivan the Terrible conquered the Empire of the Kazan Khanate and incorporated it into the Russian Empire. The Tatars made numerous attempts to throw off Tsarist rule, they did not succeed.
In early 2005 the Russian Navy drastically increased financing of the construction of the Gepard project ship Dagestan for the Caspian Sea. The ship was to be commissioned in 2007. The shipyard had stable defense orders in 2-3 years intervals. Defense orders accounted for 15-23% of the production. It was planned that with the planned growth rate from RUB1.6b in 2005 to RUB3b in 2007 the share of the defense order will remain the same.
In early June 2008 it was reported that the Caspian Sea Flotilla will receive the newest escort ship "Dagestan" and two small landing craft. This was according to the Commander in Chief of the Caspian Sea Flotilla Vice Admiral Vikto Kravchuk, speaking on front of the Makhachkala Brigade of Maritime Security for the Caspian Flotilla region on the occasion of its 25th anniversary. Earlier, the CinC Russian Navy noted that "Dagestan" will significantly exceed the armament of the "Tartarstan". The escort ship will perform search, surveillance and destruction of surface, subsurface and air targets. It is equipped with the universal strike missile "Uran", with a range of 350 km, anti-air and anti-submarine defenses, special devices to detect and destroy torpedoes as well as acoustic detection devices. A Ka-28 or Ka-31 can be based on board.
Dagestan is situated in the North-East of the Caucasus mountain range. It borders the Caspian Sea in the East, the Chechen Republic and Stavropol Territory in the West, the Kalmukya Republic in the North, and Azerbaijan and Georgia in the South. Persia ceded the Muslim khanates on the territory of Dagestan to Russia in 1723. The Dagestanies revolted against the Russians for many years, including the Murid Uprising that lasted from 1828 to 1859. Russia finally captured over the country in 1859 and Dagestan ASSR was created on January 20, 1920.
Dagestan measures 50,000 square km and had 37.5 inhabitants per square km in 1989. 28 percent Avar, 16 percent Dargin, 13 percent Kumyk, 11 percent Lezgi, 9 percent Russian, 5 percent Lak, 4 percent Tabasaran, 4 percent Azeri, 2 percent Nogai and others (1989). Rural population: Avar 69 percent, Dargin 69 percent, Kumyk 54 percent, Lezgi 52 percent, Lak 34 percent, Tabasaran 63 percent, Nogai 81 percent and Rutul 69 percent (1989).
It is one of the most ethnically diverse regions in the world, counting 36 ethnic groups and 80-odd nationalities. Dagestan was the center for Islam in the North Caucasus and the capital, Makhachkala, is the seat of the Muslim spiritual board of Dagestan and the North Caucasus. The Dagestan landscape changes from high mountains in the South to flat steppe land in the North. Because there is no easily accessible pass over the Caucasian mountains, the coastal plain of Dagestan, bordering the Caspian Sea, is an important North-South passage. The mountainous areas are still extremely isolated, notably in winter.
As of early 2008 the third unit, Burevestnik (English: Stormy Petrel), was still being built.
Russians proposed 5 variants for export.
- Gepard 1: There is a helipad but there is no space for aircraft and hydro-navigational devices at different depths ( Variable Depth Sonar - VDS ).
- Gepard 2: There is a helipad and hangar, but it is not equipped with VDS and SA-N-4 air defense missiles .
- Gepard 3: Increased horizontal ribs to 13.8 m, displacement increased to 2,100 tons at full load, a close -in weapon system ( CIWS ) Kortik placed front instead of CIWS AK system -630 , hangar above VDS.
- Gepard 4: Unarmed version for search and rescue, although weapons placement points are still built.
- Gepard 5: There is a heliport but no hangar, the range is increased to 6,000 nmi (11,000 km) at 10kn, maximum speed is reduced to 23kn, gas turbines are replaced by two engines. diesel 8000 bhp.
The Gepard 5.1 ocean-going patrol ship (on the base of Project 11661) is designed to engage surface, underwater and air targets, perform escort and patrol tasks, provide fire support to amphibious assault forces, plant minefields, guard maritime state borders and Exclusive Economic Zones, support naval operations, hoist state flag in the areas of national interests, protect sea environment and rescue distressed ships. The ship can carry out a wide range of missions independently or as part of a naval task force.
The Gepard 5.3 frigate (on the base of the Project 11661) is designed to engage surface, underwater and air targets, perform escort and patrol tasks, provide fire support to amphibious assault forces, plant minefields, guard maritime state borders and Exclusive Economic Zones, support sea operations, and hoist state flag in the areas of national interests. The ship can carry out a wide range of missions independently or as part of a naval task force.
the head of the Ak Bars shipbuilding corporation Renat Mistakhov said in an interview 27 August 2020 with TASS at the Army-2020 forum " For the Ministry of Defense, on the basis of such projects as 21631 and 11661, we did a lot of studies so that we could offer a displacement of not 1000 tons, but more, about 1500 tons. The larger the displacement of the ship, the easier it is to serve on it, it is easier to live in the marine environment.
"Such a study is underway, the expansion of weapons will lead to an increase in displacement, and we proposed a concept with an increase in displacement for two projects 21631 and 11661. For example, we offered to supply 16 launchers on Buyans instead of eight. And on the "Cheetah" it was proposed to expand the missile weapons to 24 launchers. In particular, at 11661, we proposed to put two UKSK, eight cells each, behind the navigating bridge, in the middle of the ship's hull, and one more UKSK will be in the bow. The Navy was very interested in this proposal. That is, we propose to take as a basis the hull that has proven itself, including in combat conditions, because a successful ship's hull is seaworthiness, and everything related to weapons, including superstructures, should be completely changed....
"If we take a small rocket ship, its displacement with an additional UKSK will increase from 900 to approximately 1300-1500 tons. If we take on the basis of the 11661 project, then three UKSK can be delivered to its displacement even now."
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