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Mongolia - Politics - Parliament

Party19921996200020042008201220162020
Mongolian People's Party7025723646266562
Democratic Alliance..501362734911
other parties511121312
independent1..131-11

The constitution was amended in May 1990 to provide for multi-party system and new elections, and on July 29, 1990 the first multi-party democratic elections for a People's Great Hural were held. The former communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won 85% of the seats. On September 3, 1990 the first democratically elected People's Great Hural took office. The People's Great Hural elected a president (MPRP), vice president (SDP--Social Democrats), prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members to the Baga Hural (small Hural). The vice president also was chairman of the Baga Hural.

On February 12, 1992 the new constitution went into effect, and on April 8, 1992 the new election law was passed. Elections for the first unicameral legislature (State Great Hural) were held June 28, 1992, and a year later on June 6, 1993 the first direct presidential election was held.

In contrast to its Central Asian neighbors, dissent toward government is expressed and largely tolerated. The parliamentary and presidential elections have been free and fair, resulting in peaceful changes of government. At the same time, rising inequalities, corruption, and economic disparities between the political elite and the rest of the country are emerging as potential new sources of dissatisfaction and possible conflict.

Mongolian election officials said the minority Democratic Party captured more votes than the majority Mongolian People's Party in the 28 June 2012 parliamentary election, but not the required majority. The final results had not been announced due to technical problems with a new automated counting system, introduced to ensure more fairness in the voting process. The ruling Mongolian People's Party and eight smaller parties have asked for new elections, citing technical problems with the new system. Several parties have asked for a vote recount amid allegations of vote rigging and concerns about the new voting system. The opposition Democratic Party is expected to win most seats in the 76-seat parliament, but will have to form a coalition. Official results are due within 14 days of the election. Former president Enkhbayar Nambar of the Mongolian People's Party was barred from running for office after being arrested in April 2012 on charges of misuse of state funds and other abuses of power. He said the charges were politically motivated, and that it was the current President Elbegdorj Tsakhia of the Democratic Party who was using the mining wealth to enrich himself.

Professor Matthew Kroenig, a researcher at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, and Steven Fish at the University of California, Berkeley, have written "The Handbook of National Legislatures: A Global Survey." The 2012 study was the first of its kind. It rates legislative strengths in one hundred fifty-eight countries. At least five experts provided information about each. They were given a list of thirty-two yes-or-no questions grouped into four areas. There was a three-way tie for what Professor Kroenig called the strongest legislature in the world: Germany, Italy and Mongolia. At the same time, two countries, Burma and Somalia, had none of the thirty-two legislative powers.

The 2016 elections were initially to be held under the mixed system, which had been applied for the first time in 2012. On 25 December 2015, parliament therefore adopted a new electoral law, which retained the mixed system. However, on 21 April 2016, the Supreme Court invalidated the proportional representation element of the mixed electoral system: the court held that that element of the system did not comply with the constitutional requirement for elections to be direct. On 5 May, parliament adopted amendments to the 2015 electoral law with the support of the two major parties. The 2016 amendments introduced 76 single-member constituencies. The 30 per cent quota for women in the 2015 electoral law was reduced to 20 percent, which was the percentage that was applied in the 2012 elections.





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Page last modified: 19-07-2021 18:26:17 ZULU