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Project 1141 Sokol small ASW hydrofoil

For the entire post-war period, only a few MPK-SKA hydrofoil (PC) projects were able to be brought to serial construction for the USSR Navy. During the creation of the MPK-SKA, as well as during the creation of the RCA and TKA, attempts were made to deploy the construction of ships of this class using the dynamic principles of support and movement (KDPP). For the entire post-war period, only a few MPK-SKA hydrofoil (PC) projects were able to be brought to serial construction for the USSR Navy.

The initiator was the chief designer of TsKB-340 Alexander Kunakhovich, who proposed using the "helicopter" method of searching for submarines. With this search method, a ship equipped with a descending hydroacoustic station (OGAS)makes a series of station descents to a depth of 100 meters (the zone of the best passage of hydroacoustic signals) at various points of the surveyed water area, making quick transitions between them. When using several ships in the search (search and strike group), it became possible to survey a vast area in a short period of time. If a submarine was detected, the ship that detected the target gave its coordinates to the rest of the group, who were conducting a coordinated attack.

It was believed that when acting on a call and carrying out a cyclic search for submarines with the help of a lowered GAS, these ships, due to their high speed, would be able to significantly increase the effectiveness of anti-submarine or patrol forces in the coastal zone, in addition, their high seaworthiness was the strong qualities of the wing ships.

The Project 1141 ship differed from the anti-submarine weapons that existed at that time, first of all, by the high efficiency of solving the problems of searching for submarines, which was achieved by: using powerful specialized detection equipment operating at great depths; high running and seaworthiness of the carrier ship, which ensured a two-fold speed advantage at full speed (compared to submarines) with sea waves up to 5 points inclusive; the ship's adaptability to the abrupt search for submarines with the help of a descending hydroacoustic station. The combination of the above has raised the search potential of the Falcon 2.7-4.2 times compared to displacement ships.

To confirm the running and seaworthiness of the ship, a self-propelled model SM-9 was built on a scale of 1: 4.44 with a displacement of 5.2 tons with three columns and a speed of 34 knots. Like many other models, before and after the CM-9. To test the propellers (there were two of them on each column - bow and stern), a special stand was created that develops full-scale speed. Tests of models of propellers at full-scale speed gave the most important information about the required strength of the blades. These tests were preceded by tests in the pool and cavitation tubes. The main power plant was adopted as a part of three gas turbine units M10, 18,000 hp each. with power transmission to propellers through angular gear drives and two trolling motors of DRA-211 diesel gear units with a capacity of 1000 hp.

The M10 gas turbine unit included: a D050 gas turbine engine of the D2 class, an RD50 gearbox, an R1D50 gearbox, horizontal and vertical transmissions. At the time of the beginning of the design of the ship, project 1141, the M10 gas turbine unit did not yet exist, since the D050 engine appeared only by 1975. An especially difficult task for the designers of the gas turbine unit was the development of a kinematic diagram of an angular gear transmission, called a "column", of high power. First, a working model of transmission with a capacity of 1000hp was designed, manufactured and tested, at the stage of a technical design - a full-scale angular transmission with a capacity of 18000hp. The tests were carried out on the prototype ship of the project M1121 "Smerch" on the basis of the Kerch branch of the Zelenodolsk Design Bureau.

To select the material of the body and wings, the structure was designed and calculated for the strength of the welded light alloy AMG-61N and titanium alloy. The analysis showed that it is more advantageous to use AMG-61N for the hull, and titanium alloy or, with some overweight, maraging steel with a yield strength of 90 kg / mm 2 for the wings . To confirm the technical solutions laid down in the design of the wing devices, to develop the manufacturing technology and tests, it was envisaged to create a full-scale experimental nose wing device made of titanium alloy and a special stand to test its performance under static and variable loads.

To prevent electrochemical corrosion at the junction of dissimilar materials, electrical insulating disconnectors and a switchable body protector from the material of the wing devices were provided. There was an opinion about the low reliability of the wing devices of hydrofoils. "Falcon" was not intended to sail in ice, and collision with foreign objects is detrimental to displacement ships. There is a known case when a ship at full speed ("on the wing") cut a steel cable with a wing, which was going under a tug, loaded with a multi-ton barge. Moreover, on the "Falcon" the moment of collision with the cable was not noticed, and minor damage to the titanium wing devices were found only during the next docking,

The seaworthiness of the ship for the safety of navigation was ensured with sea waves of VIII points on the hull, V points and a wave height of up to 3m on the wing. The use of weapons - at sea state up to V points. The maximum allowable gale wind when the ship was moving at full speed "on the wing" should not exceed 30 m / s. The ensured time for the ship to take the wing in a sea state of V points is not more than 3 minutes. Full speed at normal displacement and sea state V points -58-60 knots. Turning on the flap control system during sea roughness of V points reduced the amplitude of oscillations in trim to 1.1 and in roll to 2.4.

The first ship of this type was the experienced MPK pr.1141, code "Falcon", later named after its first chief designer (Alexander Kunakhovich died in 1968 after an operation),. The MPK was designed at the Zelenodolsk Design Bureau according to the TTZ, issued in 1964. Chief Designer A.V. Kunakhovich, then E.I. Ovsienko, chief observer from the Navy, Captain 2nd Rank A.I.Kosorukov. The ship was built at the Shipyard named after. Gorky in Zelenodolsk in 1977. It had fixed wings with automatic controlled flaps. Over the next 3 years, the ship has covered more than 80,000 miles, of which more than 50% on the wings.

The ship was an experimental one and the concept of serial MPK on a PDA was being worked out on it. Diesel-gas turbine unit with a capacity of more than 54,000 hp. provided a full speed of more than 50 knots. During the course on the wings, three gas turbines worked, and in the displacement mode, diesel engines. The armament consisted of two 30-mm AK-630 assault rifles and two four-pipe 400-mm TA. GAS was used as a lowered GAS The ship was an experienced one and the concept of serial MPK on a PDA was being worked out on it. Diesel-gas turbine unit with a capacity of more than 54,000 hp. provided a full speed of more than 50 knots. During the course on the wings, three gas turbines worked, and in the displacement mode, diesel engines.

In 1978, "Alexander Kunakhovich" was transferred to the USSR Navy for trial operation and became part of the Black Sea Fleet. During the trial operation (12/31/1977 - 01/08/1981), the ship was based at the Kerch-Feodosiya naval base and Sevastopol. During this time, the IPC traveled about 8,000 miles , of which more than half were hydrofoils. All this time, the ship was being refined and tested. In 1981, the ship, along with its dock (specially built for it), was finally transferred to the USSR Navy and included in the ships of the first line. The place of permanent basing of the ship was the Southern Bay in Sevastopol. The ship has repeatedly participated in fleet maneuvers and exercises, received the prize of the Commander-in-Chief of the USSR Navy and two prizes from the Black Sea Fleet. In 1985, in 4 hours, he made a night transition on wings from Burgas to Sevastopol with a range of 210 miles with a five-point sea state.

In 1987, it was decided to re-equip the ship for testing the Medvedka small-size missile system , which in the future was supposed to replace the torpedo armament on ships of the 3rd rank . In 1990, work began on the re-equipment of the ship in the Kerch branch of the Zelenodolsk Design Bureau. On June 24, 1991, the ship was decommissioned and reorganized into an experimental ship. Due to financial problems, the re-equipment of the ship was delayed and only in the spring of 1993 the ship was handed over to the Black Sea Fleet.

The first test of "Medvedka" was successful at the Feodosiya test site, the control system independently calculated the elements of the target's movement and the missile hit the submarine simulator. But further tests of the complex were frozen due to financial problems. By the beginning of 1997, only 14 sailors remained on the ship and it could reach a speed of about 26 knots.

In the summer of 1997, the Andreevsky flag was raised on the ship and the repair and adjustment work was nevertheless completed. The ship received missiles for firing and was ready for further tests of the Medvedka RPK. After the next tests, the Aleksandr Kunakhovich MPK was delivered to the pier in the Yuzhnaya Bay, decommissioned and dismantled for metal by the end of the year. All serviceable equipment was dismantled and transferred to the warehouses of the Black Sea Fleet.

In 1998, the ship was delivered to the Broovr berth in the Yuzhnaya Bay and was decommissioned. By the end of the year, it was dismantled for metal in a CP3-13 bucket. All serviceable equipment was dismantled and transferred to the warehouses of the Black Sea Fleet. But this only affected the prototype of Project 1141. At that time, the Russian fleet included Project 11451 anti-submarine ships, which did not differ much from their parent. But the fate of the ships of Project 11451 also ended before it began. Four of them were ordered, of which two were built and have already been decommissioned, while the other two were not completed.

Based on the experience of its operation, a project of a combat IPC was created on the PC of pr.11451, under the same code "Falcon". Designed in the same Zelenodolsk Design Bureau for TTZ, issued in 1981. In contrast to the prototype ship, the artillery armament was strengthened by placing a 76-mm gun mount AK-176 with a Vympel-type control radar and a new Zvezda-type OGAS was installed. The main power plant on the ship was a gas-gas turbine. Maximum travel speed, at a lower full speed power of 40,000 hp more than 50 knots Chief designer E. I. Ovsienko, chief observer from the Navy Captain 3rd Rank M. I. Malyshev. Before the collapse of the USSR, only 2 ships were built in Zelenodolsk (in 1987 and 1989). The operation of the ships on the wings showed that they had seaworthiness commensurate with the seaworthiness of 4000-ton displacement ships, but unlike the latter, the PDA almost did not lose speed qualities on excitement. For the Soviet Navy, it was supposed to build a fairly large series of these ships, but the events of 1991 canceled these plans.

The following negative points were identified: the spatial landing of the ship differed from the calculated one due to problems with the flow around the stern wing, so the running trim was about four degrees instead of the expected two. The reason was the influence of vortex flows from the nasal wings, which was not expected. At speeds over 60 knots, the ship did not obey the rudders well. It was necessary to maneuver by shifting the aft flaps (coordinated turn); cavitation erosion was observed on the propeller blades; leaks were detected in the stern-tube support of the lower gearboxes, which led to watering and frequent replacement of the lubricating oil.

A significant role in the termination of the construction of these ships was played by their high cost and a number of design flaws - in particular, a complex and insufficiently reliable scheme for transmitting the power of the power plant to the propellers. The disadvantage, however, can be eliminated by the use of powerful water jets, which were just being created at that time. At the same time, there was also a worldwide tendency to abandon combat KDPP. In those cases when high speed was required for solving combat missions, aviation was preferred abroad. For the KDPP, foreign specialists left only auxiliary tasks disposable by the use of powerful water jet, which were only then created.

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Page last modified: 15-06-2021 19:32:48 ZULU