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Myanmar - Arakan Kingdom - 1431-1783

#Reign Kingrelation
11430-1433 Narameik Hla -@ Mong Saw Mwan Son of King Razathu
21433-1459 Naranu @ Mong Khari @ Ali Khan Brother
31459-1482 Ba Saw Pru @ Kalima Shah Son
41482-1492 Mong Dawlyar @ Maha Mawkhu Shah Son
51492-1494 Ba Saw Nyo Son of Mong Khari
61494 Mong Ran Aung Son of Mong Dawlyar
71494-1501 Salingathu @ Theingathu Uncle from mother's side
81501-1513 Mong Raza @ Ali Shah Son
91513-1515 Gazapati Son
101515 Mong Saw Oo @ Thirithu Brother of Salingathu
111515-1521 Thazata @ Ali Shah Son of Mong Dawlyar
121521-1531 Mong Khaung Raza Brother
131531-1553 Mong Ba Gree @ Mong Bong Son of Mong Raza
141553-1555 Mong Taikkha @ Mong Diyar Son
151555-1564 Mong Saw Hla Son
161564-1571 Mong Sekkya @ Sekkyawadai Brother
171571-1593 Mong Phaloung Son of Mong Ba Gree
181593-1612 Mong Raza Gree @ Thadoe Damma Raza Son
191612-1622 Mong Khamong @ Wara Damma Raza Son
201622-1638 Thirithudamma Raza @ Mong Hari Son
21 1638 Mong Sanai @ Thadoe Mong Hla Son
22 1638-1645Narapatigri @ Nga Kuthala Son
23 1645-1652 Thaddoe Mong Tara Son
24 1652-1674 Sandathudamma Raza Son
25 1674-1685Oaggabala Raza @ Thirithuriya Son
26 1685-1692Waradamma Raza Younger brother
27 1692-1694 Manithudamma Raza Elder brother
28 1694-1696Sandathudamma Raza Younger brother
29 1696Ngaton Naw Rahta Son
30 1696-1697 Maronpiya Outsider
31 1697-1698 Kalamandat Outsider
32 1698-1700 Naradipadi Son of Sandathudamma Raza
33 1700-1706Sandawimala Raza Grandson of Thadoe Mongtara
34 1706-1710Sandathuriya Raza Grandson of Sanda thudamma Raza
35 1710-1731 Sandawizaya Raza Outsider
36 1731-1734Sandathuriya Son in law
37 1734-1735Naradipati Son
38 1735-1736 Narapawara Younger brother
39 1737Sandawizala Younger brother
40 1737-1742 Madareit Younger brother of Narapawara
41 1742-1761 Nara Abbaya Uncle
42 1761Thirithu Son
43 1761-1764 Sandaparama Younger brother
44 1764-1773 Ahbaya Maha Raza Brother in law
45 1773-1777 Sandathumana Brother in law
46 1777Sandawimala Outsider
47 1777-1782 Sandathadaiktha Damareik Outsider
48 1782-1784Mahathamada Aggaw Ponnyazaw Raza Outsider

Arakan formed a separate kingdom over which various dynasties are supposed to have ruled in an unbroken line of succession from 2666 BC down to 1784 AD, when Thamada, who ruled at the city of Myauku (or Myohaung), was conquered and taken prisoner by Bodaw Paya, king of Ava.

After 1430 the Arakanese regained their independence, and throughout the sixteenth century repelled the raids of the Burmans from the mountains and the Portuguese from the sea. Different names are applied to the same individuals among the later Arakanese kings. After the time of Meng Tsau-mwun when they became for a time tributary to Bengal, and later still when they ruled over the present Chittagong district, they assumed foreign names, and their Bengal subjects distinguished them by Indian names and titles, which are now frequently applied to them, though the same Indian names are not always applied to the same individual kings, even by the best informed among the Arakanese. Hence arises confusion.

Myanmar History Map - 1581 AD During the latter half of the sixteenth century Arakan came in contact with the Mughal power, through the conquest of Chittagong, and the Arakanese called in the Portuguese to help them. Their dubious allies, however, proved to be nothing less than pirates, and had to be expelled from the lands given to them in 1605. On being thus ejected they settled in the island of Sandwlp at the mouth of the Ganges and, having obtained assistance from Goa, attacked Arakan, but were defeated and driven from the country, while the victorious Arakanese began to harry the lowlands of Bengal. The power of Arakan was now at its zenith, but was soon to fall. Aurangzeb, the son of the emperor Shah Jahan, who had driven his brother Shah Shuja with all his family from Bengal into the hands of the king of Arakan, determined to avenge the extirpation of his kinsfolk by that king; and his viceroy, with the aid of the Portuguese, utterly crushed the power of Arakan. Charney notes that "The unusual experience of Arakan in the seventeenth century was in large part due to both the blockades by autonomous Portuguese freebooters in the ?rst two decades of the seventeenth century and the peculiar nature of a new trading relationship from the1630s until the 1660s between the Arakanese and the Dutch, based on the Arakanese supply of slaves and rice to Dutch port-cities and plantations. The ebb and ?ow of Arakanese fortunes throughout the century were thus tied to the fortunes of the Dutch. Expanding Asian empires in Bengal and Burma also in?uenced the decline of the Arakanese maritime polity after the Dutch withdrew from Arakan in the 1660s. Afterwards, as the material resources of the Arakanese central court declined, the Arakanese littoral became politically fragmented, characterized and sustained by the rise of rival political centers and the rebellions of non-Arakanese ethnic groups who had been captured abroad and resettled in the Arakanese littoral."

Arakan was further weakened by internal dissensions, and succumbed to the throne of Ava in 1784. It is probable that this conquest would have been only temporary had no other power been involved. Bu the ancient kingdom of Arakan, practically conterminous with the Division, ceased to exist in 1784. As it was, the refusal of the East India Company's officials to surrender the Arakanese refugees who had been driven out of their country brought the conquerors into conflict with a mightier than Arakan. A series of minor aggressions culminated in the seizure by the Burmans of the island of Shahpuri, between Akyab and Bengal, and war was declared in 1824. After fighting near Myohaung, Arakan was cleared of Burmese troops and became a British possession by the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826. At its annexation in 1826, Rakhaing-pyi-gye, or the Arakan kingdom, was formed into a Province under the Bengal Government. It then extended as far south as Cape Negrais, and was divided into the four Districts of Akyab, An, Ramri (Ramree), and Sandoway. When Pegu was annexed, in 1852, the lower portion of Arakan between the Khwa and Cape Negrais was joined to Bassein District.

The Arakan Hill Tracts consist of parallel ridges of sandstone, covered with dense forest, and drained by numerous streams. The general run of these ranges is north and south; and wherever the rivers have been forced into an easterly or westerly course, the gaps in the barriers, which formerly dammed up the waters, may still be traced. The scenery at places is very wild and beautiful, but monotonous. The Kuladan (Koladyne), or Yam-pang, is the chief river. Its general course (which the wild tribes believed to run for some miles underground) is from north to south. During the dry weather it is navigable 120 miles above Akyab; the tide is felt as far as Kiindaw (Koondaw), 15 miles higher up. Beyond this point the river is a series of rapids and shallows, and its bed is rocky. Arakan comprised what formed the British division of Arakan, and as far as Cape Negrais. Pegu, or the Talaing Kingdom, seems in ancient times to have extended from a little below the city of Prome to the south coast as far as the Martaban Point. Burma comprehended the country north of Pegu, and eastward from Arakan, Cathay or Munipur, and Assam to the borders of China and Northern Siam. Its northern boundaries in early times would be difficult to define.

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Page last modified: 08-10-2011 12:16:38 ZULU