In May 1996, Iran announced it had successfully tested its first locally made self-propelled gun, the 122 mm Raad 1 (Thunder 1). Iran revealed it was mass producing the system in 2002. This vehicle combined a number of locally produced and modified pieces of equipment already in Iranian inventory.
The Raad 1 mounts a turret appearing to be identical to the Russian 2S1 122mm self propelled howitzer, but on the chassis of the Iranian Boragh APC, a variant of the Chinese WZ-501/503 series, themselves copies of the Russian BMP-1. The artillery piece used was either the standard Russian type 122mm howitzer, manufactured under the designation HM51L by the Armaments Industries Group of the Iranian Defense Industries Organization, or the improved HM51 howitzer.
As of 2008 Iran was the sole operator of the system, maintaining a mixed force of upgraded 2S1 and Raad 1 self-propelled howitzers.
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